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4 *• 



J 



o 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



OF 



LOYALISTS 



OF THB 



AMERICAN REVOLUTION, 



WITH 



AN HISTORICAL ESSAY. 



BT 

LORENZO SABINE 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOLUME L 



A BOSTON: 
LITTLE, BROWN AND COMPANY. 

1864. 



IAS 45-03.30^1 )j 

A 



/ / 






/ten . ' i /: Av. o^f " 

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARV 



Entered ftccordiog to Act of Congress, in the year 1864, by 

LOBEHZO SABUOC, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 



BIYBBSIDB, OAMBBIDOB: 
PBIIITBD BT H. O. HOUGHTON AND COMPANY. s 



' / 



■/• V. 



PREFACE. 



Op the reasons which influenced, of the hopes and 
fears which agitated, and of the miseries and rewards 
which awaited the Loyalists — or, as they were called 
in the politics of the time, the ^Tories" — of the 
American Revolution, but little is known. The most 
intelligent, the best informed among us, confess the 
deficiency of their knowledge. The reason is obvi- 
ous. Men who, like the Loyalists, separate them- 
selves from their friends and kindred, who are 
driven from their homes, who surrender the hopes 
and expectations of life, and who become outlaws, 
wanderers, and exiles, — such men leave few me- 
morials behind them. Their papers are scattered 
and lost, and their very names pass from hmnan 
recollection. 

Hence the most thorough and painstaking inquirers 
into their history have hardly been rewarded for the 
time and attention which they have bestowed. My 
own pretensions are extremely limited. Yet, as my 
hom^'for twenty^ight years, w« on the eastern fton- 
tier of the Union, where the graves and the children 
of the Loyalists were around me in every direction ; 
as I enjoyed free and continual intercourse with per- 



IV PREFACE. 

sons of Loyalist descent ; as I have had the use of 
family papers, and of rare documents ; as I have made 
journeys to confer with the living, and pilgrimages to 
graveyards, in order to complete the records of the 
dead ; — I may venture to say, that the Biographical 
Notices which are contained in these volumes, will 
add sonietMng to the stock of knowledge obtained by 
previous gleaners in this interesting branch of our 
Revolutionary Annals. 

Still, I have to remark, that I have repeatedly been 
ready to abandon the pursuit in despair. For, to 
weave into correct and continuous narratives the 
occasional allusions of books and State Papers ; to 
join together fragmentary events and incidents ; to 
distinguish persons of the same surname or family 
name, when only that name is mentioned ; and to 
reconcile the disagreements of various epistolary and 
verbal communications ; has seemed, at times, utterly 
impossible. There are same who can fully appreciate 
these, and other difficulties, which beset the task, and 
who will readily understand why many of the Notices 
are meagre ; and why, too, it is possible for others to 
be, in one or more particulars, inaccurate. Indeed, I 
may appeal to the closest students of our history, as 
my best witnesses, to prove that entire correctness and 
fulness of detail, in tracing the course, and in ascer- 
taining the fate, of the adherents of the Crown, are 
not noiv within the power of the most careful and 
industrious. 

Of several of the Loyalists who were high in office, 
of others who were men of talents and acquirements, 
and of still others who were of less consideration, I 
have been able, after long and extensive researches. 



% 



PREFACE. V 

to learn scarcely more than their names, or the single 
fact, that, for their political opinions or offences, they 
were proscribed and banished. But I have deemed 
it best to exclude no one, whether of exalted or hum- 
ble station, of whose attachment to the cause of the 
mother country I have foimd satisfactory, or even 
reasonable, evidence. In following out this plan, rep- 
etition of the same facts, as applicable to different 
persons, has been unavoidable. That I have some- 
times erred, by including among the " Tories " a few 
who finally became Whigs, is very probable. To 
change from one side to the other, both during the 
controversy which preceded the shedding of blood, 
and at various periods of the war, was not uncom- 
mon ; and I have been struck, in the course of my 
investigations, with the absence of fixed principles? 
not only among people in the common walks of 
life, but in many of the prominent personages of 
the day. 

The number of books from which information is to 
be obtained is limited. A few, however, have afforded 
me essential aid : among these, I gladly notice Force's 
American Archives ; Onderdonk's Revolutionary Inci- 
dents of the counties of Queen's, Suffolk, and King's, 
New York ; Brewster's Rambles about Portsmouth ; 
Hall's History of Eastern Vermont; Holland's His- 
tory of Western Massachusetts ; McRee's Life and 
Correspondence of Iredell ; O'Callaghan's Document- 
ary BQstory of New York ; Pennsylvania Archives ; 
Crentleman's Magazine ; Sprague's Annals of the Amer- 
ican Pulpit ; Updike's Rhode Island Bar, and Narrar 
gansett Church ; Wheeler's Historical Sketches of 
North Carolina ; White's Historical Collections of 



vi PREFACE. 

Georgia ; Van Schaack's Life of Peter* Van Schaack ; 
Almon's Remembrancer; Shippen Papers; Journals 
of the Provincial Congress of the Thirteen States ; 
Meade's Old Churches, Ministers, and Families of 
Virginia ; Army and Navy Lists ; Miss Caulkins's His- 
tory of Norwich ; Lee's War in the South ; Burke's 
British Peerage ; Sparks's Washington ; McCall's His- 
tory of Georgia ; Curwen's Journal ; Simcoe's Jour- 
nal ; Stone's Life of Brant ; Simms's Life of Greene 
and of Marion ; State Papers of the United States ; 
American Quarterly Register ; and Pamphlets and 
Tracts of the Revolutionary era, both British and 
American. 

So, too, I gladly acknowledge my obligations to 
Winthrop Sargent, Henry Onderdonk, Jr., George 
Chandler, E W. B. Moody, Porter C. Bliss, Edward 
D. Ligraham, Henry Pennington, William S. Leland, 
Robert H. Gardiner, J. B. Bright, John Watts De 
Peyster, and Edward D. Harris, for contributions of 
materials, or for personal researches in my behalf, 
or for the use of rare papers. 

In conclusion, a word of grateful mention of 
Messrs. Little, Brown & Co., the publishers. Seven- 
teen years ago, when the ^Tories" had seemingly 
passed into utter and deserved oblivion, these gen- 
tlemen published the "American Loyalists," without 
the hope of gain, and with the probability, indeed, 
of actual loss; and they voluntarily take the risk 
of the present Work under circumstances adverse 
to adequate pecuniary profit. For them and for 
myself I may venture to add,, that the principal re- 
ward is found in the belief that we have done some- 
thing for the cause of human brotherhood, by les- 



FKBFACE. vii 

sening the rancor — even the hate — which long 
existed between the children of the winners, and 
the children of the expatriated losers, in the civil 
war which dismembered the British Empire. 

BoxBTTBT, Massachusetts, 
ApHl, 1864. 



CONTENTS 



OF THE 



HISTORICAL ESSAY 



CHAPTER I. 

Taxation did bnt accelerate the Dismemberment of the British Empire. 
Several Causes of Disaffection on the part of the Colonists briefly 
stated. Acts of Parliament which inhibited Labor in the Colonies. 
Opposition to the J^avigation Act and the Laws of Trade in the 
Time of the Stuarts. Renewed afler the lapse of nearly a Centur}'. 
Mobs and Collisions, Seizures and Rescues, in consequence. The 
Question of ** Three Pence" the Pound on Tea discussed. The Bar- 
barous Commercial Code of England. The Contraband Trade in Tea, 
Wine, Fruit, Sugar, and Molasses. The Measures of the Ministry 
to suppress it One fourth part of the Signers of the Declaration 
of Independence Merchants or Shipmasters. Hancock prosecuted 
in the Admiralty Courts to recover nearly Half a Million of Dol- 
lars. The Loyalists great Smugglers after removing from the United 
States 1-14 

CHAPTER n. 
State of Political Parties in the New England Colonies . 15-27 

CHAPTER m. 
State of Political Parties in the Middle Colonies .... 28-33 

CHAPTER IV. 
State of Political Parties in the Southern Colonies . 34-48 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER V. 

Newspapers in the Thirteen Colonies. Political Writers, Whig and Loy- 
alist, North and South. Seminaries of Learning. Condition of the 
Press, &c., at the Revolutionary Era. Means for diffusing Knowledge 
limited 49-54 



CHAPTER VI. 

Political Divisions in Colonial Society. Most of those in Office adhered 
to the Crown. Charge of the Loyalists that the Whigs were mere 
needy Place-Hunters, answered. Loyalist Clergymen, Lawyers, and 
Physicians 55-61 



CHAPTER Vn. 

The Reasons given for Adherence to the Crown. The Published Declar- 
ations of the Whigs that they wished for a Redress of Wrongs and the 
Restoration of Ancient Privileges, as found in " Novanglus." Rapid 
Statement of Colonial Disabilities, which the Whig Leaders hardly 
mentioned in the Controversy, and which appear embodied for the 
first time in the Declaration of Independence. Denials of Whig 
Leaders, North and South, that they designed at the Beginning of the 
Controversy to separate from England. Reasons of the Loyalists for 
the Course adopted by them, concluded 62-68 



CHAPTER Vra. 



Loyalists who entered the Military Service of the Crown 69-74 



CHAPTER IX. 

Whig Mobs before the Appeal to Arms, and tarring and feathering. 
Punishments of Loyalists during the War for overt Acts in favor 
of the Crown, and for speaking, writing, or acting against the Whigs. 
Proscription, Banishment, and Confiscation Acts of the State Gov- 
ernments. The Laws which divested the Loyalists of their Estates 
examined 75-87 



k 



CONTENTS. XI 



CHAPTER X. 

The Coarse of the '* Violent Whigs " towards the Loyalists, at the Peace, 
discussed and condemned 88-98 



CHAPTER XI. 

Diflcnssions at Paris between the Commissioners for concluding Terms 
of Peace, on the Question of Compensation to the Loyalists for their 
Losses during the War, by Confiscation and otherwise. Reasons why 
Congress refused to make Recompense, stated and defended. The 
Provisions of the Treaty unsatisfactory in this particular. The Parties 
interested appeal to Parliament. Debates in the Lords and Commons. 
The Reconmiendation of Congress to the States to afford Relief in 
certiun Cases, disregarded 94-108 



CHAPTER Xn. 

The Loyalists apply to Parliament for Relief. The King, in his Speech, 
recommends Attention to their Claims. Commissioners appointed. 
Complaints of the Loyalists on various Grounds. Number of Claim- 
ants, and Schedules of their Losses. Delay of the Commissioners in 
adjusting Claims, and Distresses in consequence. Discussion in Par- 
liament. Final Number of Claimants, Final Amount of Schedules, 
and Final Award. In the Appeals to their respective Governments, 
the Loyalists fared better than the Whigs .... 104-118 



CHAPTER Xin. 

The Banished Loyalists and their Descendants. Progress of Whig Prin- 
ciples in the Canadas, in New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The 
whole System of Monopoly, on which the Colonial System was founded 
and maintained, surrendered. The Colonists now manufacture what 
they will, buy where they please, and sell where they can. England 
herself has pronounced the Vindication of the Whigs. The Heir to 
the British Throne at Mount Vernon and Bunker Hill. The Colo- 
nists claim to hold the highest Places in the Government, in the Army, 
and in the Navy. Effects of the Change of Policy.- The Children of 
the Wlugs and of the Loyalists, reconciled . .114-187 



• • 



xu CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Introductory Remarks. Principles of Unbelief preyalent The Whigs 
lose sight of their Original Purposes, and propoee Conquests. Decline 
of Public Spirit Avarice, Rapacity, Traffic with the Enemy. Gam- 
bling, Speculation, Idleness, Dissipation, and Extravagance. Want 
of Patriotism. Excessive Issue of Paper might have been avoided. 
Recruits for the Army demand Enormous Bounty. Shameless De- 
sertions and Immoralities. Commissions in the Army to men desti. 
tute of Principle. Court-martiab frequent, and many Officers Cash- 
iered. Resignations upon Discreditable Pretexts, and alarmingly 
prevalent. The Public Mind fickle, and Disastrous Changes in 
Congress 138-152 



PRELIMINARY HISTORICAL ESSAY. 



[In tins Essay, I nvail myself of snch parts of my own contributions to the " North 
American Review *' as are pertinent to my purpose.] 



CHAPTER I. 

Taxation did hut accelerate the Dismembemient of the British Empire. 
Several Causfs of Disaffection on the part of the Colonists briefly 
stated. Acts of Parliament which inhibited I^bor in the Colonies. 
Opposition to the Navigation Act and the Laws of Trade in the Time 
of the Stuarts. Renewed afler the lapse of nearly a Centnry. Mobs 
and Collisions, Seizures and Rescues, in consequence. The Question 
of " Three Pence " the Pound on Tea discussed. The Barbarous Com- 
mercial Code of England. The Contraband Trade in Tea, Wine, 
Fruit, Sugar, and Molasses. The Measures of the Ministry to sup>- 
press it One fourth part of the Signers of the Declaration of In- 
dependence Merchants or Shipmasters. Hancock prosecuted in the 
Admiralty Courts to recover nearly Half a Million of Dollars. The 
Loyalists great Smugglers after removing from the United States. 

The thoughts and deductions which I shall pre- 
sent are essentially my own, and I shall address the 
reader directly and without reserve. Many things 
which are necessary to a right understanding of the 
revolutionary controversy have been, as I conceive, 
wholly omitted, or only partially and obscurely stated. 

To me, the lives of the instruments of human prog- 
ress nm into one another, and become so interwoven 
as to appear but the continuation of a single life. It 

VOL I. 1 



I 



2 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

• is SO in the history of a country ; and I am weary of 
reading that the stamp duty and the tea duty were 
the " causes " of the American Revolution. Colonies 
become nations as certainly as boys become men, 
and by a similar law. The "Declaration" of the 
fifty-six, at Philadelphia, was but the "Contract" 
signed by the forty-one sad and stricken ones in the 
waters of Provincetown, with the growth of one 
hundred and fifty-six years. The intermediate oc- 
currences were sources of discipline, of development, 
and of preparation. At most, taxation and the kin- 
dred questions did but accelende the dismemberment 
of the British Empire, just as a man whose lungs are 
half consumed hastens the crisis by suicide. 

The writers who insist that the Whigs "went to 
war for a preamble," and who confine their views to 
the question of "taxation without representation," 
seem to forget that the conquest of Canada relieved 
the Colonies of all apprehension as related to the 
French, and was the beginning of a series of events, 
which, as we reason of cause and effect, led naturally 
and certainly to freedom. They forget, too, the dis- 
cussions on the subject of introducing Episcopal bish- 
ops, and giving precedence to the Established Church ; 
the misrepresentations in Parliament and elsewhere 
of the principal officers who served in the French 
war ; the plan to consolidate British America, to take 
away the charters of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
and Connecticut ; to reduce the whole Thirteen to a 
common system of government, with new boundaries 
to some, and with restrictions to all ; the suggestion 
to create a colonial peerage ; the practice of confer- 
ring legislative, executive, and judicial offices on the 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 8 

same person ; the neglect of native talents in civil 
life, except when connected with officials of English 
birth, or with the "old colonial families;" and the 
denial of promotion to officers of distinguished mili- 
tary ability, as well as the studied insult of allowing ' 
a captain in the "regulars" to rank and to command 
a colonel in the " provincials." 

And let us examine the political questions which 
formed elements in the momentous struggle as they 
really were, and as we speak of passing events in 
which we ourselves participate. To me, the docu- 
mentary history, the state-papers of the revolution- 
ary era, teach nothing more clearly than this, namely, 
that almost every matter brought into discussion was 
practical^ and in some form or other related to labor, — 
to some branch of common lndustry. Our fathers did 
indeed, in their appeals to the people, embody their 
opposition to the measures of the mother country, 
in one expressive term — "Taxation" — "Taxation 
w^ithout Representation." But whoever has exam- 
ined the acts of Parliament which were resisted, 
has found that nearly all of them inhibited Labor. 
There were no less than twenty-nine laws, which re- 
stricted and bound dow^n Colonial industry. Neither 
of these laws touched so much as the " southwest side 
of a hair " of an " abstraction," and hardly one of 
them, until the passage of the " Stamp Act," imposed 
a direct " Tax." They were aimed at the North, and 
England lost the aflFection of the mercantile and mar- 
itime classes of the northern Colonies full a genera- 
tion before she alienated the South. They forbade 
the use of waterfalls, the erecting of machinery, of 
looms and spindles, and the working of wood and 



4 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

iron ; they set the king's arrow upon trees that rotted 
in the forest ; they shut out markets for boards and 
fish, and seized sugar and molasses, and the vessels in 
which these articles were carried ; and they defined 
the limitless ocean as but a narrow pathway to such 
of the lands that it embosoms as wore the British 
flag. To me, then, the great object of the Eevolution 
was to release labor from these restrictions. Free- 
laborers — inexcusable in this — began with sacking 
houses, overturning public offices, and emptying tar- 
barrels and pillow-cases upon the heads of those who 
were employed to enforce these oppressive acts of 
Parliament; and when the skill and high intellect 
which were enlisted in their cause, and which vainly 
strove to moderate their excess, failed to obtain a 
peaceable redress of the wrongs of which they com- 
plained, and were driven either to abandon the end 
in view, or to combine and wield their strength, men 
of all avocations rallied upon the field and embarked 
upon the sea, to retire from neither until the very 
framework of the Colonial system was torn away, 
and every branch of industry could be pursued with- 
out fines or imprisonment. 

Such are the opinions, at least, that I have formed 
on the questions upon which, among the mass of the 
people, the contest hinged ; which finally united per- 
sons of every employment in fife in an endeavor to 
get rid of prohibitions that remonstrance could not 
repeal, or even humanize. For a higher or holier 
purpose than this, men have never expended their 
money, or poured out their lifeblood in battle! 

The claims of the merchants and ship-owners have 
never, as it seems to me, been fully or fairly stated. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 5 

They were undoubtedly the first persons in America 
who set themselves in array against the measures of 
the ministry. The causes of their opposition have 
already incidentally appeared, but some farther no- 
tice should now be taken of their eflForts to obtain 
the right of free navigation of the ocean. The 
Stamp Act, and other statutes of a kindred nature, 
have been made, I think, to occupy too prominent a 
place among the causes assigned for that event. The 
irritation which the duties on stamps excited in the 
planting Colonies subsided as soon as the law which 
imposed them was repealed ; and I submit, that, but 
for the policy which oppressed the commerce and in- 
hibited the use of the waterfalls of New England, the 
** dispute" between the mother and her children 
would have been "left," as Washington breathed a 
wish that it might be, " to posterity to determine." 

While Cromwell lived, Colonial trade was free ; but 
afler his death, the maritime interests of America 
soon felt the difference between a Puritan and a 
Stuart. McfOsures were taken by Charles, with all 
possible speed, to restrain and regulate the inter- 
course of the Colonies with countries not in subjec- 
tion to him, and even that with England herself At 
the period when his designs were to be executed, 
Massachusetts, foremost in all marine enterprises, not 
only traversed the sea at will, but had her own plan 
of revenue, and a collector of her customs, and ex- 
acted fees of vessels arriving at her ports. The mer- 
chants of Boston had dealings with Spain, France, 
Portugal, Holland, the Canaries, and even with Guinea 
and Madagascar, and had accumulated considerable 

wealth. The trade of Connecticut, of Rhode Island, 

1* 



6 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

■ 

and of the other Colonies, was small and limited. But 
as a commercial spirit existed everywhere, and as 
every Colony had some share in the traflSc which 
was to be checked, or, if possible, to be entirely 
broken up, none were disposed to submit quietly to 
the measures which were meant to effect either of 
these purposes. When, then, the royal collectors of 
the customs came over from England to carry out 
the will of their sovereign, they were met with re- 
sistance from one end of the continent to the other. 
In truth, the difficulties with Randolph, in Massachu- 
setts, and with Bacon, in Virginia ; the strenuous op- 
position to the establishment of a custom-house in 
Maryland, and the killing of Rousby ; the insurrec- 
tion in North Carolina, and the imprisonment of Mil- 
ler ; the quarrels with Muschamp in South Carolina ; 
the indictment of the Duke of York's collector in 
New York, and the conduct of juries in New Jer- 
sey, in prosecutions against smugglers, serve to show 
that the Colonists, when few, scattered, and weak, 
asserted their right to manage their affairs upon the 
ocean according to their own pleasure. In a word, 
the Jird effort to fasten upon American merchants 
and ship-owners the Navigation Act and Laws of 
Trade was a signal failure ; and all serious endeav- 
ors to arrest the course or restrain the limits of their 
maritime enterprises were discontinued for nearly a 
century. Collectors of the customs were, however, 
continued at all the principal ports ; but they seldom 
interfered to trouble those who embarked in unlaw- 
ful adventures, and such adventures were finally un- 
dertaken without fear, and almost without hazard. 
In truth, the ^commerce of America was practically 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 7 

free. Some merchants "smuggled" whole cargoes 
outright ; others paid the king's duty on a part, gave 
"hush-money" to the under-officers of the customs, 
and " run " the balance. 

Suddenly, and without warning, there came a 
change. The year 1761 was filled with events of 
momentous consequence. We find the merchants of 
the* ports of New England, and especially those of 
Boston and Salem, deeply exasperated by the at- 
tempts of the revenue officers, under fresh and per- 
emptory orders, to exact strict observance of the laws 
of navigation and trade ; and, by a pretension set up 
under these instructions, to enter and search places 
suspected of containing smuggled goods. To submit 
to this pretension, was to surrender the quiet of their 
homes and the order of their warehouses to the un- 
derlings of the government, and the property which 
they held to the rapacity of informers, whose gains 
would be in proportion to their wickedness. Those, 
therefore, of the two principal towns of Massachu- 
setts, who were interested in continuing the business 
which they had long pursued without molestation, 
and under a sort of prescriptive right, and in pre- 
serving their property from the grasp of pimps and 
spies, determined to withstand the crown-officers, and 
to appeal to the tribunals for protection against their 
claimsv James Otis threw up an honorable and prof- 
itable station to become their advocate, and, by his 
plea in their behalf, became also the first champion 
of the Revolution. 

From this period until the commencement of hos- 
tilities, there was no season of quiet in either of the 
Colonies which depended upon maritime pui'suits ; 



8 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

and in Massachusetts, the scenes of tumult and wild 
commotion which occurred, were the prelude of open 
war. The nine years which preceded the affray — 
absurdly called the " Boston Massacre" — were crowd- 
ed with acts, which show to what extent the quarrels 
had spread, and what strength the popular wrath had 
attained. The revision of the " Sugar Act^" and the 
exertions to carry out its new provisions, aided, as 
the revenue officers now were, by ships of war and 
an increase of their own corps, carried consternation 
to every fireside in the North. 

Another step in the controversy, and we stand 
beside the "tea-ships." I have no space to discuss 
the question of the *' three-pence the pound duty on 
tea," but I must enter my dissent from the common 
view of it. To me, it was not, as it has been re- 
garded, a question of " taxation^' but essentially, like 
all the others between the merchants cind the crown, 
one of commerce. The statements of Hutchinson, the 
debates in Parliament, and the state-papers and the 
documents which I have examined, all go to prove 
that the object of the mother country was mainly to 
break up the contraband trade of the Colonial mer- 
chants with Holland and her possessions, and to give 
to her own East India Company the supply of the 
Colonial markets. The value of the tea consumed 
in America was estimated at £300,000 annually. 
Nearly the whole quantity was "smuggled." Penn- 
sylvania, New York, and Massachusetts, were the 
great marts. The risk of seizure for many years 
was small ; and it is said, that, at one period, not one 
chest in five hundred of that which was landed in 
Boston fell into the hands of the officers of the cus- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 9 

toms. Some of the merchants of that town had 
become rich in the traffic, and a considerable part of 
the large fortune which Hancock inherited from his 
uncle ^ was thus acquired. 

In this condition of things the Company could not 
sell the qualities of tea which, year after year, they 
provided for the American market, and which were 
not wanted anywhere else ; and the result finally 
was, the loss of millions of dollars, the suspension of 
dividends to shareholders, and inability to meet their 
large pecuniary engagements to the government. 
The embarrassments of the Company, in fine, gave 
a shock to commercial credit generally ; bankruptcy 
was frequent; manufacturers stopped work; thou- 
sands of weavers roamed the streets in utter distress, 
and thousands more subsisted on charity. Under these 
circumstances, to break up the contraband trade was 
of vast moment ; and the ministry were forced, as tliey 
reasoned, to assist the Company on grounds of inter- 
est and policy. The Dutch tea was inferior to the 
English, as was universally jidmittcd, and the latter, 
if afforded to the consumer at as low a price, would, 
it was thought, expel the poorer, or the smuggled ar- 
ticle at once. Opposition to the measure on the part 
of the Colonisb*, docs not seem to have been appre- 
hended for a moment. To reduce the duty from a ahilr 
lintj the pound, payable in England, to " tliree-pence," 
payable in the ports to which it should be exported 
from the Company's warehouses, allowed the article 
to be sold in America nine-pence the pound cheaper 
than it had been afforded under the old rate of duty ; 

1 Thomas Hancock's plan of smuggling was to put his tea in molasses- 
hogheads, and thus ** run " it, or import it without payment of duties. 



10 ' HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

while, by securing the market, it at the same time se- 
cured a revenue on whatever quantity might actually 
be entered at the Colonial custom-houses. Such is 
my understanding of the plan, its reasons, and its ob- 
jects ; and it is pertinent to remark, that, if the 
" tax " had really been it« objectionable feature, it is 
singular that no clamor was raised while the duty 
was four times " three-pence " the pound. At thai 
rate. Whig merchants, as well as others, had made 
sm«nll importations from England, in order " to cover " 
the larger and illicit importations from Holland and 
her dependencies. It is equally pertinent to observe, 
that the English merchants, who sent tea to parts of 
America where the contraband trade was less exten- 
sively pursued, were as hostile to a measure which 
threatened than with the loss of their customers, as 
were their commercial brethren in the Colonies, who 
were to be sufferers from the same cause. 

The " tea" which came charged with "three-pence" 
duty, payable on being landed, was disposed of in 
various ways. As a punishment for the destruction 
of that sent to Boston, that port was shut up, and its 
commerce thus struck down at a blow. The cutting 
off the fisheries, which were then the very lifeblood 
of New England, soon followed the passage of the 
" Boston Port Bill," and was the crowning act of the 
policy which produced an appeal to arms. When 
the tidings that no vessels could now enter or leave 
the harbor of the capital of the North spread through 
the land, the cry that " Boston is suffering in the 
cause which henceforth interests all America," rose 
spontaneously. Public meetings were held in all 
parts of the country. People met in the open air. 



I 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 11 

in churches, and court-houses, to express their horror 
of the oppressors, and their sympathy with the op- 
pressed. I have examined the proceedings of no less 
than sixty-seven of these meetings, of which twenty- 
seven were held in Virginia, and all but one in places 
south of New England. The day that the Port Bill 
went into operation was one of gloom and sadness 
everywhere ; and the predictions, on both sides of 
the Atlantic, that it would produce a general confed- 
eration, and end in a general revolt, were of rapid 
fulfilment. 

In their opposition to the Navigation Act and 
Laws of Trade, the merchants and ship-owners were 
entirely right. Obedience to humane laws is due from 
every member of the community. But the barbar- 
ous code of commercial law, which disgraced the 
statute book of England for the exact century which 
intervened between the introduction and expulsion 
of her Colonial collectors and other ofi&cers of the 
customs, wa^ entitled to no respect whatever. 

The commercial code Avas so stem and cruel, that 
an American merchant Avas compelled to evade a law 
of the realm, in order to give a sick neighbor an 
orange or cordial of European origin, or else obtain 
them legally, loaded with the time, risk, and expense 
of a voyage from the place of growth or manufacture 
to England, and thence to his own warehouse. An 
American ship-owner or ship-master, Avhen wrecked 
on the coast of Ireland, was not allowed to unlade 
his cargo on the shore Avhere his vessel was stranded, 
but was required to send his merchandise to tng- 
laud, when, if originally destined for, or Avanted in, 
the Irish market, an English vessel might carry it 



12 mSTORICAL ESSAY. 

thither. At the North, a market for ail the dried fish, 
which were caught was indispensable to the prosecu- 
tion of the fisheries. But the policy of the mother 
country provided penalties, and the confiscation of 
vessel and cargo, for a sale of such proportion of the 
annual " catch " as was unfit for her own ports, or was 
not wanted in her own possessions in the Caribean 
Sea, if carried to the islands which owned subjection 
to France or Spain. These were sonie of the features 
of the odious system which prevailed, and which was 
never abolished, until American vessels went out 
upon the ocean under a new flag. 

Nine tenths, probably, of all the tea, wine, fruit, 
sugar, and molasses, consumed in the Colonies, were 
smuggled. To put an end to this illicit traffic was 
the determined purpose of the ministry. The com- 
manders of the ships of war on the American sta- 
tion were accordingly commissioned as officers of the 
customs ; and, to quicken their zeal, they were to 
share in the proceeds of confiscations ; the courts to 
decide upon the lawfulness of seizures, were to be 
composed of a single judge, without a jury, whose 
emoluments were to be derived from his own con- 
demnations ; the governors of the Colonies and the 
military officers were to be rewarded for their ac- 
tivity by sharing, also, either in the property con- 
demned, or in the penalties annexed to the inter- 
dicted trade. Boston was the great offender; and 
soon twelve ships of war, mounting no less than two 
hundred and sixty guns, were assembled in the har- 
bor of that port, for revenue service on the Atlantic 
coast. The merchants of the sea-ports were roused 
to preserve their business ; and when the controversy 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 18 

came to blows, lawyers who had espoused their cause 
in the mere course of professional duty, were among 
the efficient advocates for liberty. One quarter part 
of the signers of the Declaration of Independence 
were bred to trade, or to the command of ships,^ and 
more than one of them was branded with the epithet 
of "smuggler." It was fit, then, that Hancock, who, 
at the shedding of blood at Lexington, was respond- 
ent in the Admiralty Court, in suits of the Crown, to 
recover nearly half a million of dollars as penalties 
alleged to have been incurred for violations of the 
statute-book : it was fit that he should be the first to 
affix his name to an instrument which, if made good, 
would save him from ruin, and give his countrymen 
firee commerce with all the world. 

In conclusion, a single word more. .The Loyalists 
who, at the peace, removed to the present British 
Colonies, and their children after them, smuggled 
almost every article of foreign origin from the fron- 
tier ports of the United States, for more than half a 
century, and until England relaxed her odious com- 
mercial policy. The merchant in whose counting- 
house I myself was bred, sold the "old Tories" and 
their descendants large quantities of tea, wine, spices, 
silks, crapes, and other articles, as a part of his regu- 
lar business. I have not room to relate the plans 
devised by sellers and buyers to elude the officers of 
the Crown, or the perils incurred by the latter, at 
times, while crossing the Bay of Fundy on their pas- 

I John Hancock, John Langdon, Samuel Adams, W'illiam Whipple, 
George Clymer, Stephen Hopkin:i, Francis Lewis, Philip Livingston, £U 
bridge Gerrj', Joseph Ilewess George Taylor, Roger Sherman, Button 
Gvinnett, and Robert Morris. 

VOL. I. 2 



14 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

sage homeward. But I cannot forbear the remark, 
that, as the finding of a single box of contraband tea 
caused the confiscation of vessel and cargo, the 
smugglers kept vigilant watch with glasses, and com- 
mitted the fatal herb to the sea, the instant a rev- 
enue cutter or ship of war hove in sight in a quarter 
to render capture probable. When a spectator of 
the scene, as I often was, how could I but say to my- 
self, — " The destruction of tea in Boston, December, 
1773, in principle, how like ! " 



CHAPTER II. 

State of Political Parties in the New England Colonies. 

Leaving here this course of general remark, I pro- 
pose to take a view of the revolutionary controvei'sy, 
and of the state of parties, in each Colony separately 
and in course. And first in Massachusetts' Colony of 
Maine. Of the immense domains, embracing almost 
the half of our continent, which, in 1620, King James 
conferred upon those gentlemen of his court who, 
in popular language, are known as the " Council of 
Plymouth," Maine formed a part Among the most 
distinguished members of this Council wa« Sir Fer- 
dinando Gorges ; to whom, and to John Mason, the 
Council, two years after the date of their own pat- 
ent, conveyed all the lands and '^ fishings " between 
the rivers Merrimack and Sagadahoc. Subsequently, 
and rapidly, other grants covered the same soil, and 
angry and endless contentions followed. But Gorges, 
bent on leaving his name in our annals, obtained of 
Charles the First a grant for himself, individually, of 
the territory between the Piscataqua and Sagada- 
hoc, and thence from the sea one hundre(l and 
twenty miles northward. These were the ancient 
limits of the " Province of Maine." Having now a 
sort of double title. Gorges might rea.sonably hope 
that his rights were perfect, and that he might pur- 
sue his plans without interruption. But Massachu- 



16 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

setts, on the one hand, msisted that her boundaries 
were narrowed by the grants to Mason and himself; 
while the Council, on the other, with inexcusable care- 
lessness or dishonesty, continued to alienate the very 
soil which he held, both from themselves and their 
common master. Thus he was harassed his life long, 
and w-ent to his grave old and worn out with per- 
plexities and the political sufferings and losses of a 
most troubled period. He was a soldier, and a tried 
friend of the Stuarts in their times of need, of which 
their reigns were full, and was plundered and impris- 
oned in their wars. 

Thus, then, Maine was not founded by a Puritan. 
But after the death of Gorges, his son deemed his 
possessions in America of little or no worth, and took 
no pains to retain them, or to carry out his designs ; 
and his grandson, to Avhom his rights descended, gave 
to Massachusetts a full assignment and release for the 
insignificant consideration of twelve hundred and fifty 
pounds sterling ; a sum less than one sixteenth of the 
amount which had been actually expended. By this 
purchase, however, Massachusetts acquired only a part 
of Maine as now constituted.- France made preten- 
sions to all that part lying east of the Penobscot, and 
the Duke of York to the part between the Penobscot 
and the Kennebec ; nor was it until the reign of Wil- 
liam and Mary, that disputes about boimdaries were 
merged, and the St. Croix and Piscataqua became the 
acknowledged chaiter frontiers. 

Soon after the bargain was made with Gorges's 
heir, Massachusetts lost her own charter; and it was 
not among the least of the causes of Charles's anger 
against her, that she had thwarted his design of pro- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY, 17 

curing Maine for his natural son, the Duke of Mon- 
mouth. The newly acquired province was thought 
valuable only for its forests of pine, and for the fish- 
eries of its coasts. But Massachusetts had objects 
beyond cutting down trees and casting fishing-lines. 
Her " presumption " in crossing the path of royalty 
has often been condemned. But the citizens of 
Maine cannot too often commend the indomitable 
spirit which she evinced in her struggle to root out 
Gorges and the Cavaliers or Monarchists of his plant- 
ing, and to put in their place the humbler but purer 
Roundheads or Puritans of her own kindred. Had she 
feltered, when dukes and lords signed parchments that 
conveyed away soil which she claimed; had she not 
sought to push her sovereignty over men and terri- 
tories not originally her own; had she not broken 
down French seigniories and English feofidoms, 
Maine, east of Gorges's eastern boundary, might 
have continued a part of the British empire to this 
hour. This opinion is given considerately, and not 
to round out a period. And whoever will consult 
the diplomacy of 1783, will learn that, even as it was, 
the British Commissioners contended that the Ken- 
nebec should divide the thirteen States from the Col- 
onies which had remained true to the crown. 

Yet fishing and lumbering continued to be the two 
great branches of industry in Maine, until the Revo- 
lution. The new charter, procured of William and 
Mary, confirmed Massachusetts in her acquisitions 
east of the Piscataqua ; but it contained several re- 
strictions which bore hard upon both of these inter- 
ests. The most prominent I shall briefly notice, be- 
cause they had a direct influence in the formation 

2» 



18 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

of political parties. And, first, that instrument pro- 
vided, that all pine-trees, of the diameter of twenty- 
four inches at more than a foot from the ground, on 
lands not granted to private persons, should be re- 
served for masts for the royal navy ; and that, for 
cutting down any such tree without special leave, 
the offender should forfeit one hundred pounds ster- 
ling. This stipulation was the source of ceaseless 
disquiet, and it introduced, to guard the forests from 
depredation, an officer called the " Surveyor-General 
of the King's Woods." Between this functionary, 
who enjoyed a high salary, considerable perquisites, 
and great power, and the lumberers, there was no 
love. The officials of the day, who were now of 
royal appointment, and not, as under the first char- 
ter, elected by the people, generjilly ranged them- 
selves on the side of the surveyors, their deputies 
and menials ; while the House of Representatives, as 
commonly, opposed their doings, and countenanced 
the popular clamoi's against them. Nor were the 
controvei\sies, caused by the effort^ of the surveyors 
to preserve spars for the royal navy, confined to the 
halls of legislation in Massachusetts. For, beside 
these, and the frequent quarrels in the woods and at 
the saw-mills, the disputes betw^een the parties were 
carried to the Board of Trade in England. There 
seemed, indeed, in the judgment of several of the 
colonial governors, no way for them to please their 
royal master more, than by discoursing about the 
care which should be exercised over the 'Mnast-trees," 
and about the severitv with which the statute-book 
should provide against " trespassers." In a word, 
prerogative and the popular sentiment never agreed. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 19 

Discussions about the forests of Maiue again and again 
ended in wrangles. Friendships Avere broken up, and 
enmities created for life. This is emphatically true 
of Shute's administration, when Cooke, the Counsel- 
lor of Sagadahoc, and the champion of the "fierce 
democracy " — as his father had been before him — 
involved the whole government of Massachusetts in 
disputes, which, in the end, drove the Governor home 
to England. And so, subsequently, a forged letter, 
probably written by " trespassers " or their friends to 
Sir Charles Wager, first lord of the Admiralty, charg- 
ing Governor Belcher w^ith conniving with depreda- 
tors, though seemingly aiding the king's surveyor, 
— that "Irish dog of a Dunbar," — did its intended 
work. Shirley, Belcher's successor, when he pressed 
upon the House the necessity of further enactments 
to protect the masts and spars for the royal navy, 
and to punish those who obstructed or annoyed the 
Toyal agents, Avas tartly told in substance, by that 
body: "Our laws are sufficient; tve have done our 
duty in passing them ; let the crown officers do fheu* 
duty in enforcing them." Hutchinson, for a like call 
upon the House, was in like manner reminded, in 
tenns hardly more civil, that there were already 
charter and statute penalties for " trespa.ssers," a sur- 
veyor-general and deputies, and courts of law ; and 
that, provided with these, he must look to the pines 
" twenty-four inches in diameter, upwards of tAvelve 
inches from the ground," for himself The means for 
dealing with offenders, it must be confessed, were am- 
ple : the crown could try them in the Court of Ad- 
miralty, where there was no jury ; upon conviction 
for a common trespass, a fine of £100 could be im- 



20 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

posed ; and for the additional misdeed of plunder- 
ing the interdicted trees under a painted or disguised 
face, twenty lashes could be laid on the culprit's back ; 
while, more than all, convictions could be had on 
jyrobable guilt, unless the accused would, on oath, de- 
clare his innocence. 

But there was no such thing as executing these 
laws, when it was the popular impression that the 
woods were " the gifts as well as the growth of na- 
ture ; " and that the king's right to them was merely 
" nominal," at the most The provision of the charter 
wiis both unwise and unjust. To reserve to the crown 
a thousand times as many trees as it could ever re- 
quire, and to allow all to decay that were not actually 
used, was absurd. Men of the most limited capacity 
saw and felt this ; and to wean them from a power 
which insisted, in spite of all remonstrance, in enforc- 
ing the absurdity, was an easy task. And we can 
readily imagine, what indeed is true, that the wood- 
men of Maine, when rid, by the Revolution, of the 
presence of surveyor-generals and their deputies, ex- 
ulted as heartily as did the peasants of France, when 
the outbreak there abolished forest laws somewhat 
dissimilar, but equally obnoxious. 

Again. The action of Parliament with regard to 
taxing lumber, admitting it free, or even encourag- 
ing its exportiition, by bounties, was eagerly watched. 
The mother country pursued all of these courses at 
different times, and gave dissatisfaction, or created 
discontent, among the getters and dealers in the ai> 
tide, as changes occurred in her policy ; just as she 
does now, with those Colonial possessions which yet 
remain to her. Tlie '^mast-ships" at the North, like 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 21 

the " tobacco-ships " at the South, were the common, 
and oftentimes the only, means for crossing the ocean ; 
and royal governors and other high personages were 
occasionally compelled to embark in them. In these 
clumsy, ill-shapen vessels, also went ladies and lovers 
to visit friends in that distant land, which some Amei> 
leans yet call " home." Merchandise, fashions, and 
the last novel had a slow voyage back ; but men and 
maidens were models of patience, and the arrival of 
the eleven weeks " mast>er" gave as much joy when 
all was safe, as does the eleven days steamer now. 
In port, while loading, the " mast-ships " were objects 
of interest, and their decks and cabins the scenes of 
hilarity and mirth. We read of illuminations and 
firings of cannon, of frolics and feasts. 

The mast-trade was confined to England ; and the 
transportation of spars thither, and of the sawed and 
shaved woods required by the planter, to islands in 
the West Indies possessed by the British crown, was 
about the only luvful modes of exporting lumber for a 
long period. By the statute-book, the "king's mark " 
was as much to be dreaded by the mariner and the 
owner of the vessel, as by the " logger " and the "mill- 
man." But the revenue officers caused less fear than 
the surveyors of the woods, until fleets and armies 
were employed to aid them ; when the interdicted 
trade with the French and Spanish islands, which had 
been carried on by a sort of prescriptive right, was 
nearly, if not entirely, broken up. No enactments of 
the mother country operated to keep down Northern 
industry so efiectually, poorly as they were obeyed, 
as the navigation and trade laws ; and on none did 
they bear more severely than on that portion of the 



22 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

people, whose position or necessities left them no 
choice of employments. There were some, nor were 
they few, who were obliged to plunder the forests, 
and to Avork up trees into marketable shapes, or 
starve. Included with these inhabitants of Maine, 
were those who lived upon the coasts — the mari- 
ners and the fishermen. The interests of all these 
classes were identical ; and to them the maritime pol- 
icy of the government of England was cruel in the 
extreme; since it robbed unremitting toil of half 
its reward. Lumber and fish were inseparable com- 
panions in every adventure to the islands in the Car- 
ibbean sea. Enterprises to get either were hazard- 
ous, at the best; andj as practical men can readily 
perceive, all who engaged in obtaining them, were 
obliged then, as they are now, to seek different mar- 
kets ; so that to shut wme marts, when access to aU 
would barely remunerate the adventurers, was, in 
effect, to close the whole. These employments were, 
as they still are, among the most difficult and severe 
in the whole round of human pursuits ; and attempts 
to alleviate the burdens of parliamentary legislation 
upon both were made in Massachusetts, long before .a 
whisper of discontent was elsewhere uttered in Amer- 
ica. The discussions in that Colony, in behalf of her 
citizens at home and of those in Maine who w^ere en- 
gaged in getting and transporting the products of the 
forest and of the sea, though commenced without ref- 
erence to separation from the mother country, took 
fast hold of the public mind. When, then, Otis at 
length spoke out, thousands who never heard or read 
his reasonings, and might not have felt their force if 
they had, were ready, at the first call, to clear the 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 23 

woods, and docks, and warehouses, and decks of ves- 
sels of the "swarms of officers" who "harassed" them, 
and ^ eat out their substance." 

The troubles which I have now enumerated, the 
disputes which grew out of the question, whether, as 
the territories purchased of Gorges had never revert- 
ed to the crown, the surveyor-general's duty did, in 
fact, require hhn to mark and protect the mast-trees 
within their limits, and especially the charter inhibi- 
tion of grants east of the Kennebec without the king's 
consent, kept out settlers, held titles in suspense, and 
were sufficient not only to alienate the affections of 
the people from the British crown, but to confine 
them to a narrow belt of country. 

As may be supposed, the body of the people were 
Whigs. Still, Maine had a considerable number of 
Loyalists or Tories. To aflford them a place of refuge 
and protection was the principal object, as I have been 
led to conclude, of establishing a military post at the 
mouth of the Penobscot. The descendants of Loyal- 
ists who found shelter in the garrison at Castine, rep- 
resent that it was thronged Avith adherents of the 
crown and their families ; and, afler the discomfiture 
of Saltonstall and Lovell, they were left in undis- 
turbed quiet during the remainder of the war. The 
names of all the- Tories of Maine Avho were proscribed 
and banished under the act of Massachusetts, as well 
as many others, will be found in their proper connec- 
tions. 

In passing from Maine to New Hampshire, we 
shall find the general state of things very similar. 
The occupations of the people of the two Colonies 
were much alike. New Hampshire, though not an 



24 HISTOUICAL ESSAY. 

appendage of Massachusetts in 1775, had been twice 
annexed to the mother of New England, and had thus 
acquired much of her spirit. Collisions between the 
revenue officers and the mariners and ship-owners of 
Portsmouth, and between the guardians of the "king's 
woods " and the lumberers of the interior, had been 
frequent Indeed the " loggers " and " sawyers " had 
whipped the deputies of the surveyor-general so often 
and so severely, that the term " swamp-law " Avas quite 
as significant a phrase as that of " Vfnchlaw " in our 
own time. Yet, as will appear, the Whigs had many 
and powerful opponents in the Colony planted by 
Mason, the associate patentee of Gorges. 

With regard to Massachusetts, it seems to have 
been taken as granted, that, because here the Revo- 
lution had its origin ; because the old Bay State fur- 
nished a large part of the men and the means to carry 
it forward to a successful issue; and because, in a word, 
she fairly exhausted herself in the struggle, the people 
embraced the popular side, almost in a mass. A more 
mistaken opinion than this has seldom prevailed. 

The second charter, or that granted by William 
and Mary, had several obnoxious provisions besides 
those which had peculiar reference to Maine, and its 
acceptance Nvas violently opposed. And Phips, the 
Earl of Bellamont, Shute, Burnet, Belcher, Shirley, 
and Pownall, the several governors who were ap- 
pointed by the crown under one of these provisions, 
encountered embarrassments and difficulties, and some 
of them were actually driven from the executive chair 
by the force of party heats. In fact, the "old-charter," 
or "liberty-men," arrayed on the one side, and the 
^' new-charter," or " prerogative-men," on the other, 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 25 

kept up a continual warfare. When, then, in the 
quarrel, which was commenced with Bernard, which 
was continued with Hutchinson and Gage, his suc- 
cessors, and which finally spread over the continent 
and severed the British empire, the terms "Whig" 
and " Tory " were employed, they were not used to 
distinguish new parties, but were simply epithets bor- 
rowed from the politics of the mother country, and 
did but take the place of the party names which had 
previously existed, and under which political leaders 
had long moved and trained their followers. As the 
Revolutionary controversy darkened, individuals of 
note did indeed change sides; but, though some 
of our writers have hardly mentioned that such a 
state of things preceded the momentous conflict, the 
general truth was as I have stated. 

As some further details of the state of parties in 
Ma.ssachusetts will be given in another connection, a 
brief notice of the Loyalists who abandoned their 
homes and the coimtry will serve my present pur- 
pose. Of this description, upwards of eleven hun- 
dred retired in a body with the royal army at the 
evacuation of Boston. This number includes, of 
course, women and children. Among the men, how- 
ever, were many pei'sons of distinguished rank and 
consideration. Of members of the council, commis- 
sioners, officers of the customs and other officials, * 
there were one hundred and two ; of clergymen, 
eighteen ; of inhabitants of country towns, one hun. 
dred and five ; of merchants and other persons who 
resided in Boston, two hundred and thirteen; of 
fannei-s^ mechanics, and traders, three hundred and 
eighty-two. 

VOL. I. 3 



26 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

Other emigrations preceded and succeeded this; 
but they consisted principally of individuals, or small 
parties of intimate friends, or families and their im- 
mediate connections. But the whole number who 
embarked at different ports of Massachusetts, pend- 
ing the controversy and during the war, were, as I 
am inclined to believe, two thousand, at the lowest 
computation. The names and the fate of a consider- 
able proportion of them will be found in these pages. 
Most of them took passage for Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
where they endured great privations. Many, how- 
ever, subsequently went to England, and there passed 
the remainder of their lives. 

Rhode Island and Connecticut may be considered 
together. There is but little to detain us in either. 
Both were governed by charters like Massachusetts, 
and both were " pure democracies," since, says Chal- 
mers, " the freemen exercised without restraint every 
power, deliberate and executive. Like Ragusa and 
San Marino, in the Old World, they offered an exam- 
ple to the New, of two little republics embosomed 
within a great empire." In 1704, Montpesson, the 
Chief Justice of New York, wrote to Lord Notting- 
ham, that when he "was at Rhode Island, they did in 
all things as if they were out of the dominions of the 
crown." Of Connecticut, at the same period, Chal- 
mers remarks, that, " being inhabited by a people of 
the same principles though of a different religion, 
they a^ted the same political part as those of Rhode 
Island;" and he quotes from a dispatch of Lord Corn- 
bury to the Board of Trade, the pithy saying, that 
the inhabitants of these Colonies " hate everybody 
that owns any subjection to the Queen " [Anne]. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. . 27 

The Revolution, which so essentially affected the 
governments of most of the Colonies, produced no 
very perceptible alteration in those of either Rhode 
Island or Connecticut. After Wanton, the governor 
of the first, was deposed, the Whigs succeeded to 
power without turmoil, and in the ordinary course 
of legislative action. Trumbull, the governor of the 
latter, was a sound Whig, and occupied the executive 
chair from 1769 to 1783. The charters of both Col- 
onies were admirably adapted to their wants and con- 
dition, whether regarded as dependencies or as free 
States ; and while Connecticut continued without any 
other fundamental law until the year 1818, Rhode 
Island has but lately recovered from the disquiets 
and animosities occasioned by the adoption of a Con- 
stitution. 

Yet, though less restrained by charter provisions 
than Massachusetts, and though in theory "pure, 
democracies," and bearing " hate " towards all who, 
in Queen Anne's time, acknowledged her authority, 
there was no greater unanimity of sentiment on the 
questions which agitated the country in 1775, than 
elsewhere in New England. Indeed, I feel assured 
that^ in Connecticut, the number of adherents of the 
crown was greater, in proportion to the population, 
tlian in Maine, Massachusetts, or New Hampshire. 
This impression is warranted by documentary evi- 
dence, and is fully sustained by facts, which have 
been communicated to me by descendants of Loyal- 
ists of that Colony. 



CHAPTER III. 

State of Political Parties in the Middle Colonies. 

In passing from New England, we are to speak of 
American Colonists of different origin, and who lived 
under different forms of government. Thus, New 
York had no charter, but was governed by royal in- 
structions, orders in council, and similar authority, 
communicated to the governors by the ministers " at 
home." The governor and council were appointed 
by the king, but vacancies at the council board were 
filled by the governor. The people elected the popu- 
lar branch, which consisted of twenty-seven members. 
To say that the political institutions of New York 
formed a feudal aristocracf/^ is to define them with tol- 
erable accuracy. The soil was held by a few. The 
masses were mere retainers or tenants, as in the mon- 
archies of Europe. Nor has this condition of society 
been entirely changed, since the " anti-rent " dissen- 
sions of our own time arose from the vestige which 
remains. 

Such a state of things was calculated to give the 
king many adherents. The fact agreed with the 
theory. Details may be spared. One circumstance 
will prove the preponderance of the royal party be- 
yond all doubt ; namely, that soon after the close of 
the Revolution, a bill passed the House of Assembly, 
which prohibited persons who had been in opposition 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 29 

from holding any office under the State. This bill, 
on being sent to the other branch of the legislature, 
was rejected, and on the ground principally, that 
if allowed to become a law, no elections could be 
held in some parts of the State, inasmuch as there 
were not a sufficient number of Whigs, in certain 
sections, to preside at or conduct the election meet- 
ings. 

While so large a proportion of the people of New 
York preferred to continue their connection with the 
mother country, very many of them entered the mili- 
tary service of the crown, and fought in defence of 
their principles. Whole battalions, and even regi- 
ments, were raised by the great landholders, and 
continued organized and in pay throughout the 
struggle. In fine. New York was undeniably the 
Loyalists' stronghold, and contained more of them 
than any other colony in all America. I will not say 
that she devoted her resources of men and of money 
to the cause of the enemy; but I do say, that she 
withheld many of the one, and much of the other, 
from the cause of the right. Massachusetts furnished 
67,907 Whig soldiers between the years 1775 and 
1783 ; while New York supplied but 17,781. In ad- 
justing the war balances, after the peace, Massachu- 
setts, as was then ascertained, had overpaid her share 
in the sum of 1,248,801 dollars of silver money ; but 
New York was deficient in the large amount of 
2,074,846 dollars. New Hampshire, though almost a 
wilderness, furnished 12,496 troops for the continental 
ranks, or quite three quarters of the number enlisted 
m the " Empire State." 

These facts show the state of parties in this Colony 

8* 



30 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

in a strong light. One other incident, which presents 
the wayering, time-serving course that prevailed, even 
after Washington had been appointed to the com- 
mand of the army, and when, of course, the whole 
country was committed to sustain him, will suffice. 
On the 25th of June, 1775, a letter was received by 
the New York Provincial Congress, which communi- 
cated intelligence that the Commander-in-chief was 
on his way to headquarters at Cambridge, and w^ould 
cross the Hudson und visit the city. " News came at 
the same time," says Mr. Sparks, ^^that Governor 
Tryon was in the harbor, just arrived from England, 
and would land that day. The Congress were a good 
deal embarrassed to determine how to act on this 
occasion ; for though they had thrown off all allegiance 
to the authbi'ity of their governor, they yet professed 
to maintain loyalty to his person. They finally or- 
dered a colonel so to dispose of his miUtia companies, 
that they might be in a condition to receive * either 
the General^ or Governor Tryon^ whichever shmild first 
arrive^ and wait on both as well as circuinstances would 
(Mow' Events proved less perplexing than had been 
apprehended, as General Washington arrived several 
hours previoils to the landing of Governor Tryon." 
That a Congress of Wliigs should have been so irreso- 
lute and timid, after the blood of their brethren had 
been poured out at Lexington and on Breed's Hill, is 
unacco mi table. If such was theh' conduct, what must 
have been the state of feeling among the Tories, 
what the courage and confidence which animated 
them? 

New Jersey, says Chalmers, was ^ a scion from New 
York, and either prospered or withered, during every 



mSTORICAL ESSAY. 81 

season, as the stock flourished or declined." Again 
he says, that "planted by Independents from New 
England, by Covenanters from Scotland, by conspir- 
ators from England, such scenes of turbulence were 

exhibited, .... age after age, as acquii-ed 

the characteristic appellation of ^The Revolutions.'" 
Chalmers was fond of strong and i>ointed expressions, 
and some of his statements are to be received, there- 
fore, with allowance. He saw — as the students of 
our history well know — designs to throw off alle- 
giance, to " set up for independency," and to effect 
^ Revolutions," in the common quarrels between the 
Colonial Assemblies and the Governors, and in the 
ordinary petitions to the mother country, for redress 
of real or supposed wrongs. 

New Jersey was indeed politically annexed to New 
York, and the connection was dissolved and renewed 
several times prior to 1738. So, too, that part of it 
which was originally known as " East Jei'sey," at one 
period was assigned to William Penn; while both 
^'East and West Jersey" were subsequently added 
to the jurisdiction of New England. In 1702, the 
"Jersies" were united under one government, and 
received the present name ; and from 1738 to the 
Revolution, New Jersey had a separate Colonial 
government. The losses of New Jersey, in propor- 
tion to her population and wealth, were greater, 
probably, than those of any other member of the 
Confederacy. Her soldiers, who entered the service 
of Congress, gained enviable renown ; and within her 
borders are some of the most memorable battle- 
grounds of the Revolution. It was in New Jersey, 
that Washington made his best military movements. 



32 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

and displayed his highest qualities of character; it 
was there that he encountered his greatest distresses 
and difficulties, and earned his most enduring laurels. 

We come now to the "proprietary government" 
of Pennsylvania ; and a proprietary government in 
America was a monarchy in miniature. 

The proprietary governors were not, generally, 
bad men, but the rapacity of some of them was un- 
bounded. Chalmers quotes the remark as a shrewd 
saying, that " a dignitary of this description had two 
masters : one who gdve him his commission, and one 
who gave him his pay ; and that he was, therefore, 
on his good behavior to both." ^ Several, I suspect, 
cared very little for either of their two masters ; and 
he who said, that they had three things to attend to, 
" First, to fleece the people for the king, then for them- 
selves^ and lastly, for the proprietaries, their employ- 
ers," told more truth, and had more wit, than the 
person cited by our well-informed but much preju- 
diced annalist. 

It is perhaps true, that as a body, the party of 
which Franklin was a member in these dissensions, 
was the Whig party of the Revolution. Yet, there 
were exceptions ; and some of his wannest personal 
and political friends were found among the adherents 
of the crown ; while old opponents ranged themselves 
by his side, and did good service during the trying 
scenes which preceded deeds of hostility. For a 
time, the course of Pennsylvania was extremely 
doubtful. Besides the differences which existed else- 

1 The reader will find some further particulars of the nature of the 
political institutions of Pennsylvania, in the biographical notice of John 
Penn. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 38 

where, the religious faith of the people was opposed 
to the adoption of forcible means to dissolve their 
connection with the mother country. Hence, as in 
New York, timidity and indecision were evinced 
among the most prominent Whigs. To me, the line 
of conduct pursued by John Dickinson is a perfect 
riddle. His various, eloquent, and able tracts and 
essays, and the important papers and addresses 
which came from his pen, between the "Stamp-act 
Congress" in 1765 and the close of the first Con- 
tinental Congress in 1774, gave him a wide and just 
fame. But in the Congress of 1776, he opposed the 
passage of the Declaration of Independence with 
great zeal ; and, as John Adams was its " great pilhir 
and support," ' and "its ablest advocate and cham- 
pion," 80 he, of all others, was the uncompromising 
antagonist of the lion-hearted patriot of the North. 

Unless Galloway — a name often to appear in this 
work — was mistaken, the Loyalists of the Middle 
Colonies were ready to enter the military service of 
the crown in large numbers. His statement is, that, 
had Sir William Howe issued a Proclamation when in 
Philadelphia, 3,500 men would have repaired to his 
standard; that, in that city, in New Jersey, and in 
New York, he could have embodied quite 5,000; that 
upwards of fifty gentlemen went to his camp to ojffer 
their services in disarming the disaffected, but, fail- 
ing to obtain even an interview, retired in disgust ; 
and that, under Sir William's successor, 5,000 actually 
appeared in arms for the defence of the city of New 
York. 




State of Polirical Tkrlics in ibe Southern Cobni 

I iiAVK been able to ascertain so little of a definite 
char.icter of tlie political condition of Delaware and 
Miuyliind, at the period to which these remarks re- 
late, that 1 shall detain the reader in neither; and 
pass to the "Olil Dominion." Virginiii, like New 
York, was a feudal aristocracy. But Mere a large 
prO]iortion of tlie landlioldei-s, tmlike tho.*e of New 
York, were Wliij^s, and, of course, favored tiie revo- 
Uitioiinry movement. Yet, it docs not appear, that, 
vpmi thv 'jiu'niiom '•/ if/K«o/i'iiii/ her relHtiuiis iri/h ihe iimther 
CQmdr;i, slie was as ready as, fi'om her early and firm 
opposition to tlie Stamp Act, might be expected. In- 
deed, tlicre i,s the highest possible evidence for be- 
lieving that Virginia broke her Colonial bonds witli 
hesitation. Early in March, 177C, Colonel Joseph 
Eced, of Pennsylvania, in a letter to Washington, 
ob.'ierved, that there was " a strange reluctance in 
the minds of many to cut the knot M'liich ties us 
to Great Britain, particularly in this Culony and to the 
S'Jiitlwanl." In wiiting again on the 15th of the siime 
month, he was more explicit. "It is said," — are his 
wonls, — "ihc Vlrifiniaiis ure ho ataniied m'lh the idea of 
iiide/wndciicf, that they hare sent Mr. Braxton on purpose 
to turn the vote of tlud Colon;/, if any question on tJiat sub- 
ject should come before Conffrvm." Washington, in his 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 35 

reply to the letter of the 15th, admits that the people 
of Virginia, '^from their form of government^ and steadf/ 
attachment heretofore to royally^ vAll come reluctantly into 
the idea of indejpendence ; " but says, tlwit " time and per- 
secution bring many wonderful things to pass," and 
that, by private letters which he had lately received, 
he found Paine's celebrated essay, called " Common 
Sense," (which recommended separation,) w^as ^* work- 
ing a powerful change in the minds of many men." 

This correspondence, as will be seen, occurred but 
a little more than three months previous to the time 
when Congress actually declared the Thirteen Colo- 
nies to be free and independent States ; and the 
opinions of persons so well informed, so intimate in 
friendship, and occupying so responsible public sta- 
tions, are to be regarded as decisive. 

Yet Washington, Henry, the Lees, Jefferson, and 
Bland, were, undoubtedly, the true exponents of her 
principles. 

The institutions of North Carolina were decidedly 
monarchical from the fiist. Political or social disorder 
seems to have prevailed, to some extent, throughout 
her colonial existence. Martin, the last royal govern- 
or, stated, in 1775, that literature was hardly known, 
and that there were but two schools in the w^iole 
Colony. After the final overthrow of the Stuarts, 
many of the adherents of the last of that name who 
sought the British throne, fled for refuge to America, 
and settled within her borders. And it was singular 
that most of them were Loyalists ; that men who 
had become exiles for the part which they had taken 
against the House of Brunswick should here, and in 
another civil war, espouse its cause, and, a second 



CHAPTER IV. 

State of Political Parties in tbe Southern Colonies. 

I HAVE been able to ascertain so little of a definite 
character of the political condition of Delaware and 
Maryland, at the period to which these remarks re- 
late, that I shall detain the reader in neither; and 
pass to the "Old Dominion." Virginia, like New 
York, was a feudal aristocracy. But there a large 
proportion of the landholders, tinlike those of New 
York, were Whigs, and, of course, favored the revo- 
lutionary movement. Yet, it does not appear, that, 
upon the questions of dissolving her relations with the mother 
couyttri/, she was as ready as, from her early and firm 
opposition to the Stamp Act, might be expected. In- 
deed, there is the highest possible evidence for be- 
lieving that Virginia broke her Colonial bonds with 
hesitation. Early in March, 1776, Colonel Joseph 
Reed, of Pennsylvania, in a letter to Washington, 
observed, that there was " a strange reluctance in 
the minds of many to cut the knot which ties us 
to Great Britain, particularly in this Colony and to the 
southward'' In writing again on the 15th of the same 
month, he was more explicit. "It is said," — are his 
words, — " the Virginians are so alarmed unth the idea of 
independence^ that they have sent Mr. Braxton on purpose 
to turn the vote of thai Colony^ if any question on that sub- 
ject should come before Congress'' Washington, in his 



k 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 35 

reply to the letter of the 15th, admits that the people 
of Virginia, "/row* their form of ffove?*nmeni, and steady 
aMachment heretofore to royaliy^ tnll catne reluctantly into 
the idea of independence ; " but says, thnt " time and per- 
secution bring many wonderful things to pass," and 
that, by private letters which he had lately received, 
he found Paine's celebrated essay, called " Common 
Sense," (which recommended separation,) was " work- 
ing a powerful change in the minds of many men." 

This correspondence, as will be seen, occurred but 
a little more than three months previous to the time 
when Congress actually declared the Thirteen Colo- 
nies to be free and independent States ; and the 
opinions of persons so well informed, so intimate in 
friendship, and occupying so responsible public sta- 
tions, are to be regarded as decisive. 

Yet Washington, Henry, the Lees, Jefferson, and 
Bland, were, undoubtedly, the true exponents of her 
principles. 

The institutions of North Carolina were decidedly 
monarchical from the first. Political or social disorder 
seems to have prevailed, to some extent, throughout 
her colonial existence. Martin, the last royal govern- 
or, stated, in 1775, that literature was hardly known, 
and that there were but two schools in the whole 
Colony. After the final overthrow of the Stuarts, 
many of the adherents of the last of that name who 
sought the British throne, fled for refuge to America, 
and settled within her borders. And it was singular 
that most of them were Loyahsts; that men who 
had become exiles for the part which they had tiiken 
against the House of Brunswick should here, and in 
another civil war, espouse its cause, and, a second 



^^^^y 


^H 


:iH 




mSTOlUCAL ESSAY. ^^^^H 


that 


llu- n. 


iiiity wofl nearly uiiftiiiaiou.-< in liivor ^H 


L»r tl 


1.- diiin, 


■if which the leaders advocated, and jnit ^H 


Xhvh 


■ luitini. 


L's and live« at hazard to obtain. Nor ^H 


shoLi 


l.t il Ik' 


forgotten that, in the county of Meek- ^H 


i.'iibi 


,1.-1., -.i 


Declaration of Independence was passed 


innrc 


• l!i;ui H 


VL'ar belbi-e the more colcI>rated insti-u- 


iiii'iii 


1 or the 


sanie name was adopted by the Conti- 


IK'llt. 


111 Cong 


res-i at Philadelphia. As late as the year 


181 'J 


: Mr. Jc'ftlTsou made a labored argument to prove 


t)i:<t. 


no audi 


document exists. But that such a paper ^^m 


«w.v ■ 


written. 


cousidered, signed, and pi-omulgated, is ^^M 


«".'■ : 


IS WL-Il L 


'Mtablished as is any event in our history, ^^j 



It i« known, moreover, that Colonel Thomas Polk 

originated the niea.-ure, and tliat the Declaration it- 
self wa.s from the pen of Dr. Ephraim lirevard. 

1 pass to s|)eak of the political condition ol' South 
Carolina. The statements in the first edition of this 
work exjKt.'sed me to much reproach as a <!;entleman, 
and to sharp criticisms as a student of history- On 
the discovery of a single but grave error,' — which 1 
took pains in my corre.-^pondence North and South to 

I 1 sal<i ... "it is lianlly aii oxi.gv'f >■•''•">" 'o ail'i. tlial nioiL- Wliigs 
of Now Kii<t1,iiii1 were Hunt to tier uid, aixl now tic liurit-rl in lier soil, 
tliuii eliu etint Irom it tu tvory si-unu ot' sirifu I'rom I.exin^'Ion lo York- 
tuwn." Thu liu'l, lian'i:vi'i-. i:i, llial nu troops buloiiiiiiig lo Sew l':i)<,'1ariil 
went to ^outli Carolina, nor, as I'ar as I know, soulli of dm country alHHit 
the JaiHi's Hiver, in Vii-jjinia. The toiiiiuon O[iinioii is otlierwiae. Even 
Mr. Webslcr.in Ilia rtu«|itioii.speeuh at Cl.iirle»lon, reniark.-d that, "Nuw 
Eii^lanil blood tias moi^lentil ih'.' soil whcrir wi; now stand, sliuJ a-i ri.>aii- 
ilv a-- at r,c-xington, or font-ord, or Bunltt-r Hill." .Again, at Snvwmoh. 
■' Tlic bloo<i ol' New En^lanil, in licr turn, was (I'fely iioured out u[ioii 
Soullicrn soil, and lii'r sons f<.ooi\ ^houldirr (o sliouldor with llio^^e ol* tit'or- 
gia in tlie <jonnnon i-ausR-" Still a^'Hin. llie Hon. B. F. Hunt, in address- 
in<; Mr. AVebsler, at Clmrkslon, said, " Ei-eri/ ballU-_field nf nur Stale 
eonlains hfiiealh its sor! //»■ /.onrs o/ Xem Knijlamf men, icho/etl in ile/enct 
of the South." Wubultr's Works, vol. 2, pp. 377, 38U, 403, 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 39 

correct, — and in 1848, soon after the attack of the 
" Southern Quarterly Review," I examined my princi- 
pal authorities anew; and I performed the same duty 
in 1856, immediately after reading the speech of 
Mr. Keitt in the House of Representatives, and the 
speeches of Messrs. Evans and Butler in the Senate 
of the United States.^ I did not try to make out a 
case against South Carolina ; nor do I believe that 
candid readers have ever pronounced my strictures 
upon her delinquencies more severe than those which 
I uttered against the several — though quite differ- 
ent — faults and crimes of Massachusetts herself I 
did, indeed, detest the heresy of " Nullification " with 
all my heart, and as I now abhor the damnable doc- 
trine of " Secession ; " but still felt to do as exact 
justice to the State of Laurens, — father and son, 
— of Gadsen, of Sumter, of Moultrie, and Pickens 
and Marion, and other noble Whigs, — as exact jus- 
tice to South Carolina as to my own native New 
Hampshire. And besides, I remembered in 1847, as 
I shall still endeavor to bear in mind, that the com- 
mand, " Thou shalt not bear false witness against 
thy neighbor," is obligatory at all times and under 
all circumstances. 

All honor to South Carolina, for the band of Whigs 
who favored the dismembeniient of the British em- 
pire at an early day ; all honor, for being the first of 
the Thirteen States to frame an independent constitu- 
tion ; all honor, for the payment of $1,205,978 more 
than her proportion of the expenses of the war; 

* See Southern Quarterly Review, July and October numbers, 1848 ; 
and tlie Speeches, Congressional Globe, 1st Session, 34th Congress, pp. 625, 
702, 833. 



40 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

and all honor, for her mercy, at the close of the 
struggle, to the unhappy, the ruined adherents to 
the crown. 

And now I reaffirm, that South Carolina, at first, 
and for about half a century, was a proprietary gov- 
ernment, and, like Pennsylvania, was a sort of mon 
archy in miniature ; that, in 1719, the people abol- 
ished this form, took from the proprietors the power 
of appointing the governor, and erected a temporary 
republic ; that, two years after, a regal government 
was established which continued until the Revolution. 
I again say, that, in all the essential features, the 
British constitution was the mod^l, and that, of con- 
sequence, the institutions of South Carolina were 
thoroughly monarchical. 

The public men of that State, of the present gen- 
eration, claim that her patriotic devotion in the Rev- 
olution was inferior to none, and superior to most, of 
the States of the confederacy ; and I again aver that, 
as I have examined the evidence, it was not so. The 
great body of the people were emigrants from Swit^ 
zerland, Germany, France, Great Britain, and the 
Northern Colonies of America, and their descend- 
ants ; and were opposed to a separation from the 
mother country. I renew the accusation, that she 
failed to meet the requisitions of Congress for troops 
to the extent of her ability ; and repeat, that her 
remissness compares sadly, sadly enough, with the 
enlistments elsewhere, especially in New England. 

Charleston was the great mart of the South, and, 
as Boston still is, the centre of the export and import 
trade of a large population. In grandeur, in splendor 
of buildings, in decorations, in equipages, in shipping, 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 41 

and in commerce, that city was equal to any in Amer- 
ica. I reaffirai, that, with troops from other States to 
aid her. South Carolina could not, or would not, save 
her owiv capital ; that, so general was the defection 
after the capitulation by Lincoln, persons who had 
refiLsed to enlist under the Whig banner, flocked 
to the royal standard by hundreds ; that those who 
had enjoyed Lincoln's confidence and participated in 
his councils, bowed their necks anew to the yoke of 
colonial vassalage ; that Sir Henry Clinton considered 
the triumph complete, and informed the ministry that 
the whole State had submitted to the royal anns, and 
had become again a part of the empire ; that, to the 
women of South Carolina, and to Marion, Sumter, and 
Pickens, — who kept the field without the promise 
of men, money, or supplies, — it was owing that Sir 
Henr^'^'s declaration proved untrue, and that the spirit 
and name of liberty did not become utterly extinct. 

I reaffimi, that the Whigs and their opponents did 
not always meet in open and fair fight, nor give and 
take the courtesies, and observe the rules, of civilized 
warfare ; but that, on the contrary, they murdered 
one another ! General Greene and Chief- Justice 
Marshall are my authorities. ^'The animosities be- 
tween the Whigs and Tories," wrote the first, " ren- 
der their situation truly deplorable. The Whigs 
seem determined to extirpate the Tories, and the 
Tories the Whigs. Some thousands have fallen in 
this way in this quarter, and the evil rages with more 
violence than ever. If a stop cannot be put to these 
massacres, the country will be depopulated in a few 
months, as neither Whig nor Tory can live." " The 
people of the South," remarks the eminent jurist, 

4* 



i 



42 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

in his Life of Washington, "felt all the miseries 
which are inflicted by war in its most savage form. 
Being almost equally divided between the two con- 
tending parties, reciprocal injuries had gradually 
sharpened their resentments against each other, and 
had armed neighbor against neighbor, until it had 
become a war of extermination. As the parties al- 
ternately triumphed, opportunities were alternately 
given for the exercise of their vindictive passions." 
And I state here, as in the first edition, that it werei 
a hard task to determine, by an examination of the 
accounts of the time, which party perpetrated the 
greatest barbarities ; and that, whatever the guilt of 
the Tories, the Whigs disgraced the cause and the 
American name. 

And while I thus retain the substance of the origi- 
nal averments against South Carolina, — the grave 
error once mentioned excepted, — and while, too, I 
insert the obnoxious Table ^ of the " Continentals " 
furnished by the several States, in a new form but 
without alteration as relates to results, I add, that 
though the battles of Fort Moultrie, of Stono, of the 
Siege of Charleston, of Camden, of Hanging Rock, of 
Musgrove's Mill, of Blackstock's, of Georgetown, of 
Black Wings, of Cowpens, of Fish-Dam Ford, of Nine- 
ty-Six, of Fort Galpin, of Fort Watson, of Fort Mott, 
of Hobkirk!§ Hill, of Granby, of Cedar Spring, of 
Hammond's Store, of Quimby, of Eutaw, of Rocky 

1 CONTINENTAL ARMY. 

In 1790, Greneral Henry Knox, Secretary of War, communicated to 
Congress a Report of " Troops, including Militia, furnished by the several 
States, during the War of the Revolution," from which I have compiled 
the following Table. As relates to the " Regulars," he remarks, that the 
numbers are " stated from the official returns deposited in the War Office, 



\ 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 



4S 



Mount, of Port Royal, of Tulafinny, of Coosahatchie, 
of Waxhaw, of Cloud's Creek, of Hay's Station, of 

and ** may be depended upon." The army of the Northern Department 
was discharged November 6th, 1783, and of the Southern States, ju8t ten 
days later. 



Stote. 



Number of T roops Funiit^hed. 
Year 1776. 



New Hampohire 
Massachusetts . . . 
Rhode Island . . . 
Connecticut .... 

New York 

New Jersey • • • • 
Pennsylvania.. . 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina. . 
South Carolina. . 
Georgia 



2,824 
16,444 
1,193 
4,607 
2,076 

400 



27,443 



Year 1776. 

8,019 
13,372 

798 
6,390 
3,629 
3,193 
6,519 

609 

637 
6,181 
1434 
2,069 

361 



46,901 



In September, 1776, quotas were fixed by Congress for three years, or 
duriuiF the war. 



State. 



Quota Required. Troops Furnished. 



I Strength 
or Conti 



New Hampshire • • 


1 10,194 


Massachusetts 


52,728 


Rhode Island . ' • • • 


6,694 


Connecticut 


28,336 


New York 


16,734 


New Jersey 


11,396 


Pennsylvania 


40,416 


Delaware 


8,974 


Maryland ....... 


26,608 


\ 1tVTIil1& ...•••«»■ 


48,622 


? irglllla .....•••• 


North Carolina * • • 


23,994 


South Carolina * * • 


16,932 


Georgia 


3,974 



of the Regular 
nental Array. 



Year. 



Troops. 



288,602 

Add Continental Troops for yeai 

1775 

Add Continental Troops for yeai 

1776 : :... 



6,653 


1776 


27,443 


88,091 


1776 


: 46,901 


3,917 


1777 


' 34,820 


21,142 


1778 


32,899 


12,077 


1779 


27,694 


7,534 


1780 


21,016 


19,689 


1781 


13,292 


1,778 


1782 


14,256 


18,275 


1783 


13,476 


20,491 






6,129 






4,348 






2,328 







157,462 

27,443 

46,901 



231,796 



231,796 



It thus appears that the number of Continental troops from New Kug- 
land, was 118,350; from the Middle States, 64,116, and from the South- 



44 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

Kettle Creek, and of Iluck's Defeat, — I add, that 
though these battles, thirty in all, were fought within 
the limits of South Carolina, the Tories were not 
subjugated ; but, on the other hand, after the fall of 
Charleston and until the peace were ih the ascend- 
ant. 

A word, finally, respecting the alleged attempt of 
South Carolina " to secede " when Charleston was in- 
vested by the British general, Prevost. The explana- 
tion of late years is, that the proposition was a mere 
artifice to gain time. If the fact is so, how strange 
that Henry Lee, a Virginian, an officer in service, 
and an intelligent observer and chronicler of mili- 
tary events, — how strange that he did not know it? 
lie records, in his ^'History of the War m the South," 
that, after a day's negotiation to adjust terms of sur- 
render, "the correspondence closed with the pro- 
posal, on our part, of neutrality to the town and 
State during the war, — the peace to fix its ultimate 
condition." Again, in commenting upon Prevost's 
rejection of this cliivalrous overture to desert the Con- 
federacy : " No British force would have been retained 

ern States, 5D,330. So, too, it appears that Massachusetts furnished 
G7,907, and 13,791 more than the aggregate from New York, New Jer- 
se)',and Pennsylvania, and 8,577 more than the aggregate from Delaware, 
Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia. The accu- 
racy of this Table has been disputed. Some inquirers suppose that 
231,796 different individuals enlisted, forgetting that the army, when the 
strongest, consisted of only 46,901 men, and that, as is well known, the 
same soldier reenlisted once, twice, and in some cases, thrice, and in the 
aggregate of 231,796, is counted accordingly. Again, other persons are 
sceptical as to the existence of General Knox*s Report ; such are referred 
to the History of Congress, where it is recorded that it was submitted to 
that body. May 11, 1790, and to the 12th vol. p. 14, of the American 
Stale Papers^ folio edition, where it is inserted entire. I respectfully re- 
quest those who have questioned my figures, to examine for themselves. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 45 

from the field to preserve the neutral State ; and the 
sweets of peace, with the allurements of British com- 
merce, would probably have woven a connection with 
Great Britain, fatal in its consequences to the inde- 
pendence of the Southern States." Thus early, if 
we miiy believe Lee, was the germ of " Secession," — 
thus early the germ of the war which is now waged 
against a government so gentle, so motherly even, as 
never to have roughly, unjustly touched -the hair of 
a cotton-planter's head. 

Georgia, the remaining Colony, was in its infancy, 
and Oglethorpe, its founder, lived until after it became 
an independent State. The designs of himself and 
his associates in its settlement, were highly benevo- 
lent and generous ; and the public purse contributed 
a considerable sum to aid their undertaking. By 
their charter, the king was to model the government 
at the end of tw enty-one years ; and accordingly, in 
1752, at the expiration of this period, a royal gov- 
ernment was established similar to that in the Caro- 
linas, which existed until the Revolution. Georgia 
sent no delegates to the first Continental Congress ; 
and that she was represented in the second, was 
owing, I am led to conclude, principally to the zeal 
and exertions of Lyman Hall, a native of Connecti- 
cut, who, having graduated at Yale College and fitted 
himself for the practice of medicine, removed to Sun- 
bury. His ardor in the Whig cause exposed him to 
the indignation of his opponents, and after the royal 
army penetrated Georgiji, his property was seized 
and confiscated. The Rev. Dr. Zubly, another of the 
delegates, proved himself unworthy of confidence, 
and lost his estate at the hands of his former friends 



i 



46 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

and tossociates. To form a party of " liberty -men " 
within the borders of Georgia, to organize this party 
and commit it in favor of the " rebellion/' which wa8 
fast lijistening to " treason " and Revolution in other 
parts of the continent, was attended with difficiUty, 
and required time and labor. But such a party finally 
existed and acted ; and the American Confederacy 
was thus completed. 

Though overrun by the king's troops, and governed 
by military law during a considerable part of the 
war, Georgia overpaid her quota of money in a small 
sum, and furnished 2,679 men for the Continental 
service. If, then, it be considered, that her popula- 
tion was small, her resources limited ; that Sir James 
Wright, the last royal governor, was an able and 
popular man, and rallied a considerable body of Loy- 
alists ; and that, in the course of events, the Whigs 
were compelled to flee into the neighboring States 
for safetv, — her efforts and sacrifices are entitled to 
commendation.^ 

From this rapid survey of the Thirteen Colonies, it 
has appeared that the adherents of the crown were 

• * Georj^ia was, however, regarded as highly loyal. One of the ablest 
and best in formed of the loyalists, thus speaks : *' Georgia had not only 
been recovered out of the hands of the insurgents, in 1779, but the prov- 
ince was put at the peace of the king by his Majesty's Commissioners, and 
the king's civil government restored, and all the loyal inhabitants required 
by proclamation to return to their settlements, and an Assembly called, 
and actually subsisting, and all the civil ofHcers in the exercise of their 
functions, when onlers came in 1782, to evacuate the country, and deliver 
it up to the rebels, which was done accordingly, without any stipulation in 
favor of the attainted loyalists, or their confiscated properties, although 
the rebel force in that country was so inconsiderable, that the Loyalists 
offered to the L'inf/'s general to preserve the prorince for his MajeMy^ if 
he icouhl leare them a single regiment of foot ^ and the * Georgia Rangers* 
to assifl them,*^ 



raSTORICAL ESSAY. 47 

more numerous at the Soutli, and in Pennsylvania 
and New York, than in New England. Neither in 
the regulations of the crown, nor in the enactments 
of parliament^ had there been much either to offend 
the feelings or check the industry of the planters and 
agriculturists. Towards the -Colonies that sold raw 
produce, the policy of the mother country had been 
mild, perhaps liberal. They were the Round-heads, 
and not the Cavaliers, who met her upon the ocean 
and in the workshop; hence, it was to them that she 
showed the most odious features of the Colonial sys- 
tem. But taunted, for a century and a half, with the 
heresy of their faith, and impeded in all their enter- 
prises ever after the death of Cromwell, the people 
of the North were driven to invoke the sympathy of 
their Colonial brethren whose religion and pursuits 
had been the more favored objects of her regard ; and 
when their joint appeals to her justice and magnan- 
imity failed to shake her puq)oses, then, by the union 
of counsel, arms, and effort, all the Colonies together 
broke from her dominion. If, therefore, the war of 
the Revolution had its origin in a long course of ag- 
gre.ssion upon the rights of the North, its successful 
issue was due in some measure to the more meri- 
torious, because more disinterested, exertions of the 
South. If, too, this course of aggression gradually 
(liflused a spirit of resistance throughout the country, 
so that Episcopal and monarchical Virginia at last fur- 
nished a commander for the Puritan and Republican 
soldiers of Massachusetts, the conclusion becomes 
irresistible, that the wrongs which united men of so 
different charactei-s and pui'suits, were far too deep 
and grave to be excused or extenuated. 



48 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 



The examiiiiition, now completed, of the politict 
cnnilition of t\w Colonies, aiitJ of the state of parties, I 
leails to the conclusion that the number of our coun- J 
trymen who wished to continue their connection with I 
the mother country waa very large. In nearly every] 
Ivoyjillst leltcr or other paper which I have examined^ 
ami in wliioh tiie subject is mentioned, it is either.-! 
assunieil or stiifed in terms, that the loi/al were the n 
jorify ; and this opinion, I am satisfied, was ver}' geiNj 
eniliy entertained by those who professed to have ft.l 
knowledi,'e of i)ublic sentiment. That the adherente. J 
of the ciown were mistaken, in this particular, is cei^-j 
tain. 



CHAPTER V. 

Newspapers in the Thirteen Colonies. Political Writers, Whip; and Loy- 
alist, North and South. Seminaries of Li^arning. Condition of the 
Press, &C., at the Revolutionary Era. Means for diffusing Knowledge 
limited. 

Op the thirty-seven newspapers which were pub- 
lished in the Colonies, in April, 1775, if the result of 
my inquiries be correct, seven or eight were in the 
interest of the crown, and twenty-three were devoted 
to the service of the Whigs. Of these thirty-seven, 
however, one on each side had little or no part in dis- 
cussing the great questions at issue, as they were es- 
tablished only in the preceding month of January ; 
and of those which did participate in these discus- 
sions and maintain the right, no less than five went 
over to the Loyalists in the course of the war. Of 
the number first named, two were printed in German, 
and one in German and English ; and, as another of 
the thirty-seven was commenced in April, there were, 
in fact, but thirty-one newspapers in the vernacular 
tongue at the close of 1774. Up to the beginning of 
the strife, printing had been confined to the capitals 
or principal towns ; but hostile deeds, interfering with 
all employments, caused the removal of some of the 
public journals to places more remote, and were the 
means of interrupting or wholly discontinuing the 
publication of others. Those that existed at the pe- 

VOL. I. 5 



50 fflSTORICAL ESSAY. 

riod of which we are speaking, were very unequally 
distributed ; thus Maryland, Virginia, the two Caro- 
linas, and Georgia, taken together, had but one more 
than Pennsylvania, and but three more than Massa- 
chusetts. In New Hampshire, the " Gazette " was 
alone ; while Rhode Island had both a " Gazette " and 
a " Mercury." Of the editors and proprietors who 
originally opposed the right, or became converts to 
the wrong, several sought refuge in Nova Scotia and 
New Brunswick, where they established newspapers, 
which were the first published in these Colonies. 

From what has now been said, it is evident that a 
very considerable proportion of the professional and 
editorial intelligence and talents of the Thirteen Col- 
onies was arrayed against the popular movement 
This volume contains notices of more than two hun- 
dred persons who were educated at Harvard College, 
or some other American or foreign institution of learn- 
ing ; and could the whole number of Loyalists who 
received college honors be ascertained, it would be 
found, probably, that the list is far from being com- 
plete. It was alleged, however, by a distinguished 
adherent of the crown in New Jersey, that " most of 
the colleges had been the grand nurseries of the re- 
bellion ; " and, in a plan which he submitted for the 
government of the Colonies after the suppression of 
the revolt, he proposed to check their pernicious in- 
fluence by introducing several reforms. But if, in 
connection with the facts above named, it be con- 
sidered that, in 1761, there were but six colleges in 
America, and only nine at the commencement of hos- 
tilities, we shall hardly find reason to believe that the 
loyal had cause to complain of them. It is $aid, on 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 61 

what appears to be good authority, that, as late as 
1746, there were but fifteen liberally educated per- 
sons in the whole Colony of New York. The in- 
crease between that period and the Revolution could 
not have been very considerable ; and, of the number 
named, several were alive in 1776, and belonged to 
the ministerial party. But whatever was the relative 
strength of the two parties in the single particular 
of graduates of colleges, the Whigs far exceeded their 
opponents in effective writers. Among the newspar 
per essayists in Massachusetts, on the royal side, were 
Joseph Green, a wag and a wit ; Samuel Waterhouse, 
an officer of the customs, who was stigmatized as the 
^ most notorious scribbler and libeller " of the time ; 
Lieutenant-Governor Oliver ; Jonathan Sewall ; and 
Daniel Leonard. The last wrote a series of papers 
entitled " Massachusettensis," and had John Adams 
for his antagonist, over the signature of " Npv-Ang- 
liis." Mr. Adams attributed these papers to his friend 
Sewall, but the fact that Leonard was the author is 
now well established. None of these '* government- 
men " were so effective, as popular writers, as Samuel 
Adams, and his single pen was probably a match for 
them all. Hutchinson was so annoyed by his pecul- 
iar tact, and his power to agitate and move the public 
mind, as to declare that, of all persons known to 
him, he was the most successful " in robbing men of 
their characters." But, besides the two Adamses, 
James Otis was the author of four political tracts, 
and Oxenbridge Thacher, Chauncy, and Cooper were 
continually transmitting their thoughts in popular 
forms ; while Josiah Quincy, junior, often gave his 
countrymen the effusions of his rich, pure, and clas- 



62 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

sical mind, and his " Observations on the Boston Port 
Bill " is to be regarded not only as a clear and cogent 
political essay, but as a finished specimen of the lit- 
erature of the period. 

Among the Loyalists of New York who contrib- 
uted to the press, were the Rev. Samuel Chandler, 
the Rev. John Vardill, and Isaac Wilkins. The oppo- 
nent of the latter was the youthful Hamilton.* In 
the South, I am disposed to conclude that the crown 
commanded no writer of ability except Daniel Du- 
lany, the attorney-general of Maryland, who was in 
the field against Charles Carroll. I know of no min- 
isterial writer in Virginia. Those on the Whig side 
were, it is believed, limited to three; namely, JeflFer- 
son, Richard Bland, and Arthur Lee. Some of the 
popular leaders in the planting Colonies conducted 
an extensive correspondence, but others seem to have 
been almost silent^ It is somewhat remarkable, that 
the only editor and best biographer of Washington 
found, or has preserved, but three letters in which the 
disputes that agitated the country are incidentally 
mentioned; and but three others in which the subjects 
in controversy are fully and explicitly discussed. At 
the North it was essentially dijBFerent, and the letters 
of Massachusetts Whigs contain full and valuable ma- 
terials for history. 

In concluding the topic, it may be remarked ; that> 
while the number of the highest seminaries of learn- 
ing was small, the other means of disseminating 



1 Hamilton's own sympathies were at first on the royal side, as he him- 
self admtts in his reply to Wilkins ; and his biographer relates that a 
visit to Boston changed the current of his thoughts ; I may add, — the 
'whole course of his life. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 68 

knowledge were extremely limited. It suited the 
views of the mother country to keep the Colonial 
press shackled ; and it seems hardly credible that 
the accomplished Addison, when a minister of state, 
should have directed the governors in America to 
allow of no publications and of no printing, without 
license. For a considerable period the most rigid 
censorship prevailed in the Colonies, and even alma- 
nacs were subject to examination.^ The result of this 
state of things was, that, prior to the Revolution, most 
of the books were imported from England. As in 



1 In 1719 it was deemed necessary to obtain a license from Governor 
Shute, to publish a pamphlet upon the very harmless subject of providing; 
Boston with market-houses, of which the town was then destitute. The 
pulpit was, however, free, and Dr. Colman preached a sermon the same 
year on ** the reasons for a market in Boston." Censorship of the news- 
papers, at this period, continued to be enforced so rigidly that, four years 
after, matter intended for publication in them was required to be examin- 
ed by the Colonial Secretary. Though no particular officer may have 
been charged with the duty of supervision later than the year 1730, a 
publisher was sent to prison in 1 754, upon suspicion of having printed re- 
marks derogatory to some members of the Colonial government. 

It may not be without interest to show what was thought of the freedom 
of the newspaper press fifty years ago. In February, 1812, the attorney- 
general and solicitor-general of Massachusetts state, in an official report 
to Governor Gerry, that, in their judgment, there had appeared in the 
Boston papers, since the preceding first of June, no less than two hundred 
and fjly-three libellous articles^ to wit: in The Scourge, ninety-nine ; The 
Cenfinel, fifty-one; The Repertory, thirty-four; The Gazette, thirty-eight; 
The Palladium, eighteen ; The Messenger, one; The Chronicle, eight; and 
77ic Patriot, nine ; while in The Yankee there had been none. The re- 
port gives the dates of the papers, and divides the libellous matter into 
two kinds: that in which the truth could be, and that in which it could not 
be, given in evidence to justify the party accused. These law-officers state, 
moreover, that their examinations had not embraced complete files of all 
these prints; and that they had not included in their list calumnious pub- 
lications against foreign governments or distinguished foreigners, nor libels 
of the editorial brethren against each other. It appears that the inquiry 
instituted at his Excellency's request. 
6» 



54 HISTORICAL ESSAT. 

other respects, however, the statute-book was some- 
times disobeyed while this system was in force, and 
works were published which bore the English imprint^ 
and which closely resembled the English copies used 
in the publication. Besides, provision for educating 
the people was seldom made, and reading and writing 
in some sections of the country were " rare accom- 
plishments." The system of free-schools in New Eng- 
land, of schools to be ordained and continually main- 
tained by law, was established at an early period; but 
in Virginia, it is believed education was never a sub- 
ject of legislation, during the whole course of her 
Colonial existence. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Political Divisions in Colonial Society. Most of those in Office adhered 
to the Crown. Charge of the Loyalists that the Whigs were mere 
needy Place-Hunters, answered. Loyalist Clergymen, Lawyers, and 
Physicians. 

We enter now upon a brief inquiry to show the 
divisions in the different classes and avocations of 
Colonial society. And first, those who held office. 
Neariy all the officials of all grades adhered to the 
crown. This was to have been expected. Men who 
lived in ease, who enjoyed all the consideration and 
deference which rank and station invariably confer, 
especially in monarchies, and who, therefore, had noth- 
ing to gain, but much to lose, by a change, viewed 
the dissensions that arose between themselves and 
the people, in a light which allowed their self-love and 
their self-interest to have full play. "They were ap- 
pointed and sworn to execute the laws, and, in obeying 
the instructions of the ministry at home to enforce 
the statutes of the realm, they did but perform com- 
mon acts of duty." These were the arguments, and 
they were neither the first nor the last persons in of- 
fice who have reasoned in the same manner, and who 
have kept their places at the expense of their patriot- 
ism. Besides, they affected to believe that the Whig 
leaders were mere needy office-hunters, and that the 
contests between them were in some measure per- 
sonal. The descendants of Loyalists, whose homes 



66 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

are across our northeastern border, in conversations 
with citizens of the republic continue to repeat the 
tale. They have been answered, that, were the charge 
true, ovr fathers were still the more patriotic of the 
two ; since, upon this issue, it would seem that theirSy 
who were the fat and sleek possessors, would not give 
up the much-coveted stations to the lean and hungry 
expectants and claimants, even to preserve the Brit- 
ish empire from dismemberment. It has been said, 
too, that if it be admitted that the younger Otis ac- 
tually did vow he would set Massachusetts in flames, 
though he should perish in the fire, because his father 
was not appointed to a vacant and promised judge- 
ship ; that, as has been alleged, John Adams was at a 
loss which side to take, and became a " rebel " because 
he was refused a commission in the peace; that 
Samuel Adams was a defaulting collector of taxes, 
and paid up his arrears of money in abuse of honest 
men ; that, as his enemies say, Hancock possessed 
neither stability nor principle, and that wounded van- 
ity caused his opposition to the king's servants ; that 
Joseph Warren was a broken man, and sought, amid 
the turmoils of civic strife, to better his condition ; 
that Washington was soured because he was not re- 
tained in the British aiTny, in reward for his services 
in the French war ; that the Lees were all unsound 
men, and that Richard Henry was disappointed in not 
receiving the office of stamp distributor, which he 
solicited ; thrtt Franklin was vexed at the opposition 
to his great land-projects and plans for settlements on 
the Ohio ; and that a large majority of the prominent 
Whigs of every Colony were young men who had 
their fortunes to make, and distinction to win, — that^ 



I 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 67 

if all this be admitted, what then ? The argument is 
as two-edged as the first, and, though it be granted 
that one side of the blade wounds the Whigs, the 
other still cuts deep the Tories. For, upon this 
ground it may be asked, what claim to perpetuity 
had the institutions which denied to a man like John 
Adams the humble place of a justice of the peace ; 
and to George Washington, an opportunity to display 
his qualities of character on the great field which the 
Being who made him intended for him ? And if the 
thought ever obtruded itself upon John Marshall, 
that, by living and dying a Colonist^ he should live 
and die undistinguished and without leaving his name 
in his country's annals, I know not that the emotion 
was blamable. The destiny marked out for Awn, was 
to found the jurisprudence of a nation ; and has the 
world been the loser because he fulfilled it ? 

The children of the Loyalists, though thus met, 
complain because the offices, at the close of the con- 
flict, passed from the " old families " into the hands of 
** upstarts.'' It has been replied to this, that, revolu- 
tion or no revolution, it was high time the persons 
stigmatized as " upstarts " had a share of the royal 
patronage : first, to break up the practice of bestow- 
ing upon the son, however unworthy or incompetent, 
the place held by the father ; and, secondly, to intro- 
duce faithfulness and responsibility, and to dismiss 
arrogant and disobliging incumbents. 

The allegations thus noticed are proved, as those 
who make them sagely imagine, by the fact that the 
Whigs, at the peace, received the executive chairs of 
the several States, the judgeships, the coUectorships, 
the great law-offices, and other public situations, pre- 



58 raSTORICAL ESSAY. 

viously held by their opponents. This argument in 
sufficient to disturb the gravity of a man who never 
smiled in his life; and yet it is sometimes soberly 
urged by the intelligent and well informed, and en- 
forced in strong and impassioned tones. 

But, it is time to inquire, what became of the 
office-holders whom the Revolution expelled? Did 
they, did the adherents of the crown, generally, 
evince an unconquerable aversion to public employ- 
ment, after their retirement or banishment from the 
United States ? The answer to these questions will 
be found in these pages. It will be seen, that they 
not only filled all the principal offices in the present 
British Colonies, but that their places descended to 
their sons, connections, and relatives. In no point 
! of view, then, are the Loyalists entitled to become the 
accusers of the Whigs ; since it is the innocent only 
who can properly cast stones at the offending or the 
faulty. Nor is it to be overlooked, that offices under 
the British crown are, in many respects, of the nature 
of life-estates or life-annuities; since the practice which 
prevailed in the " old thirteen," of perpetuating offi- 
cial distinctions in families, still continues to a verv 
great extent, and since, too, while places are not 
thus lost and won at every turn of the political wheel 
as with us, the salaries, fees, and emoluments are 
much greater than are paid either under our state 
or national government^!. Instead, therefore, of our 
being compelled to defend the Whigs against the 
charge of undue or of improper love of office, the 
Loyalists, and those of their descendants who repeat 
their fathers' accusations, are to be turned upon in 
quiet good nature, and h be put upon their <nvn defence. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 59 

Our attention, now, will be directed to the profes- 
sional classes. It has often been asserted that nearly- 
all the clergy were Whigs. The truth of this may 
admit of a doubt ; since most of those of the Episco- 
pal faith not only espoused the adverse side, but 
abandoned their flocks and the country. I need not 
say, that, at the period of the Revolution, the clergy 
pos.sessed vast influence. In the early settlement of 
the country, as is well known, the duty of the minis- 
ters was not confined to instructions in things spirit- 
ual, but embraced matters of temporal concern ; and, 
on questions of pressing public exigency, their coun- 
sel and advice were eagerly sought and implicitly 
followed. This deference to their office and to their 
real or supposed wisdom, though less general than at 
former periods, had not ceased ; and clergymen, both 
Whigs and Tories, often made a recruiting house of 
the sanctuary. Some of those of both parties disre- 
garded the obligations of Christian charity, and sacri- 
ficed their kindly affections as men, in their earnest 
appeals from the pulpit. Generally, the minister and 
his people were of the same party ; but there were 
still some memorable divisions and quarrels, separa- 
tions, and dismissions. 

We pass to members of the bar. I incline to be- 
lieve that a majority of the lawyers were Whigs, and 
for several reasons. First, because in the course of 
my researches I have found but comparatively few 
who adhered to the crown; secondly, because of the 
well-known fact, that a large part of the speakers 
and advocates on the popular side were educated to 
the law ; and, thirdly, because one of the objects of 
the "Stamp Act" was to drive from the profession 



60 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

those members of it who annoyed the royal govern- 
ors and other officials, and who, as a member of the 
House of Commons said, were mere " pettifoggers." 
Besides, many gentlemen of the bar, on being retained 
by the merchants, became impressed with the enor- 
mities of the commercial code, and, in advocating the 
cause of clients who claimed to continue their con- 
traband trade on the ground of usage and prescrip- 
tion, they were impelled to follow the example of 
Otis, and to take the lofty stand that commerce 
should be, and, on principles of justice, really was, as 
open and as free to British subjects in the New World, 
as it was to those in the Old. 

Still, the ministry had their partisans among the 
barristers-at-law, and some of them were persons of 
great professional eminence. In fact, the " giants of 
the law " in the Colonies were nearly all Loyalists. 
As in the case of the clergy, many of them were 
driven into exile. Several entered the military ser- 
vice of the crown, and raised and commanded coitt- 
panics, battalions, and even regiments. At the 
peace, a few returned to their former abodes and 
pursuits ; but the greater number passed the re- 
mainder of their lives either in England, or in her 
present possessions in America. The anti-revolu- 
tionary bar of Massachusetts and New York fur- 
nished the admiralty and common-law courts of New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Canada, and the Bermudas, 
with many of their most distinguished judges. 

The physicians who adhered to the crown were 
numerous, and the proportion of Whigs in the pro- 
fession of medicine was less, probably, than in either 
that of law or theology. But^ unlike persons of the 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 61 

latter callings, most of the physicians remained in 
the country, and quietly pursued their business. 
There seems to have been an understanding that, 
though pulpits should be closed, and litigation be 
suspended, the sick should not be deprived of their 
regular and freely chosen medical attendants. I have 
been surprised to find, from verbal communications 
and from various other sources, that, while the " Tory 
doctors " were as zealous and as fearless in the ex- 
pression of their sentiments as " Tory ministers " and 
" Tory barristers," their persons and property were 
generally respected in the towns and villages, where 
little or no regard was paid to the bodies and estates 
of gentlemen of the robe and the surplice.^ Some, 
however, were less fortunate, and the dealings of the 
" sons of liberty " were occasionally harsh and ex- 
ceedingly vexatious. A few of the Loyalist physi- 
cians were banished ; others, and those chiefly who 
became surgeons in the army or provincial corps, set- 
tled in New Brunswick or Nova Scotia, where they 
resumed practice. 

I Since writing this passage, I have met more than once with the sug- 
gestion, that the physicians owed their safety to " the exigencies of the 
ladies." 



▼OL.I. 



CHAPTER VII. 

The Reasons given for Adherence to the Crown. The Published Declar- 
ations of the Whigs that they wished for a Redress of Wrongs and the 
Restoration of Ancient Privileges, as found in ** Novanglus/' Rapid 
Statement of Colonial Disabilities, which the Whig Leaders hardly men- 
tioned in the Controversy, and which appear embodied for the fii*st time 
in the Declaration of Independence. Denials of Whig Leaders, North 
and South, that they designed at the Beginning of the Controversy to 
separate from England. Reasons of the Loyalists for the Course 
adopted by them, Concluded. 

The concluding number of '* Novanglus," by John 
Adams, was sent to press only two days before the 
shedding of blood at Lexington, and we are to con- 
sider it as an authorized exposition of the avowed 
sentiments of the Whig leaders. But yet, its aim is 
limited to a degree that has often caused me to muse, 
and to ask, — Why were discussions on the subject 
of Colonial inabilities so carefully avoided ? 

The private and the professional life of Mr. Adams 
afford us a fair illustration of these disabilities; and 
why did he not once mention them ? 

If his horse flung a shoe, the stinging, insulting 
declaration of Pitt, that an American could not, of 
right, make so much as the nails required to set it, 
rung in his ears. If he entered the Court of Admi- 
ralty to defend the "smuggler^" or illicit traders, 
who were prosecuted by the Crown officers, he was 
reminded that his countrymen were forbidden by 



raSTORICAL ESSAY. 68 

statute to make a voyage to Asia or Africa, to South 
America, to all the foreign islands in the Caribbean 
Sea, to nearly all continental Europe, or even to Ire- 
land, on pain of confiscation of ship and cargo. If 
he bought a hat, the legislation against Colonial, and 
in favor of British, hatters, occurred to him. If, in 
journeying to the courts of Massachusetts and Maine, 
he passed waterfalls running to waste, he mused upon 
the acts of Parliament which secured the Colonial 
market in monopoly to the manufacturers of Man- 
chester. If he entered a public office, he met the 
pampered functionaries who, " English bom," or mem- 
bers of the "old families," held their places by life 
tenures, and by descent from father to son. If he 
walked the streets, the chariots of the high officers 
of the customs, sent over to revive obsolete, and to 
enforce new, laws of trade, rolled in grandeur by him. 
If he had traffic with his neighbor, he was compelled 
to remember that, while the mother-country drained 
all America of coin, the Board of Trade — a curse to 
the New England Colonies from beginning to end — 
had suggested, and Pairliament had enacted, not 
amendments in the manner of emitting and redeem- 
ing a p.aper currency, as bound to do, but its sup- 
pression: Nor, if he read the speeches of British 
Whigs, did his keen eye see more in behalf of his 
country than an opposition to particular measures, 
and to the party in power ; for there stood out in 
characters of fire, the bold, unqualified statement of 
Burke, that the sole purpose of Colonies was to be 
" serviceable " to the parent State. In a word, with 
him, and everywhere around him, were the humil- 
iating evidences that an American was, politically, 



64 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

socially, and commercially, the inferior of an English- 
man. 

If neither the author of "Novanglus" nor any other 
Whig addressed the American people on these mo- 
mentous wrongs and denials, which, for generations 
had palsied the ann of New England and had rankled 
in the universal American heart, and which, in less 
than fifteen months, were embodied — in stirring 
array — in the Declaration of Separation, the Loy- 
alists are to be excused for acting in conformity with 
the grievances stated by their opponents. 

The denial that independence was the final object, 
was constant and general. To obtain concessions and 
to preserve the connection with England, was affirmed 
everywhere ; and John Adams, years after the peace, 
went fiirther than this, for he said : — " Th£re was not 
a moment during the lievolutioii, when I would not have given 
evergihing I possessed for a restoration to the state of tilings 
before the contest hegan^ provided we could have had a siiffi- 
cierd security for its coit/inuance** If Mr. Adams be 
regarded as expressing the sentiments of the Whigs, 
theg were willing to remain Colonists, provided they 
could have had their rights secured to theui ; w^hile 
the Tories were contented thus to continue, mthotd 
such security. Such, as it appears to me, was the 
only difference between the two parties j^or to hos- 
tilities ; and many Whigs, like Mr. Adams, would have 
been willing to rescind the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, and to forget the past, upon proper guarantees 
for the future. This mode of stating the question, 
and of defining the difference between the two parties 
— down to a certaiu period, at least — cannot be ob- 
jected to, unless the sincerity and truthfulness of some 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 65 

of the most eminent men in our history are directly 
impeached ; and, if any are prepared to' dispute their 
veracity, it may still be asked, whether the Tories ought 
not to be excused for believing them. Franklin's testi- 
mony, a fefv days before the affair at Lexington, was, 
that he had " more than once travelled almost from 
one end of the continent to the other, and kept a 
variety of company, ealing, drinking, and conversing 
with them freely, [and] never had heard in any conver- 
sationfroin any person^ drunk or sober , the least expression 
of a idsh for a separation^ or a hint that such a thing umtld 
be advantageous to America'' Mr. Jay is quite as ex- 
plicit " During the course of my life," said he, " and 
until the second petition of Congress in 1775, I never 
did hear an American of any class, or of any description^ 
express a wi^h for the independence of the Colonies'' ^ It 
has always been, and still is, my opinion and belief, 
that our country was prompted and impelled to inde- 
pendence by necessity, and not by choice'' Mr. Jeffer- 
son affirmed, " What, eastward of New York, might 
have been the dispositions towards England before 
the commencement of hostilities, I know not ; but 
before thai I never heard a whisper of a disposition 
to separate from Great Britain ; and after that, its pos- 
sQnlity was co)demplated tviih affliction by all," Washing- 
ton, in 1774, fully sustains these declarations, and, in 
the "Fairfax County Resolves," it was complained, 
that " malevole^U falsehoods " were propagated by the 
ministry to prejudice the mind of the king : '' partic- 
ularly that there is an intention in the Atneriean Colonies to 
set up for independent States," Mr. Madison was not in 
public life until May, 1776, but he says, "It has 
always been my impression, that a reestablishmeiU of 



66 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

the Colonial relqiiom to the parent country^ as they were 
previous to the controversy^ was the real object of every 
class of the people, till the despair of obtaining 
it," &c.^ 

I have to repeat, that the only way to dispose of 
testimony like this, is to impeach the persons who 
have given it. I am of Whig descent, and am proud 
of my lineage. With the principles of men who, 
when it was ascertained that a redress of grievances 
could not be obtained, preferred to remain British sub- 
jects, I have neither communion nor sympathy ; and 
I may be pardoned for adding that I have watched 
the operations and tendencies of the Colonial system 
of government too long and too narrowly, modified 
as it now is, not to entertain for it the heartiest dis- 
like. Yet I would do the men who were born under 
it, and were reconciled to it, justice — simple justice ; 
and if, as Mr. Jefferson says, a ^possibility'' of the 
necessity of a separation of the two countries, " was 
contemplated with affliction by ally' and if the state- 
ments made by Franklin, Adams, Jay, Madison, and 
Washington, are to be considered as true and as deci- 
sive, I renewedly ask, what other line of difference 
existed between the Whigs and Tories, than the tenm 
on which the connection of the Colonies with England should 
be continued. 

My object in the attention bestowed on this point 
has been to remove the erroneous impression which 
seems to prevail, that the Whigs proposed^ and the 
Tories opposed independence, at the very beginning 
of the controversy. Instead of this, we have seen, 

J See Sparks* Washington, Vol. II. pp. 498, 500, 501. The italics 
are my own, except in the extract from tbe *• Fairfax County Resolves." 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 67 

that quite fourteen years elapsed before the question 
was made a party issue, and that, even then, " neces- 
sity," and not " choice," caused a dismemberment of 
the empire. Since it has appeared, therefore, from 
the highest sources, that the Whigs resolved finally 
upon revolution because they were denied the rights 
of Englishmen, and not because they disliked mon- 
archical institutions, the Tories may be relieved from 
the imputation of being the only " monarchy-men " 
of the time. 

Again, and to conclude : Intelligent loyalists, when 
asked why they adhered to the Crown, have said, 
that those who received the name of " Tories " were 
at first, indeed for some years, striving to preserve 
order and an observance of the rights of persons and 
property ; that many, who took sides at the outset as 
mere conservators of the peace, were denounced by 
those whose purposes they thwarted, and were finally 
compelled, in pure self-defence, to accept of royal 
protection, and thus to become identified with the 
royal party ever after. Again, it has been stated, 
that^ had the naked question of independence been 
discussed before minor, and in many cases, local, 
events had shaped their course, many, who were 
driven forth to live and die as aliens and outcasts, 
would have terminated their career far differently ; 
that many were opposed to war on grounds purely 
religious ; that some thought the people enjoyed 
privileges enough ; that others were influenced by 
their official connections or aspirations ; that another 
class, who seldom mingled in the affairs of active life, 
loved retirement, and would, had the Whigs allowed 
them, have remained neutrals ; that some were timid 



i 



68 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

raen, some were old men ; and that tenants and de- 
pendents went with the landholders without inquiry, 
and as a thing of course. All of these reasons, and 
numerous others, have been assigned at different times, 
and by different persons. But another cause, quite as 
potent as any of these, operated, it would seem, 
upon thousands ; namely, a dread of the strength and 
resources of England, and the belief that successful 
resistance to her power was impossible ; that the 
Colonies had neither the men nor the means to carry 
on war, and would be humbled ,and reduced to sub- 
mission with hardly an effort. 

That motives and considerations, hopes and fears, 
like these, had an influence in the formation of the 
last Colonial parties, cannot be disputed, and the un- 
prejudiced minds of this generation should be frank 
enough to admit it 



CHAPTER VIII. 

loyalists who entered the Military Service of the Crown. 

As I have preferred connection of subject to mere 
chronological order, 8ome of the details belonging to 
this branch of our inquiry have been given, in order 
to complete the questions already discussed. 

We are now to speak of the Loyalists who opposed 
the Whigs in the field. Upon this topic, our writers 
of history have been almost silent ; and i^ is not im- 
possible that some persons have read books devoted 
exclusively to an account of the Revolution, without 
so much as imagining that a part, and a considerable 
part, of the force employed to suppress the " rebel- 
lion " was composed of our own countrymen. The 
two wars between England and France, which imme- 
diately preceded the revolt of the Colonies, were 
caused principally by disputes about rights of fishing, 
and by unsettled questions of maritime and territo- 
rial jurisdiction in America ; and in these wars the 
American people had taken a distinguished part. In 
fact, in aiding to put down French pretensions, our 
fathers acquired the skill necessary to the successful 
assertion of their own. 

The age was decidedly military. Office in the 
militia was even a qualification for civil employments. 
The number of colonels, majors, and captains that 



d 



» 



70 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

appear as members of the colonial assemblies, and, 
subsequently, of provincial congresses, startles us. 
The quarrels about rank in the Congress of the con- 
tinent disgust us. 

And of what account the newspaper essays and 
letters of Samuel Adams and others ? the eloquent 
appeals in Fanueil Hall, and in the House of Bur- 
gesses of Virginia? What of the success of the 
revolutionary movement everywhere, but for the 
military skill and experience acquired in the seven- 
years' war with France ? The Colonies furnished in 
that war quite twenty-eight thousand men in more 
than one of the campaigns, and every year to the 
extent of their ability. 

In fine, it is literally true that, for years together, 
more troops, in proportion to population, were raised 
in America than in England ; while, on the ocean, full 
twelve thousand seamen were enlisted in the royal 
navy and in the Colonial privateers. Without the 
aid of the survivors of these, resistance, or the 
thought of it, would have been downright madness. 
And the unanimity and alacrity with which those 
who had fought at Ticonderoga, Crown Point, du 
Quesne, Niagara, and Quebec, espoused the popular 
cause at first, and rallied under the Whig banner in 
the last resort, was one of the most honorable incir 
dents of the era. 

But, on the other hand, several officers of merits 
and some of very considerable military talents, ad- 
hered to the royal side. 

It may not be possible to ascertain the number of 
the Loyalists who took up arms, but, from the best 
evidence which I have been able to obtain, I con- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 71 

elude there were twenty-five thousand at the lowest 
computation ; and, unless their killed and wounded 
in the different battles and affrays in which they were 
engaged were unusually large, I have put their 
aggregate force far too low. Thus, in the fight at 
Bennington, or, more properly, Hoosick ; in the enter- 
prise of Sullivan at Staten Island ; in the adventure 
of Nelson at New Jersey ; in the affray of Pickens 
with a band of Tories who were on their way to the 
British camp in Georgia; in the battle of King's 
Mountain ; in four actions of Colonel Washington, 
Marion, Lee, and Sumter, the aggregate of slain, 
wounded, and prisoners, was upwards of twenty- 
three hundred, or nearly a tenth part of my estimate. 
That, in the various conflicts of the illustrious com- 
mander-in-chief; in those of Greene, Lincoln, and 
Gates, in the South ; in the rencounters of Marion, 
Lee, and Sumter, not mentioned above; in the losses of 
Tryon, Simcoe, De Lancey, Johnson, and Arnold ; in 
their various actions with the Whig forces or hast- 
ily assembled neighborhoods ; in the strifes between 
Whigs and Tories, hand to hand, and in cases where 
neither had authorized or commissioned leaders, 
another tenth part of twenty-five thousand met with 
a similar fate is nearly certain. At the time of Com- 
wallis's surrender, a portion of his army was com- 
posed of native Americans, and his Lordship evinced 
great anxiety for their protection. Failing to obtain 
special terms for them in the articles of capitulation, 
he availed himself of the conceded privilege of send- 
ing an armed ship northerly, without molestation, to 
convey away the most obnoxious among them. Bur- 
goyne had been spared this trouble ; for, as his diflB- 



72 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

culties had increased and his dangers thickened, the 
Loyalists had abandoned him to his fate. 

And yet again : In an address of the Loyalists who 
were in London in 1779, presented to the king, it is 
said that their countrymen, then in his Majesty's army, 
" exceeded in number the troops enlisted \ by Congress] to 
oppose theinj' exclusive of those who were " in service 
in private ships of war." In a similar document, 
dated in 1782, and which was addressed to the king 
and both houses of Parliament, the same declaration 
is repeated, though in stronger terms, since the lan- 
guage is, that " there are many more men in his Maj- 
esty's provincial regiments than there are in the 
continental service." These last addresses declare, 
moreover, that " the zeal " of the Loyalists must be 
greater than that of the "rebels;" for "the desultory 
manner in which the war has been carried on by first 
taking possession of Boston, Rhode Island, Philadel- 
phia, Portsmouth, and Norfolk in Virgitiia, and Wil- 
mington in North Carolina, and then evacuating them," 
had ruined thousands, and involved others in the 
greatest wretchedness, and had rendered enlistments 
tardy under " such " discouragements and " very une- 
qual circumstances." The descendants of Loyalist 
ofl&cers who entered the military service early in the 
struggle, and continued in commission until its 
close, entertain the general views expressed in these 
extracts ; and the opinion that Americans in the 
pay of the crown were quite as numerous as those 
who entered the army of Congress, is very commonly 
held by persons with whom I have conversed. StiH, 
I doubt whether either the written or verbal state- 
ments are to be relied on implicitly, and for the rea- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 73 

son, that, in the former, I am sure there are exaggera- 
tions on other subjects, and the latter rest on the 
assertions of men who were equally ready to attribute 
the success of the Whigs and their own ruin to the 
inefficiency and bad management of Sir William 
Howe and other royal generals. The names of these 
various corps,^ and the names of hundreds of officers 
who were attached to - them, will be found in these 
volumes. The impression that the revolutionary con- 

1 The King's Rangers; the Royal Fencible Americans; the Queen's 
Rangers ; the New York Volunteers ; the King's American Regiment ; 
the Prince of Wales's American Volunteers ; the Maryland Loyalists ; 
De Lancey's Battalions ; the Second American Regiment ; the King's 
Rangers Carolina; the South Carolina Royalists; the North Carolina 
Highland Regiment ; the King's American Dragoons ; the Loyal Ameri- 
can Regiment; the American Legion ; the New Jersey Volunteers; the 
British Legion ; the Loyal Foresters ; the Orange Rangers ; the Pennsyl- 
vania Loyalists ; the Guides and Pioneers ; the North Carolina Volun- 
teers ; the Georgia Loyalists ; the West Chester Volunteers. These corps 
were all commanded by colonels or lieutenant-colonels ; and, as De Lan- 
cey's Battalions and the New Jersey Volunteers consisted each of three 
battalions, here were twenty-eight. To these, the Loyal New Englanders, 
the Associated Loyalists, and Wentworth's Volunteers, remain to be added. 
Still further. Col. Archibald Hamilton, of New York, commanded at one 
period seventeen companies of loyal militia. 

Again, at different periods, several battalions were in the field at the 
South. The officers of twenty-one corps were considered entitled to half- 
pay, as will be seen by the proceedings in the House of Commons, June 27, 
1788. 

*'The order of the day for going into a Committee of Supply being 
inoved and carried, — 

^* Lord North rose to move that it be an instruction to the said Commit- 
tee to receive and take into their consideration a proportion of half-pay 
to ihe officers of certain American corps, raised to serve in America dur- 
ing the late war. His Lordship said, that the half-pay for the whole of 
the officers of the twenty-one corps would amount to £31,783. 5^. lOd. ; 
^tthat he would, in the Committee, move only for £15,000 towards, and 
^ a(KK)unt of, half-pay to these corps. 

** The question was carried without a division. The House then went 
into the Committee of Supply, and voted the half-pay without any debate." 

TOL. I. 7 



74 fflSTORICAL ESSAY. 

test should have terminated differently was very 
common, and in many it was very strong. That they 
— ^'the loyal, the true" — should have been the 
losers in the strife, and ^ the false and the rebellious *" 
the winners ; and that the former should have been 
driven from the country in which they were bom, to 
commence life anew in unbroken forests, were circum- 
stances over which thev continuallv brooded, and to 
which they were never reconciled. They insisted, 
and those who have inherited their names and pos- 
sessions, and many of their prejudices and opinions, 
still insist, that either Sir William Howe, or Sir Henry 
Clinton, his successor, could and should have quelled 
^the rebellion," and that the former, especially, is 
whollv inexcusable. !£ bv their course of reason- 
ing, Sir William had occupied Dorchester Heights and 
the highlands of Charlestown, as a sagacious general 
would have done, and as his force and park of artil- 
lery allowed him to do, all the disasters to the royal 
arms which followed would have been prevented. 



j:£: 



CHAPTER IX. 

Whig Mobs before the Appeal to Arms, and tarring and feathering. 
Panishments of Loyalists daring the War for overt Acts in favor of the 
Crown, and for speaking, writing, or acting against the Whigs. Pro- 
scription, Banishment, and Confiscation Acts of the State Governments. 
The Laws which divested the Loyalists of their Estates examined. 

We pass to take a rapid view of the measures 
which were adopted by the Whigs to awe and to 
punish their adversaries. I find some things to con- 
demn. And first, the " mobs/' a large part of which 
were in Massachusetts. That a cause as righteous as 
men were ever engaged in lost many friends by the 
fearful outbreaks of popular indignation, is not to be 
doubted. The wise man of Israel said, " A brother 
offended is harder to be won than a strong city." 
Those who took upon themselves the sacred name of 
" Sons of Liberty," needlessly, and sometimes in 
their very wantonness, " offended," beyond all hope 
of recall, persons who hesitated and doubted, and 
who, for the moment, claimed to occupy the position 
of " neutrals." The practice of ^' tarring and feath- 
ering," however reprehensible, had, perhaps, but little 
influence in determining the final choice of parties. 
This form of punishment, though so frequent as to 
qualify the saying of the ancient, that man is a two- 
legged animal without feathers, was borrowed from the 
Old World, where it has existed since the Crusades ; 



76 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

and was confined principally to the obnoxious custom- 
house officers, pimps, and informers against smuggled 
goods, who adhered to the Crown. 

But what " brother," upon whose vision the break- 
ing up of the Colonial system and the sovereignty of 
America had not dawned, and who saw — as even 
the Whigs themselves saw — with the eyes only of 
a British subject, was won over to the right by the 
arguments of mobbing, burning, and smoking ? Did 
the cause of America and of human freedom gain 
strength by the deeds of the five hundred who 
mobbed Sheriff Tyng, or by the speed of the one 
hundred and sixty on horseback who pursued Com- 
missioner Hallowell ? Were the shouts of an excited 
multitude, and the crash of broken glass and demol- 
ished furniture, fit requiems for the dying Ropes? 
Were Whig interests promoted because one thousand 
men shut up the Courts of Law in Berkshire, and 
five thousand did the same in Worcester, and mobs 
drove away the judges at Springfield, Taunton, and 
Plymouth ? — because, in one place, a judge was 
stopped, insulted, and threatened ; in another, the 
whole bench were hissed and hooted ; and, in a third, 
were required to do penance, hat in hand, in a pro- 
cession of attorneys and sheriffs ? Did the driving of 
IngersoU from his estate, of Edson from his house, 
and the assault upon the home of Gilbert, and the 
shivering of Sewall's windows, serve to wean them, 
or their friends and connections, from th#ir royal 
master? Did Ruggles, when subsequent events 
threw his countrymen into his power, forget that the 
creatures which grazed his pastures had been painted, 
shorn, maimed, and poisoned ; that he had been 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 77 

pursued on the highway by day and night ; that his 
dwelling had been broken open, and he and his family 
driven from it? What Tory turned Whig because 
Saltonstall was mobbed, and Oliver plundered, and 
Leonard shot at in his own house ?^ Was the 
kingly arm actually weakened or strengthened for 
harm, because thousands surrounded the mansions 
of high functionaries, and forced them into resigna- 
tion ; or because sheriffit were told that they would 
perform their duties at the hazard of their lives? 
Which party gained by waylaying and insulting, at 
every comer, the " Eescinders," the " Protesters," and 
the ^ Addressers ? " — which, by the burning of the 
mills of Putnam ? Had widows and orphans no addi- 
tional griefs, because the Probate Courts were closed 
by the multitude, and their officers were driven under 
cover of British guns ? Did it serve a good end to 
endeavor to hinder Tories from getting tenants, or to 
prevent persons who owed them from paying honest 
debts ? On whose cheek should have been the blush 
of shame, when the habitation of the aged and feeble 
Foster was sacked, and he had no shelter but the 
woods ? — when WilUams, as infirm as he, was seized at 
nighty dragged away for miles, and smoked in a room 
with fastened doors and a closed chimney-top ? What 
father, who doubted, wavered, and doubted still, 
whether to join or fly, determined, to abide the issue 
in the land of his birth, because foul words were 

1 Many Loyalists toere confined in private houses, some were sent to 
jiuls, and others to **Sinisbary Mines." Bat the prisons were hardly 
proper places for the confinement of such people ; and it is believed that 
a large proportion of the persons whom it was deemed proper to arrest 
preferred banishment to the loss of liberty, even though they were sure 
to be comfortably quartered in Uie fiimilies or houses of Whigs. 

7* 



78 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

spoken to his daughters, or because they were pelted 
when riding, or moving in the innocent dance ? Is 
there cause for wonder that some who still live should 
say, of their own or of their fathers' treatment^ 
that ^^ persecution made half of the king's friends ? " 
The good men of the period mourned these and sim- 
ilar proceedings, and they may be lamented now. 
The warfare waged against persons at their own 
homes and about their lawful avocations is not to be 
justified; and the ^mobs" of the Revolution are to 
be as severely and as imconditionally condemned as 
the " mobs " of the present day. 

The acts of legislative bodies for the punishment 
of the adherents of the Crown were numerous. In 
Rhode Island, death and confiscation of estate were 
the penalties provided by law for any person who 
communicated with the ministry or their agents, or 
who aflTorded supplies to the forces, or piloted the 
armed ships of the king. 

In Connecticut, the offences of supplying the royal 
army or navy, of giving them information, of enlist- 
ing or procuring others to enlist in them, and of pilot- 
ing or assisting naval vessels, were punished more 
mildly, and involved only the loss of estate, and of 
personal liberty for a term not exceeding three years. 
To speak or write or act against the doings of Con- 
gress, or the Assembly of Connecticut, was punishar 
ble by disqualification for office, imprisonment, and 
the disanning of the offender. 

In Massachusetts, a person suspected of enmity to 
the Whig cause could be arrested under a magistrate's 
warrant, and banished, unless he would swear fealty 
to the friends of liberty ; and the selectmen of towns 



mSTORICAL £SSAT. 79 

could prefer charges of political treachery in town- 
meeting, and the individual thus accused, if convicted 
by a jury, could be sent into the enemy's jurisdiction. 
Massachusetts also designated by name, and generally 
by occupation and residence, three hundred and eight 
of her people, of whom seventeen had been inhab- 
itants of Maine, who had fled fipom their homes, and 
denounced against any one of them who should re- 
turn, apprehension, imprisonment, and transportation 
to a place possessed by the British ; and, for a second 
voluntary return, without leave, death, without bene- 
fit of clergy. 

New Hampshire passed acts similar to these, under 
which seventy-six of her former citizens were prohib- 
ited from coming within her borders, and the estates 
of the most obnoxious were declared to be for- 
feited. 

Virginia passed a resolution to the effect that per- 
sons of a given description should be deemed and 
treated as aliens, and that their property should be 
sold, and the proceeds go into the public treasury for 
future disposal ; and also a law prohibiting the migra- 
tion of certain persons to that Commonwealth, and 
providing penalties for the violation of its provis- 
ions. 

In New York, the county committees were author- 
ized to apprehend, and decide upon the guilt of such 
inhabitants as were supposed to hold correspondence 
with the enemy, or had committed some other speci- 
fied act ; and they might pimish those whom they 
adjudged to be guilty with imprisonment for three 
nionths, or banishment. There, too, persons opposed 
to Uberty and independence were prohibited from 



80 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

practising law in the courts ; and the effects of fifty- 
nine persons, of whom three were women, and their 
rights of remainder and reversion, were to pass, by 
confiscation, firom them to the "people." 

In New Jersey, one act was passed to punish trai- 
tors and disaffected persons ; another, for taking charge 
of and leasing the real estates, and for forfeiting the 
personal estates, of certain fugitives and offenders ; 
a third, for forfeiting to and vesting in the State 
the real property of the persons designated in the 
second statute ; and a fourth, supplemental to the act 
first mentioned. 

In Pennsylvania, the nmnber of persons who were 
attainted of treason to the State by special acts, or 
by proclamations of the President and Council, was 
nearly five hundred. 

The act of Delaware provided that the property, 
both real and personal, of certain persons who were 
named, and wlio were forty-six in number, should be 
forfeited to the State, "subject nevertheless to the 
payment of the said offenders' just debts," unless, as 
in Pennsylvania, they gave themselves up to trial for 
the crime of treason in adhering to the royal cause. 

Maryland seized, confiscated, and appropriated all 
property of persons in allegiance to the British crown, 
and appointed commissioners to carry out the terms 
of three statutes which were passed to effect these 
purposes. 

In North Carolina, the confiscation act embraced 
sixty-five specified individuals and four mercantile 
firms; and, by its terms, not only included the 
" lands " of these persons and commercial houses, but 
their " negroes and other personal property." 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 81 

The law of Georgia, which was enacted very 
near the close of the struggle, declared certain 
persons to have been guilty of treason against that 
State, and their estates to be forfeited for their 
offences. 

South Carolina surpassed all other members of the 
Confederacy, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts ex- 
cepted. The Loyalists, whose rights, persons, and 
property were affected by legislation, were divided 
into four classes. The persons who had offended the 
least, — who were forty-five in number, — were al- 
lowed to retain their estates, but were amerced twelve 
per cent, of their value. Soon after the fall of 
Charleston, and when disaffection to the Whig cause 
was so general, two hundred and ten persons, who 
styled themselves the " principal inhabitants " of 
the city, signed an address to Sir Henry Clinton, 
in which they state that they have every inducement 
to return to their allegiance, and ardently hope to be 
readmitted to the character and condition of British 
subjects. These " Addressers " formed another class. 
Of these two hundred and ten, sixty-three were ban- 
ished, and lost their property by forfeiture, either for 
this offence or the graver one of affixing their names 
to a petition to the royal general, to be armed on the 
royal side. Eighty persons, composing another class, 
were also banished and divested of their estates, for 
the crime of holding civil or military commissions 
under the Crown, after the conquest of South Caro- 
lina. And the same penalties were inflicted upon 
thirteen others, who, on the success of Lord Com- 
wallis at Camden, presented his Lordship with their 
congratulations ; and still fourteen others were ban- 



82 fflSTORICAL ESSAY, 

ished, and deprived of their estates, because they were 
obnoxious. 

In discussing the expediency and justice of the 
laws which drove or kept the Loyalists in exile, as 
well as those which alienated their estates, two points 
present themselves ; namely, whether the Whigs 
were right in opposing the pretensions of England, 
and whether they did more than others have done in 
civil wars, — wars which are always the most bitter 
and unrelenting, — always the most obstinate and 
difficult to terminate. The question suggested by 
the first query is no longer open to dispute ; for the 
mother-country has herself admitted that she was 
wrong in her treatment of the thirteen Colonies. 

If, uQw, the Whigs were in the right, they might do 
everything necessary to insure success ; and we are thus 
brought to the second point of inquiry. The ques- 
tion of the banishment of the Loyalists addresses 
itself to me in two forms : that of the temporary and 
that of the permanent exile of the men who suffered 
it. Among these men were many persons of great 
private worth, who, in adhering to the Crown, were 
governed by conscience and a stem regard to duty ; 
and the offences of others consisted merely in a 
nominal attachment to the mother-country, or in a 
disinclination to witness or participate in the horrors 
of a civil war. Yet they were Loyalists ; and it so 
happened that the best men of that party were, of aJl 
others, those who could do the Whigs the greatest 
mischief; since, if they remained at liberty, their 
character and moderation rendered their counsel and 
advice of vast service to their own, and of vast harm 
to the opposite party, amidst the doubts and fears 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 83 

which prevailed, and had a direct tendency to pro- 
long and embitter the contest It became necessary y 
therefore, to secure them either by imprisonment or 
by exile. The first course, while requiring a consid- 
erable force to guard them, which the Whigs could 
not spare, would have been far less merdfxd than the 
other, and banishment, consequently, was best for 
both parties. Again, a considerable proportion of 
those who were proscribed, voluntarily abandoned the 
country, and were absent from it at the passage of 
the banishment acts ; and this was especially the case 
in Massachusetts. To prevent the return of these 
persons was as necessary to accomplish the objects of 
the struggle, as it was to secure those who remained 
at or in the neighborhood of their homes. 

Still it may be wished that greater discrimination 

had been exercised in selecting those who were 

deemed fit objects of severity. Persons whose crimes 

against the country and against humanity deserved 

death, escaped the banishment acts of the States to 

which they belonged ; while, on the other hand, these 

acts embraced persons who, from the circumstances of 

their condition, were utterly powerless, who had done, 

and could do, no evil. It may be wished, also, that 

those who were deemed fit objects of severity had 

been allowed the forms of trial. Courts of Admiralty 

^ere established for condemning prizes, and men 

might reasonably claim that, while their property 

was dealt with according to the established rules of 

society, their persons should not be more summarily 

disposed of Means for the trial of Loyalists were 

abundant. It is our boast, indeed, that, unlike the 

^ual course of things in civil war, civil government 



I 

I. 



84 fflSTORICAL ESSAY. 

wxis maintained throughout the whole period of our 
Revohition, with hardly an interruption anywhere. 
This is a fact as honorable as it is remarkable. " I 
will maintain as long as I live/' said Dupin, the great 
French advocate, " that the condemnation of Marshal 
Ney was not just, for his defence was not free." Per- 
haps posterity will entertain something of the same 
sentiment with regard to the course pursued by our 
fathers in not allowing their opponents an opportu- 
nity to appeal to the tribunals. In this particular, 
Pennsylvania and Delaware, as it will be remembered, 
adopted a mode less objectionable than that of some 
bther States, inasmuch as they " summoned " the per- 
sons against whom they proceeded, to appear and 
" surrender themselves for trial." Besides, it was 
common, during the war, for the military commanders 
to order courts-martial to take cognizance of the of- 
fences, and to fix the punishment of Tories ; and a 
future generation may possibly ask, why, when the 
sword was suspended amid the turmoils of the camp, 
to hear the defence of the accused, that weapon was 
so wielded in the hands of civilians as to " transform 
them into persecutors, and into martyrs those whom 
it smote." 

The laws which divested the Loyalists of their es- 
tates demand a moment's examination. Keeping in 
view that the Whigs were riffht in resisting the pre- 
tensions of the mother-country, and that, there- 
fore, they might very properly use everi/ necessarjf 
means to imure success, we shall find no difficulty in 
admitting that the property of their opponents could 
be rightfully appropriated to aid in the prosecution 
of the war. They devoted their own fortunes, they 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 85 

importuned several of the powers of Europe for loans, 
and they entailed upon their posterity a large debt ; 
and it would indeed be strange, if they could not have 
made forced levies upon the estates of those who 
not only refused to help them, but were actually in 
arms, or otherwise employed against them. To eman- 
cipate the American continent was a great work: \ 
the Whigs felt and knew, what is now everywhere 
conceded, that the work was both necessary and right- 
eous; and requiring, as its speedy accomplishment;' 
did, the labor of every hand and contributions from 
every purse, the throwing into the treasury the jewels 
of women and the holiday allowances of children, 
they are to stand justified for a resort to the seques- 
tration of the possessions of those who assisted in the 
vain endeavor to subdue them, and to renew the 
bonds which had bound them. The property of those 
who held commissions in the king's army and in the 
Loyalist corps was the property of enemies, and, as 
such, could be converted to public uses ; while that 
of others, who made their election to accept of ser- 
vice in civil capacities, is to be regarded in the same 
light. The ** Absentees," or those who retired from 
the country and lived abroad in privacy, were a differ- 
ent class ; and it may be doubted whether the same 
rule was applicable to them, and whether fines or 
amercements were not the more proper modes of 
procedure against the estates which they abandoned 
in quitting the country. The Whigs assiuned, how- 
ever, that ^ every government hath a right to com- 
mand the personal services of its own members, when- 
ever the exigencies of the State shall require, espe- 
cially in times of impending or actual invasion;" 

VOL. I. 8 



86 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

and that " no member thereof can then withdraw 
himself from the jurisdiction of the government, 
without justly incurring the forfeiture of his prop- 
erty, rights, and liberties, holden imder and derived 
from that constitution of government^ to the sup- 
port of which he hath refused his aid and assist- 
ance." 

It is to be further urged in defence of the pmciple 
of confiscation, that in civil conflicts the right of one 
party to levy upon the other has been generally ad- 
mitted ; that the practice has frequently accorded 
with the theory ; and, what is still more to the pur- 
pose, that the- royal party and king's generals exer- 
cised that right during the struggle. Thus, then, 
the seizure and confiscation of property in the Rev- 
olution was not the act of one side merely, but of 
both. 

But, as has been remarked, there was not with us, 
as there commonly has been in similar outbreaks, a 
transition period between the throwing ofi^ of one gov- 
ernment and the establishment of another ; and the 
regret that was expressed with regard to the indis- 
criminate banishment of persons, is equally applica- 
ble to the disposal of their estates ; and I cannot but 
feel, that, inasmuch as the Whigs when compared 
with other revolutionists, " were without spot or 
wrinkle, or any such thing," so they will be held 
to a stricter accountability by those who shall here- 
after speak of them ; and that we shp,ll be asked 
to show for them, why, with tribunals established 
and open for the trial of prizes made upon the sea, 
the fundamental rule of civilized society, that no 
person shall be deprived of "property but by the 



mSTOBICAL ESSAY. 



87 



judgment of his peers," was violated ; and why, 
without being ^ confronted by witnesses," and with- 
out the verdict of a " jury " and decrees of a 
court, any man in America was divested of his 
lands. 



CHAPTER X. 

The Course of the " Violent Whigs ** towards the Loyalists, at the Peace, 

discussed and condemned. 

At the peace, a majority of the Whigs of several 
of the States committed a great crime. Instead of 
repealing the proscription and banishment acts, as 
justice and good policy required, they manifested a 
spirit to place the humbled and imhappy Loyalists 
beyond the pale of human sympathy. Discrimination 
between the conscientious and pure, and the unprin- 
cipled and corrupt, was not perhaps possible during 
the struggle; but, hostilities at an end, mere hyalty 
\ shmild have been forgiven. When, in the civil war be- 
tween the Puritans and the Stuarts, the former 
gained the ascendency, and when, at a later period, 
the Commonwealth was established, Cromwell and 
his party wisely determined not to banish nor inflict 
disabilities on their opponents; and so, too, at the 
restoration of the monarchy, so general was the am- 
nesty act in its provisions, that it was termed an act 
of oblivion to the friends of Charles, and of grateful 
remembrance to his foes} The happy consequences 
which resulted from the conduct of both parties and 
in both cases, were before the men of their own 

1 At the restoration of Charles tlie Second, so general was the adhe- 
sion to that monarch, that historians pause to express wonder, and to 
inquire what had become of the Cromwell or Commonwealth men who 
had overturned the monarchy. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 89 

political and religious sympathies, the Puritans of the 
North, and the Cavaliers of the South, in America. 

All honor to Theodore Sedgwick for staking his 
popularity in behalf of his countrymen who adhered 
to the Crown; to Nathaniel Greene, for the senti- 
ment ^^ that it would be the excess of intolerance to 
persecute men for opinions which, but twenty years 
before, had been the universal belief of every class 
of society ; " to Alexander Hamilton, for his earnest 
and continued efforts to induce the Whigs to forget 
and forgive ; to John Jay, for the letter in which he 
said that he " had no desire to conceal the opinion, 
that^ to involve the Tories in indiscriminate punish- 
ment and ruin, would be an instance of imnecessary 
rigor and unmanly revenge without a parallel, except 
in the annals of religious rage in times of bigotry 
and blindness;" to James Iredell, for the "hearty 
wish that the termination of the war could have been 
followed with an oblivion of its offences ; " to Chris- 
topher Gadsen and Francis Marion, who, with every 
personal reason to be inexorable, bravely contended 
for the restoration of the rights of their fallen, expa- 
triated countrymen. 

In North and South Carolina, the Whigs and Tories 
waged a war of extermination. Seldom enough did 
either party meet in open and fair fight, and give 
and take the courtesies and observe the rules of 
civilized warfare. But these States, at the peace, 
exceeded all the rest in moderation and mercy. On 
the other hand, Massachusetts, Virginia, and New 
York adopted measures of inexcusable severity. In 
the latter State, such was the violence manifested, 
thatj in August, 1783, Sir Guy Carleton wrote to the 

8* 



90 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

President of Congress that the Loyalists "conceive 
the safety of their lives depends on my removing 
them J " that, " as the daily gazettes and publications 
furnish repeated proofe, not only of a disregard to 
the articles of peace, but barbarous menaces from 
committees formed in various towns, cities, and dis- 
tricts, and even at Philadelphia, — the very place 
which the Congress had chosen for their residence, — 
I should show an indifference to the feelings of hu- 
manity, as well as to the honor and interest of the 
nation whom I serve, to leave any that are desirous 
to quit the country, a prey to the violence they 
conceive they have so much cause to apprehend.** 
From another source, it appears that, when the 
news of peace was known, the* city of New York 
presented a scene of distress not easily described; 
that adherents to the Crown, who were in the army, 
tore the lappels from their coats and stamped them 
under their feet, and exclaimed that they were 
ruined ; that others cried out they had sacrificed 
everything to prove their loyalty, and were now 
left to shift for themselves, without the friendship of 
their king or their country. Previous to the evacua- 
tion, and in September, upwards of twelve thousand 
men, women, and children embarked at the city, at 
Long and Staten Islands, for Nova Scotia and the 
Bahamas. Some of these victims to civil war tried 
to make merry at their doom, by saying that they 
were " bound to a lovely country, where there are 
nine months winter and three months cold weather 
every year ; " while others, in their desperation, tore 
down their houses, and, had they not been prevented, 
would have carried off the bricks of which they were 
built. 



n:.^-^ji 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 91 

Those who came North lauded at Port Roseway 
(now Shelbume) and St. John, where many, utterly 
destitute, were supplied with food at the public 
charge, and were obliged to live in huts built of bark 
and rough boards. 

These volumes contain the names of most who 
embarked in the " September fleet " for Nova Scotia, 
and of many who went to that province and to Can- 
ada subsequently. 

Among the banished ones thus doomed to misery 
were persons whose hearts and hopes had been as 
true as Washington's own ; for, in the divisions of 
families which everywhere occurred, and which 
formed one of the most distressing circumstances of 
the conflict, there were wives and daughters, who, 
although bound to Loyalists by the holiest ties, had 
given their sympathies to the right from the begin- 
ning; and who now, in the triumph of the cause 
which had had their prayers, went meekly — as 
woman ever meets a sorrowful lot — into hopeless, 
interminable exile. 

I have stood at the graves of some of these wives 
and daughters, and have listened to the accounts of 
the living, in jshame and anger. If, as Jefferson 
said, separation from England was " contemplated with 
affklmi hy all; " if, as John Adams testified, Whigs 
like himself " would have given everything they 
possessed for a restoration to the state of things 
before the contest began, provided they could have 
had a sufficient security for its continuance ; " and on 
the groimd of policy alone, — how ill-judged the mea- 
sures that caused the settlement of the hitherto neg- 
lected possessions of England in this hemisphere, — 



92 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

Nova Scotia. By causing the expatriation of many 
thousands of our countrymen, among whom were the 
^ell-educated, the ambitious, and the versed in poli- 
tics, we became the founders of two agricultural and 
commercial Colonies ; for it is to be remembered, that 
New Brunswick formed a part of Nova Scotia until 
1784, and that the necessity of the division then 
. made was of our own creation. In like manner we 
became the founders of Upper Canada. The Loyal- 
ists were the first settlers of the territory thus de- 
nominated by the act of 1791;^ and the principal 
object of the line of division of Canada, as estab- 
lished by Mr. Pitt^ was to place them as a body by 
themselves, and to allow them to be governed by 
laws more congenial than those which were deemed 
requisite for the government of the French on the 
St. Lawrence. For twenty years the country border- 
ing on the great lakes was decidedly American. 

Dearly enough have the people of the United 
States paid for the crime of the '^ violent Whigs " of 
the Revolution ; for, to the Loyalists who were driven 
away and to their descendants, we owe almost en- 
tirely the long and bitter controversy relative to our 
northeastern boundary, and the dispute about our 
right to the fisheries in the Colonial seas. 

The mischief all done, — thousands ruined and ban- 
ished, new British colonies founded, animosities to 
continue for generations made certain, — the "violent 

^ It was in a debate on this bill that Fox and Burke severed the ties of 
friendship which had existed between them for a long period. The scene 
was one of the most interesting that had ever occurred in the House of 
Commons. Fox, overcome by his emotions, wept aloud. Burke's pre- 
vious course with regard to the French Revolution had rendered a rupture 
at some time probable, perhaps certain. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 93 

Whigs " of Massachusetts, New York, and Virginia, 
were satisfied ; all this accomplished, and the statute- 
book was divested of its most objectionable enact- 
ments, and a few of the Loyalists returned to their 
old homes: but by far the greater part died in ban- 
ishment 



CHAPTER XL 

Discussions at Paris between the Commissioners for concluding Terms of 
Peace, on the Question of Compensation to the Loyalists for their Losses 
during the War, by Confiscation and otherwise. Reasons why Congress 
refused to make Recompense, stated and defended. The Provisions 
of the Treaty unsatisfactory in this Particular. The Parties interested 
appeal to Parliament. Debates in the Lords and Commons. The 
Recommendation of Congress to the States to afford Relief in certain 
Cases, disregarded. 

The subject of restitution and compensation to the 
Loyalists, was a source of great difficulty during the 
negotiations for peace. The course of the matter 
may be learned better from the negotiators them- 
selves, than from any words of mine ; and I there- 
fore make some extracts from the Journal of Mr. 
Adams,^ who was one of them : — 

1 The full conversations occupy several pages of Mr. Adams's Journal 
In making these Extracts, I have always given the substance of what was 
said ; but I have sometimes compressed a passage, or changed a word. 

The Articles of the Treaty which relate to the Loyahsts are the fourth, 
fifth, and sixth : — 

Art. 4. " It is agreed, That Creditors on either side shall meet with 
no lawful impediment to the recovery of the full value in sterling money 
of all bond 'Jide debts heretofore contracted." 

Art. 5. ^* It is agreed, That the Congress shall earnestly recommend 
it to the Legislatures of the respective States, to provide for the Res- 
titution of all Estates, Rights, and Properties which have been confis- 
cated, belonging to real British subjects ; and also of the Estates, Rights 
and Properties of those Persons, residents in Districts in Possession of his 
Majesty's Arms, and who have not borne arms against the said United 
States ; and that Persons of any other description shall have free liberty 
to go to any part or parts of any of the Thirteen United States, and 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 95 

November^ 3d, 1782. "Dr. Franklin, on Tuesday last, told 
me of Mr. Oswald's demand of payment of debts, and com- 
pensation to the Tories ; he said his answer had been, we had 
not the power, nor had Congress. I told him I had no notion 
of cheating anybody. The question of paying debts, and 
compensating, were two. I had made the same observation 
that forenoon to Mr. Oswald and Mr. Strachey." 

November 10. [Mr. Adams waited on Count Vergennes.] 
" The Count asked me how we went on with the English. I 
told him we divided on the Tories and the Penobscot. The 
Count remarked that the English wanted the country tliere 
' for masts.' I told him I thought there were few masts there ; 
but that I fancied it was not masts, but Tories, that again 
made the difficulty. Some of them claimed lands in the terri- 
tory, and others hoped for grants there." 

November 11. " Mr. Whiteford, the secretary of Mr. 

therein to remain Twelve Months unmolested in their endeavors to obtain 
the Restitution of such of their Estates, Rights, and Properties, as may 
hare been confiscated ; and that Congress shall also earnestly recommend 
to the several States, a Reconsideration and Revision of all Acts or Laws 
regarding the Premises, so as to render the said Laws or Acts perfectly 
consistent, not only with Justice and Equity, but with that spirit of Con- 
ciliation, which, on the return of the blessings of Peace, should univer- 
sally prevail. And that the Congress shall also earnestly recommend to 
the several States, that the Estates, Rights, and Properties of such last- 
mentioned Persons shall be restored to them, they refunding to any Per- 
WQs who may be now in possession, the bond fide price (where any has 
been given) which such Persons may have paid on purchasing any of the 
Baid Lands, Rights, or Properties, since the Confiscation. And it is 
agreed, That all Persons who have any Interests in Confiscated Lands, 
ather by Debts, Marriage Settlements, or otherwise, shall meet with no 
Uwfiil impediment in prosecution of their just Rights." 

Abt. 6. ** That there shall be no future Confiscations made, nor 
uiy Prosecutions commenced against any Person or Persons for or by 
nason of the Part which he or they may have taken in the present War ; 
ud that no Person shall on that account suffer any future Loss or Dam- 
age, either in his Person, Liberty, or Property ; and that those who may 
be b confinement on such charges at the Time of the Ratification of the 
Treaty in America, shall be immediately set at liberty, and the Prosecu- 
tioDB 80 commenced be discontinued.'' 



&ti lUSTOllICAL ESSAY. 

Oswald, canif. We soon fell into ixilitics. [Mr.^dams said] 
Suppose a Fn?nch miiiistiM' foresees that the presence of the 
Tories in America will keep up pprpetunlly two parties, — s 
Freiicli party mid sn English party." " The French minister 
at Philadelphia has made some representations to Congi-ess in 
lavor of compensation to the Royalists. We are instructed 
against it, or rather have no auihority to do it ; and if Con- 
gress should refer the matter to the sevend Status, every one 
of them, after a delay, probably of eighteen montlis, will 
detemiine against it" 

November 1.5. " Mr. Oswald came to visit me. He said, 
if he were a member of Congress, he would say to the refii- 
gees. Take your property; we scorn to make any use of it 
in building up our system. I replied, that we had no pow^, 
and Congress no power ; that if we sent the proposition of 
compensation to Congress, they would refer it to the States ; 
and that, meantime, you must carry on the war six or nine 
months, certainly, for this compensation, and consequently 
spend, in the prosecution of it, six or nine times the sum 
necessarj' to make the compensation ; for I presume this war 
costs, every month, to Great Britain, a larger sum than would 
be necessary to pay for the forfeited estates." 

November 17. '■ Mr. Vaughan came to me ; he said Mr. 
Fitzbcrbcrt had received a letter from Mr. Townsliend, that 
the compensation would be insisted on,'" 

No\-ember 18. " Returned Mr. Oswald's visit. We went 
over the old ground concerning the Tories. He began to use 
arguments with nie to relax. I tiild him he must not think 
of that, but must bend all his thoughts to convince and per- 
suade his court to give it up ; that if the terms now before 
his coTirt were not accepted, the whole negotiation would be 
broken off." 

November 25. " Dr. Franklin, Mr. Jay, and myself, met 
at Mr. Oswald's lodgings. Mr. Strachey told us he had 
been to London, and waited personally on everj- one of the 
king's cabinet council, and had conmiunicated the last propo- 
sitions to them. They, every one of them, unanimously eon- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 97 

deinned that respecting the Tories ; so that that unhappy 
affair stuck, as lie foresaw and foretold it would." 

November 26. [Dr. Franklin, Mr. Jay, and Mr. Adams] 
" in consultation upon the propositions made us yesterday by 
Mr. Oswald. We agreed unanimously to answer him, that 
we could not consent to the article respecting the refugees, as 
it now stands. The rest of the day was spent in endless dis- 
cussions about the Tories. Dr. Franklin is very staunch 
against them ; more decided, a great deal, on this point, than 
Mr. Jay or myself." 

November 27. " Mr. Benjamin Vaughan came in, returned 
from London, where he had seen Lord Shelburne. He says, 
he finds the ministry much embarrassed with the Tories, and 
exceedingly desirous of saving their honor and reputation in 
this point ; that it is reputation, more than money," &c. 

November 29. " Met Mr. Fitzherbert, Mr. Oswald, Dr. 
Franklin, Mr. Jay, Mr. Laurens, and Mr. Strachey, and spent 
the whole day in discussions about the fishery and the Tories. 
Mr. Fitzherbert, Mr. Oswald, and Mr. Strachey retired for 
some time ; and, retuniing, Mr. Fitzherbert said, that Mr. 
Strachey and himself had determined to advise Mr. Oswald 
to strike with us according to the terms proposed as our ulti- 
matum^ respecting the fishery and the Loyalists. We agreed 
to meet to-morrow, to sign and seal the treaties." 

Besides the want of power in Congress to make 
the demanded recompense to the Loyalists, as stated 
in these extracts, there were other objections, and 
some quite as serious. First, many of them, by their 
falsehoods, misrepresentations, and bad counsels to 
the ministry, had undoubtedly done much to bring 
on and protract the war ; so that, in a good measure 
at least, it was just to charge them with being the 
authors of their own sufferings. In the second place, 
those of them who had borne arms, and assisted to 
ravage and bum the towns on different parts of the 

VOL. I. 9 



98 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

coast, or had plundered the defenceless families of 
the interior settlements, should have made^ rather 
than received^ compensation. Thirdly, to restore the 
identical property of any had become nearly impos- 
sible, as it had been sold, and, in many cases, divided 
among purchasers, and could only be wrested by ple- 
nary means froni the present possessors. Fourthly, 
the country was in no condition to pay those who 
had toiled and bled for its emancipation, or even to 
make good a tithe of the losses which they had suf- 
fered in consequence of the war ; much less was there 
the ability to adjust the accoimts of enemies, whether 
domestic or foreign. The Loyalists, as a body, looked 
upon the subjugation of the Whigs as almost certain, 
to the last; and their delegates in New York even 
went so far as to entertain a plan for the government 
of the Colonies, whenever their day of triumph should 
come. If that day had arrived, how would the Whigs 
have fared at their hands ? Would the claims of thou- 
sands who expended their estates in the cause of 
liberty, and who had no shelter for their heads, have 
been allowed ? 

Grounds somewhat similar to those which I have 
assumed, induced Congress, very probably, to instruct 
their commissioners to enter into no engagements 
respecting the Americans who adhered to the Crown, 
unless Great Britain would stipulate, on her part^ to 
make compensation for the property which had been 
destroyed by persons in her service. With this inr 
junction the commissioners found it impracticable to 
comply, inasmuch as they deemed it necessary to 
admit into the treaty a provision to the eflFect, that 
Congress should recommend to the several States to 



I 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 99 

provide for the restitution of certain of the confis- 
cated estates ; that certain persons should be allowed 
a year to endeavor to recover their estates ; that per- 
sons having rights in confiscated lands should have 
the privilege of pursuing all lawful means to regain 
them ; and that Congress should use its recommenda- 
tory power to cause the States to revoke or recon- 
sider their confiscation laws. Congress unanimously 
assented to this arrangement, and unanimously issued 
the recommendation to the States, which the treaty 
contemplated. 

These terms were very unsatisfactory, and loud 
clamors arose in Parliament and elsewhere. In the 
House of Commons, Mr. Wilberforce said, that "when 
he considered the case of the Loyalists, he confessed 
he there felt himself conquered ; there he saw his 
country humiliated ;. he saw her at the feet of Amer- 
ica: still he was induced to believe, that Congress 
would religiously comply with the article, and that 
the Loyalists would obtain redress from America." 
Lord North said, that "never were the honor, the 
principles, the policy of a nation, so grossly abused as 
in the desertion of those men, who are now exposed 
to every punishment that desertion and poverty can 
inflict, because they were not rebels." Lord Mul- 
grave declared, that " the article respecting the Loy- 
alists he could never regard but as a lasting mon- 
ument of national disgrace." Mr. Burke said, that 
"a vast number of the Loyalists had been deluded 
by England, and had risked everything, and that, to 
such men, the nation owed protection, and its honor 
was pledged for their security at all hazards." Mr. 
Sheridan " execrated the treatment of those unfortu- 



100 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

nate men, who, without the least notice taken of their 
civil and religious rights, were handed over as sub- 
jects to a power that would not fail to take vengeance 
on them for their zeal and attachment to the religion 
and government of the mother-country;" and he 
denounced as a "crime," the cession of the Amer- 
icans who had adhered to the Crown, " into the hands 
of their enemies, and delivering them over to confis- 
cation, tyranny, resentment, and oppression." Mr. 
Norton said, that "he could not give his assent to 
the treaty on account of the article which related to 
the Loyalists." Sir Peter Burrell considered, that 
" the fate of these unhappy subjects claimed the com- 
passion of every human breast; for they had been 
abandoned by the ministers, and were left at the 
mercy of a Congress highly irritated against them." 
Sir Wilbraham Bootle's " heart bled for the Loyalists ; 
they had fought and had run every hazard for Eng- 
land, and, at a moment when they had a claim to the 
greatest protection, they had been deserted." Mr. 
Macdonald " forbore to dwell upon the case of these 
men, as an assembly of human beings could scarcely 
trust their judgments, when so powerful an attack 
was made upon their feelings." 

In the House of Lords, the opposition was quite 
as violent. Lord Walsingham said, that "he could 
neither think nor speak of the dishonor of leaving 
these deserving people to their fate, with patience." 
Lord Viscount Townshend considered, that, " to desert 
men who had constantly adhered to loyalty and at- 
tachment, was a circumstance of such cruelty as had 
never before been heard of" Lord Stormont said, 
that "Britain was bound in justice and honor, grat- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 101 

itude and affection, and every tie, to provide for and 
protect them." Lord Sackville regarded " the aban- 
donment of the Loyalists as a thing of so atrocious 
a kind, that, if it had not been already painted in all 
its horrid colors, he should have attempted the ungra- 
cious task, but never should have been able to describe 
the cruelty in language as strong and expressive as 
were his feelings ; " and again, that " a peace founded 
on the sacrifice of these unhappy subjects, must be 
accursed in the sight of God and man." Lord Lough- 
borough said, " that the fifth article of the treaty had 
excited a general and just indignation ;" and that 
neither "in ancient nor modem history had there 
been so shameful a desertion of men who had sacri- 
ficed all to their duty, and to their reliance upon 
British faith." 

Such attacks as these did not, of course, pass with- 
out replies in both Houses. The nature of the de- 
fence of the friends of the ministry will sufficiently 
appear, by the remarks of the minister himself 
Lord Shelbume frankly admitted, that the Loyalists 
were left without better provision being made for 
them, **from the unhappy neces^iti/ of public affairs, 
which induced the extremity of submitting the fate 
of their property to the discretion of their enemies." 
And he continued, " I have but one answer to give 
the House ; it is the answer I gave my own bleeding 
lieart A part must be wounded, that the whok of the 
tnipire may not perish. If better terms could be had, 
think you, my Lord, that I would not have embraced 
them ? / had but the allernalive either to accept the terms 
proposed, or continue the war'' The Lord Chancellor 
parried the assaults of the opposition with other 

9» 



102 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

weapons. He declared, that the stipulations of the 
treaty are " specific," and, said he, " my own conscious 
honor will not allow me to doubt the good faith of 
others, and my good wishes to the Loyalists will not 
let me indiscreetly doubt the dispositions of Con- 
gress," since the understanding is, that " all these 
unhappy men shall be provided for ; " yet, if it were 
not so, " Parliament could take cognizance of their 
case, and impart to each suffering individual that 
relief which reason, perhaps poUcy, certainly virtue 
and religion, required." 

It was not expected, probably, by the British gov- 
ernment, that the ^ recommendation " of Congress 
to the States would produce any effect. In 1778, 
and after the evacuation of Philadelphia, the urgent 
request of Congress to repeal the severe enact- 
ments against the adherents of the Crown and to 
restore their confiscated property, had been disre- 
garded ; and a similar desire at the conclusion of hos- 
tilities, though made for different reasons, it could 
not have been supposed would be more successful. 
Indeed, the idea that the States would refuse compli- 
ance, and that Parliament would be required to make 
the Loyalists some compensation for their losses, seems 
to have been entertained from the first. Lord Shel- 
bume, in the speech from which I have just quoted, 
remarked, that, ^unthout one drop of blood spilth and iriih- 
out one fifth of the expense of one year's campaign, hapin- 
ness and ease can be given to them in as ample a manner as 
these blessings were ever in their enjoyments He could 
have meant nothing less by this language than that, 
by putting an end to the war, the empire saved both 
life and treasure, even though the amount of money 



i 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 103 

required to place the Loyalists in "happiness and 
ease " should amount to some millions ; and the Lord 
Chancellor, it may be observed, hinted at compensa- 
tion as the remedy, provided the " recommendation " 
of Congress should not result favorably. Besides, 
during the negotiation of the treaty, it appears to 
have been considered by the commissioners on both 
sides, that each party to the contest must bear its 
owii losses and provide for its own sufferers. But, 
whatever were the expectations at Paris or in Lon- 
don, all uncertainty was soon at an end. A number 
of Loyalists who were in England, came to the United 
States to claim restitution of their estates, but their 
applications were unheeded, and some of them were 
imprisoned, and afterwards banished. 



I 



CHAPTER Xil. 

Tlu- Loynlists apply to P«rliainrnl for Rfliff. The King in hii Speech 
rwoniiiieinJs Altenlion lo their CUiirm. CoiJiniinsioncrB appoiiilBd. 
Complaints of the Lof alists on vatioiiH Grounds. Nambpr of Claiin- 
Dnt9, nnd Si:hc(1iilei of their l.>0SBes. Dulay of iht! Cominissionere in 
ailjuslinE Cbims, and UiatreiKes in ConBiniJorice. Dieoudion in PaHift- 
niGiit. Final Number of Cinimiints, Final Amoniit of Si^heituli^g. and 
Filial Award In the A[i|wals to llieir Uvsput^tive Gotemmentf, the 
Loialisis I'urcil better than th« Whigs. 

The claimants now applied to the government 
which tlioy had ruined themselves to serve ; and 
many of tlieiit, wlio liaJ hillierto boon " Rffiit^ees" in 
dilleient part.s of America, went to England to state, 
and to recover i)aynient lor, tlieir losses. They or- 
ganized an ageney, and ajipointed a committee, com- 
posed of one delegate or agon! from each of the 
thirteen States, to cnligliten tlie British public, and 
adopt measures of procedure in securing the atten- 
tion and action of the ministry in their behalf In a 
tract,' printed by order of tliese agents, it is main- 
tained, that '• it is an established rule, that all .sacrifices 
made by individuals for the benefit or accommodation 
of others, shall be eciually sustained by all those who 
pai'take of it;" and numerous cases are cited from 
Purteiidorf, Burlaniaqui, and Vattel. to show that the 
■' sacrifiees" of the Loyalists were embraced in this 
principle. As a further ground of claim, it is stated, 

I '■ Tl.t Casu find Cliiim of tin- AiiRTiian Loyalists, im[>ailially staled 
anil cousitlci'Uil," published in I lH'i, 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 105 

* 

that, irb the case of territory alienated or ceded away 
by one sovereign power to another, the rule is still 
applicable ; for that, in treatises of international law, 
it is held, " the State ought to indemnify the subject 
for the loss he has sustained beyond his own propor- 
tion." The conclusion arrived at from the precedents 
found in history and diplomacy, and in the statute- 
book of the realm, is, that, as the Loyalists were as 
" perfectly subjects of the British State as any man 
in London or Middlesex," they w^ere entitled to the 
same protection and relief The claimants, said the 
writers of the tract, had been " called on by their 
sovereign, when surrounded by tumult and rebellion, 
to defend the supreme rights of the nation, and to 
assist in suppressing a rebellion which aimed at their 
destruction. They have received from the highest 
authority the most solemn assurances of protection, 
and even reward for their meritorious services ; " and 
that " his Majesty and the two Houses of Parliament 
having thought it necessary, as the price of peaces 
or to the interest and safety of the empire, or 
from spme other motive of public convenience, to 
ratify the independence of America, without securing 
any restitution whatever to the Loyalists, they conceive 
that the nation is bound, as well by the 'fundament- 
al laws of society as by the invariable and eternal 
principles of natural justice, to make them a compen- 
sation." 

At the opening of Parliament, the king, in his 
speech from the throne, alluded to the "American 
sufferers " who, from " motives of loyalty to him, or 
attachment to the mother-country, had relinquished 
their properties or professions," and trusted, he said, 



106 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

that "generous attention would be shown to them." 
Both parties assented to the suggestion ; and a mo- 
tion was made early in the session for leave to bring 
in a bill, ''-For appoiiding Commissioners to inquire 
into the Circumstances and former Fortunes of such 
Persons as are reduced to Distress by the late im- 
happy Dissensions in America." Leave was given ; 
but in fixing the details of the bill, there was some 
difficulty and considerable debate. The measure was 
finally made agreeable to all, and was adopted with- 
out opposition. The act, as passed, created a Board 
of Commissioners, who were empowered to examine 
all persons presenting claims under oath, to send for 
books, papers, and records ; and who w^ere directed 
to report all such as fraudulently claimed a greater 
amount than they had lost, in order that they should 
be deprived of all compensation whatever. 

The first thing to be ascertained by the commis- 
sioners was the " loyalty and conduct of the claim- 
ants." In their first report, they divided them into 
six classes,^ and very properly placed the apostates 
from the Whigs in the last ; but no difference was 
finally made on account of the time or circumstances 
of adhering to the cause of the Crown, and all, with- 
out reference to differences in merit, who were able 
to establish losses, shared alike. 

1 First Class. Those wbo had rendered services to Great Britain. 

Second Class. Those who had borne arms for Great Britain. 

Third Class. Uniform Loyalists. 

Fourth Class. Loyal British subjects resident in Great Britain. 

Fi/ih Class. Loyalists who had taken oaths to the American States, bat 
afterwanls joined the British. 

Sixth Class. Ix)yalists who had borne arms for the American States, 
but afterwards joined the British navy or army. 




mSTORlCAL ESSAY. 107 

The claimants were required to state in proper 
form every species of loss which they had suffered, 
and for which they thought they had a right to receive 
compensation. In making up their schedules agree- 
ably to this rule, some sufferers claimed for losses 
which others did not ; and, in adjusting the claims, 
the disproportion between the sum asked and the 
sum allowed was often very large. A few received 
their whole demands, without the deduction of a shil- 
ling, while others received pounds only where they 
had demanded hundreds ; and a third class obtained 
nothing, having been excluded by inability to prove 
their losses, or deprived of the sum which they could 
prove, by attempts to obtain allowance for claims 
which the commissioners reported upon as fraudu- 
lent, in accordance with the provisions of the act. 
The rigid rules enforced, which it would seem applied 
to all claimants, created much murmuring. The 
mode pursued of examining the claimant and the wit- 
nesses in his behalf, separately and apart, was branded 
with severe epithets, and the commission was called 
an " Inquisition." With all the caution which it was 
possible for the commissioners to exercise, men who 
did not really lose a single penny, who were entirely 
destitute of property when the war began, and to 
whom hostilities were actually beneficial by affording 
pay and employment, were placed in comfortable cir- 
cumstances; and stories which show the plans and 
schemes that were devised to baffle the rigid scrutiny 
of the board are still repeated. 

The 26th of March, 1784, was the latest period for 
presenting claims which was allowed ; and on or be- 
fore that day, the number of claimants was two thou- 



) 



108 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

sand and sixty-three, and the property alleged to 
have been lost was, according to their schedules, the 
alarming sum of £7,046,278, besides debts to the 
amount of £2,354,135. The second report, which 
was made in December of the same year, shows that 
one hundred and t>venty-eight additional cases had 
been disposed of, and that for £693,257 claimed, the 
total allowance was only £150,935. Much the same 
difference is to be seen in the succeeding one hun- 
dred and twenty-two cases, which were disposed of in 
May and July of 1785, and in which £253,613 were 
allowed for £898,196 claimed. In April, 1786, the 
fifth report announced that one hundred and forty- 
two other claims, to the amount of £733,311, had 
been liquidated at £250,506. The commissioners 
proceeded with their investigations during the years 
1786 and 1787. Meantime, South Carolina had re- 
stored the estates of several of her Loyalists, and 
caused the withdrawal of the claims of their owners, 
except that, in instances of alleged strip and waste, 
amercement, and similar losses, inquiries were insti- 
tuted to ascertain the value of what was taken, com- 
pared with that which was returned. 

On the 5th of April, 1788, the commissioners in 
England had heard and determined one thousand six 
hundred and eighty claims (besides those withdrawn), 
and had liquidated the same at £1,887,548. Perhaps 
no greater despatch w^as possible, but the delay caused 
great complaint. The king, his ministers, and Par- 
liament were addressed and petitioned, either on the 
general course pursued by the commissioners, or on 
some subject connected with the Loyalist claims. 
Letters and communications appeared in the news- 



mSTOMCAL ESSAY. 109 

papers, and the public attention was again awakened 
by the publication of essays and tracts which renewed 
the statements made in 1783 of the losses, services, 
and sacrifices of the claimants. Two years previously 
(1786), the agents of the Loyalists had invoked Par- 
liament to hasten the final action upon the claims of 
their constituents in a petition drawn up with care 
and ability. ^ It is impossible to describe," are words 
which occur in this document, " the poignant distress 
under which many of these persons now labor, and 
which must daily increase, should the justice of Par- 
liament be delayed until all the claims are liquidated 
and reported ; . . . . ten years have elapsed since 
many of them have been deprived of their fortunes, 
and, with their helpless families, reduced from inde- 
pendent affluence to poverty and want ; some of them 
now languishing in British jails, others indebted to 
their creditors, who have lent them money barely to 
support their existence, and who, unless speedily re- 
lieved, must sink more than the value of their claims 
when received, and be in a worse condition than if 
they had never made them ; others have already 
sunk under the pressure and severity of their misfor- 
tunes ; and others must, in all probability, soon meet 
the same melancholy fate, should the justice due to 
them be longer postponed. But that, on the contra- 
ry? should provision be now made for payment of 
those whose claims have been settled and reported, it 
will not only relieve them from their distress, but 
pve a credit to the others whose claims remain to be 
considered, and enable all of them to provide for 
their wretched families, and become again useful 
members of society." This vivid picture of the con- 

▼OL. I. 10 



110 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

dition of those who waited the tardy progress made 
in the final adjustment of their losses is possibly 
hiirhlv colored. Mr. Pitt had introduced and carried 
through, in 1785; a bill for the distribution of £150,- 
000 among the claimants; but as that sum, it was 
held, was to be applied to a distinct class, — namely, 
to those who had lost ^ property,'' and to neither those 
who had lost ^ life-estate " in property, nor to those 
who had lost " income," — it is not improbable that 
many of these classes were at this time greatly in 
want of the relief which their agents so earnestly 
hnplored the government to aflTord. 

A tract ^ printed in 1788, which was attributed to 
Galloway, a Loyalist of Pennsylvania, presses the 
claims and merits of the sufferers with much point 
and vigor, and rebukes the injustice of neglecting 
and deferring payment of the compensation con- 
ceded on all hands to be due them, with singular 
spirit and boldness, and states their situation in the 
following forcible language : " It is well known," 
says the writer, " that this delay of justice has pro- 
duced the most melancholy and shocking events. A 
number of the sufferers have been driven by it into 
insanity, and become their own destroyers, leaving 
behind them their helpless widows and orphans to 
subsist upon the cold charity of strangers. Others 
have been sent to cultivate a wilderness for their 
subsistence, without having the means, and compelled 
through want to throw themselves on the mercy of 
the American States and the charity of their former 
friends, to support the life which might have been 

1 *^ The Claim of the American Loyalist reviewed and maintained upon 
mcontrovertible Principles of Law and Justice." 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. Ill 

made comfortable by the money long since due from 
the British Government ; and many others, with, 
their families, are barely subsisting upon a temporary 
allowance from government, — a mere pittance when 
compared with the sum due to them." 

The commissioners submitted their eleventh Report 
in April of the year in which this statement was 
made ; and Mr. Pitt, in the month following, gave 
way to the pressing importunities of the claimants, 
to allow their grievances to be discussed in Parlia- 
ment Twelve years had elapsed since the property 
of most of them had been alienated under the con- 
fiscation acts, and five, since their title to recompense 
had been recognized by the law imder which their 
claims had been presented. 

The mmister, meantime, by frequent conferences 
with the commissioners, had made himself familiar 
with all the points involved and requiring considera- 
tion, and, in expressing his views, raised three ques- 
tions : first, whether there should be any deduction 
made from the value put upon the estates to be paid 
for ; secondly, if any, what the deduction should be ; 
and, thirdly, what compensation should be made to 
the Loyalists who had lost their incomes by losing 
their ofl&ces and professions. In his speech, Mr. Pitt 
laid down as the basis of his plan, that, however 
strong might be the claims of either class, neither 
should regard the relief to be extended as due on 
principles " of right and strict justice." In proceed- 
ing with his remarks, he proposed to pay all of six 
designated classes, who consisted of thirteen hundred 
and sixty-four persons, whose liquidated losses did 
not exceed ten thousand poimds each, the full amount 



112 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

reported by the commissioners; while, increasing the 
rate of discount with the increase of losses, he pro- 
posed a deduction of ten per cent, on the losses (of 
persons of these six classes) between ten and thirty- 
five thousand pounds, and of fifteen per cent, on 
those between thirty-five and fifty thousand, and of 
twenty per cent, on those exceeding fifty thousand ; 
casting, however, these several rates of deduction 
only on the differences between ten thousand pounds 
and the amounts lost as reported by the commission- 
ers.^ With regard to persons of another description, 
whose losses had been caused principally, if not 
entirely, by deprivation of official or professional in- 
come, he submitted a plan of peumom? 

After this adjustment, several additional claims 
were presented, examined, and allowed ; and, upon 
the settlement of the Tvhole matter, it appeared that 
the number of claimants in England, Nova Scotia, 
New Brunswick, and Canada, was five thousand and 
seventy-two, of whom nine hundred and fifty-four 
withdrew or failed to prosecute their claims ; that the 
amount of losses, according to the schedules rendered, 
was £8,026,045, of which the sum of £3,292,452 was 
allowed.^ The Loyalists, then, were well cared for. 

1 This plan was objected to by the Loyalists, and their reasons were 
transmitted to Mr. Pitt, in a document of some length. 

2 The number of these persons was two hundred and four; amount of 
income lost, £80,000 ; pensions granted, £25,785. 

3 The principal facts with regard to the compensation of the Loyalists 
arc derived from a " Historical View of the Commission," &c., by John 
Eardlcy Wilmot, Esq., one of the commissioners. In the aggregate amount 
claimed, there seems some discrepancy. According to the summary of Mr. ^ 
Wilmot, made in March, 1790, " the claims preferred " were £10,358,413 ; 
whereas, in a table from which I take the statistics above, the amount is 
stated at £8,026,045. Again, in March, 1790, it is said by Mr. Wilmot, 






HISTORICAL ESSAY. 



113 



Whatever were the miseries to individuals occasioned 
by delay ; whatever the injury sustained by those 
who were unable to procure sufficient evidence of 
their losses ; and whatever were the wrongs inflicted 
upon others by the errors in judgment on the part 
of the commissioners, the Americans who took the 
royal side, as a body, fared infinitely better than the 
great body of the Whigs, whose services and sacrifices 
were quite as great; for, besides the allowance of 
fifteen and a half millions of dollars in money, num- 
bers received considerable annuities, half-pay as mili- 
tary officers, large grants of land, and shared with 
other subjects in the patronage of the Crown. 

that the number of '* claims preferred in England and Nova Scotia was 
three thousand two hundred and twenty-five, of which were examined two 
thousand two hundred and ninety-one, disallowed three hundred and forty- 
two, withdrawn thirty-eight, not prosecuted five hundred and fifty-three ; " 
that the amount of claims allowed was £3,033,001 ; whereas, in the table 
which I have followed as giving a later &ndjinal view, the claims examined 
are stated at four thousand one hundred and eighteen, and the amount 
allowed at the sum in the text ; from which it follows, that one thousand 
eight hundred and twenty-seven persons recovered only the difference 
between £3,292,455 and £3,033,91, or the small sum of £259,364. 



10* 



CHAPTER XIII. 

The Banished Jjoyalists and their Descendants. Progress of Whig Princi- 
ples in the Canadas, in New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The whole 
System of Monopoly on which the Colonial System was founded and 
maintained, surrendered. The Colonists now manufacture what they 
will, buy where they please, and sell where they can. England her- 
self has pronounced the Vindication of the Whigs. The Heir to the 
British Throne at Mount Vernon and Bunker Hill. The Colonists 
claim to hold the highest Places in the Government, in the Army, and 
in the Navy. Effects of the Change of Policy. The Children of the 
Whigs and of the Loyalists, reconciled. 

We are now to discuss the political changes in the 
Colonies to which the banishment and confiscation 
acts during the war, and the hostile feeling at the 
peace, compelled large bodies of Loyalists to retire. 
When, in 1821, in ignorance and poverty, I went to 
the eastern frontier, I saw in wonder that, across the 
border, natives of Massachusetts and graduates of her 
ancient university, with exiles from other States, had 
reestablished the Colonial system of government with 
hardly a modification ; and, young as I was, well did 
I mark the administration of affairs. Indeed, as I 
read and inquired, I almost imagined that I was 
actually living in ante-revolutionary times. For some 
years, no political changes of moment occurred : but> 
in the course of events, important concessions were 
demanded ; and, finally, the whole system of monop- 
oly on which the system is founded, was abandoned^ 
as I purpose to relate so fully as my limits will allow. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 116 

In 1783, the French at Quebec and Montreal, and 
the English at Halifax, were few in numbers, and 
generally poor and ignorant ; while the countries 
now called Canada West and New Brunswick, were 
almost unbroken forests. 

Canada claims our first attention. As was predicted 
by wise statesmen in 1763, the French possessions 
then acquired have caused England great disquiet 
and immense expenditures. After the conquest, and 
before the cession by treaty, an exciting discussion 
arose, whether, as the ministry had the option be- 
tween Canada and Guadaloupe, they should not restore 
to France the former, and retain the latter. The fear 
was, that, if Canada were kept, the thirteen Colonies, 
rid of all apprehensions from the French, would in- 
crease too rapidly, and, in the end, throw off their 
dependence on the mother country. This view was 
supported in a tract supposed to be from the pen of 
one of the Burkes ; and was answered by Franklin, 
in his happiest and ablest manner. The ministry, 
having resolved to keep Canada, organized a military 
government; and the king, by proclamation, an- 
nounced his intention of granting, as soon as circum- 
stances would permit, a legislative assembly. That 
this promise was not redeemed for twenty-eight years 
was an error in policy, and a breach of royal faith. 
For a time, officers of the army were both governors 
and judges. Abuses, at last, became so serious as to 
attract the notice of the Crown. The change -which 
followed gave much offence to the Whigs of the 
thirteen Colonies, and is mentioned in the Declara- 
tion of Independence. 

In 1791, Mr. Pitt, in opposition to Fox and other 



116 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

British Whigs, carried through Parliament a bill wl 
divided Canada into two provinces, and which ] 
vided for a better administration of affairs than '. 
ever existed. It was in the debate on this meas^ 
that Burke and Fox severed the ties which '. 
bound them together for a long period. 

Tolerable harmony prevailed in Canada for a m 
ber of years. The first dispute of consequence 
mediately preceded the war of 1812 ; when 
Assembly demanded that the judges should vac 
their seats as legislators, and confine themselves 
their judicial duties. A sharp contest followed. [ 
Governor dissolved the Assembly; but his concl 
was not approved in England, and he was remo^ 
The appointment of the popular Sir George Prev 
and the war with the United States, hushed for aw 
the clamors of the discontented. At the peace, h 
ever, when Prcvost relinquished the executive cl 
to Sir George Gordon Drunnnond, a second qua 
arose between the judges and a new House of Ass 
bly ; and two occupants of the bench were impeacl 
Drummond was succeeded by the excellent Sir J« 
C. Sherbroke, under whose rule there was a perio< 
quiet. On his retirement, his successor, the Duk( 
Richmond, abandoned the practice of submittmg 
the Assembly an estimate in detail of the sums 
money required for each branch of the public serv; 
and thus added another element of discord. The 
sembly refused to comply with the Duke's wis 
and a long and angry controversy followed. 
Grace died of hydrophobia ; and the dispute was 
newed by the Earl of Dalhousie, who was appoir 
governor-general in his place. 



I 



niC- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 117 

This rapid narrative brings us to the year 1820, 
and to the first organized party in opposition to the 
established order of things. The Assembly, moderate 
in their earliest demands, — and for three or four 
years, — merely contested the right of the servants 
of the Crown to designate the manner of expending 
certain of the Colonial revenues; and, in justification, 
complained of previous misapplication of the public 
money. In 1825, during the temporary absence of 
Lord Dalhousie, Sir Francis Burton, who administered 
the government in the exigency, made such large 
concessions as to induce the Assembly to assume a 
bolder position, and to claim the control of the tvhole 
of the Colonial revenues, as well as to designate the 
objects to which they should be applied. This mas- 
terly movement for the entire fiscal power excited 
an interest in Canadian politics never before man- 
ifested, and afforded cause of serious alarm in Eng- 
land. The Assembly persisted ; and, after a discus- 
sion of two years, the ministry proposed to surrender 
the management of the revenues on the condition, 
that what is termed the " Civil List " should be paid 
out of them. And the matter w^ould have been 
adjusted on this basis, probably, but for the act of 
Lord Dalhousie, in disapproving and setting aside the 
election of Mr. Papineau to the Speaker's chair of 
the Assembly. The popularity of that gentleman in 
his own party was almost unbounded. The '^ Liber- 
als," as his friends were called — the Liberals, enraged 
beyond what such a circumstance warranted, gave 
vent to their feelings in the most exciting appeals 
to the people ; and Dalhousie's administration closed 
amid denunciations and imprecations. 



118 mSTORICAL ESSAY. 

Sir James Kempt undertook the diflBcult duty of 
hushing the storm in 1828 ; and, to this end, he in- 
vited Papineau and another leader of the Liberals to 
take seats in his cabinet ; and he gave assurances that 
the graver differences should be disposed of at the 
meeting of Parliament. This promise, in consequence 
of the death of George the Fourth, was not fulfilled. 
But Lord Aylmar, on succeeding to Sir James's place, 
renewed the pledge; and, as the Liberals affirmed, 
without conditions. However this may be, when he 
came to make known the precise concessions of the 
ministry, the quarrel which apparently had come to 
a termination, was opened anew and with increased 
violence. The Assembly, strong now in popular 
favor, assumed the most determined attitude and 
refused every overture. At last, in 1831, the min- 
istry yielded the essential points in dispute, and the 
considerate among the Colonists hoped for a cessa- 
tion of strife. But, though the home government 
conceded much. Lord Aylmar w^as still instructed to 
ask for special appropriations of money. This pro- 
duced new difficulties. The result was, that the 
breach between the Assembly and the servants of 
the Crown became as wide as ever before. Encour- 
aged by the advantages they had obtained in this 
long and wearisome dispute about the revenues, the 
Liberals now commenced an attack upon the Legis- 
lative Council. This body, in its powers, is much 
like the senate with us ; but its members held their 
places at the royal pleasure, and for life. Several of 
the incumbents, for reasons which I have not time 
to state, had become extremely obnoxious. The 
Assembly demanded, not the removal of the offen- 



raSTORICAL ESSAY.- 119 

give members, but the abolition of the Council itself, 
and its reconstruction on an elective basis. To this 
demand, the ministry gave a flat refusal. As mon- 
archists reason, well they might refuse ; since, to 
have surrendered the Council to the popular party, 
was to lose all check upon it, and to reduce the 
power and authority of the Crown to a mere shadow. 

The Assembly, on this rebuflT, seemed to lose all 
sense of official propriety. In hot haste, the Liberals 
prepared a long list of new and enormous wrongs ; 
they declared many old ones to be insufferable ; they 
rejected the bill granting money to support the gov- 
ernment ; they severely censured Lord Aylmar, and 
insisted upon his removal; and, in the most deter- 
mined tone, renewed the demand for an elective 
Council. Among the people the excitement was in- 
tense. Affairs, indeed, had come to a crisis. In nine 
sessions of the Canadian Parliament, immediately 
preceding, the deeply-hated Legislative Council had 
rejected no less than one hundred and twenty-two of 
the bills passed by the Assembly, and had so amended 
forty-seven others, that the latter body had refused 
concurrence. In a w^ord, legislation was at an end. 
The reconstruction of the Council was the fixed pur- 
pose on one side ; the Council, without change, was 
the determined resolution on the other. 

Such was the general condition of things in Canada, 
when, on a change of administration in England, Sir 
Robert Peel became Prime Minister in j)lace of Lord 
Melbourne. To redress every real wrong, to send 
over a commissioner with ample powers to examine 
and decide upon the complaints which had been so 
pertinaciously urged, year after year, was the prompt 



120 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

resolve of Sir Robert ; but, before he could execute 
his plan, another change occurred which restored 
Lord Melbourne to power. And yet, Lord Aylmar 
was recalled, and Lord Gosford was appointed both 
governor and commissioner. This mission was an 
utter failure. The year 1836 is memorable in Canor 
dian politics. Lord Gosford was disgraced. The As- 
sembly manifested desire for an appeal to arms, as 
the only remaining means to accomplish their long- 
cherished schemes. For the first time, the hvo great 
parties in England were brought to consider that the 
interposition of the Imperial Parliament was indis- 
pensable to the peace and integrity of the British 
empire ; for, at this time, disaffection had spread, as 
we shall see, to other Colonies. 

It is to be borne in mind, that Lower and Upper 
Canada were not, as now, united, and that my re- 
marks, thus far, relate entirely to the former. We 
pass to speak of the course of events in the latter, 
which, since the imion, is known as Canada West. 
On the election of a new Assembly in 1834, the Lib- 
erals achieved a triumph over the Conservatives, 
and, elated with their success, they assumed, as it 
were in a moment, the extreme pretensions which 
had been slowly matured, in the dissensions of fifteen 
years, in the sister Colony. 

There was no department of the government which 
they did not assail; no public serv^ant whom they did 
not accuse. Their wish to secede from England was 
hardly denied or concealed imder a decent veil. In 
fine, to pass from a state of ordinary quiet to loud 
murmurs and open rebellion, was scarcely the work 
of a single year. In the hope of allaying the excite- 




HISTORICAL ESSAY. 121 

ment, the ministry recalled Sir John Colbum, and 
appointed Sir Francis Bond Head governor in his 
stead. Never, in politics, was there a greater blun- 
der. Sir Francis, whatever his merits as a writer or 
a soldier, was a mere child among politicians. He 
himself thought so ; and others said that his appoint- 
ment was a ministerial joke. The juncture required 
the wisdom of the wised of England's many wise 
statesmen ; and her ministers were inexcusably remiss 
in refusing to see that it was so. Indications that 
the royal authority would soon be disputed in the 
field, were too manifest to be mistaken. Yet the mil- 
itary force of the Crown was tardily increased. At 
last, but too late, the ministry appealed to Parliament, 
irrespective of party distinctions, for the calm judg- 
ment and the united ability of that body. The death 
of King WilUam quickly followed. To involve the 
Illustrious Lady who now occupies the throne, in a 
conflict with her subjects, at the beginning of her 
reign, was a measure which ministers and nobles and 
commoners might well wish to avoid ; and, in the ir- 
resolution of the moment, the Canadas defied her, and 
met her troops in deadly combat. The last months 
of 1837, and the opening of 1838, were crowded with 
deeds of violence and blood. I recall, in sadness, 
the attempt to seize upon Toronto, the capital of 
Upper Canada, the battles of St. Denis, of St. Charles, 
^d of Bois Blanc. These, and other hostile aflfairs, 
exposed the weakness of the Liberals as a revolution- 
ary party ; disclosed that they had no hold on the 
hearts of the masses; disclosed that they had ven- 
t^ed into open war with a mighty empire without 
J^esources; disclosed how miserably deficient they 

VOL. I. 11 



122 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

were in military talents, and how slight was the con- 
fidence of their leaders in one another. And so, too^ 
I recall in horror the butcheries at St Eustache, as 
affording melancholy proof of what, indeed, hiunan 
history is fiill of — that>. when brother fights brother, 
no outrage, no wickedness, is too great ; since there, 
men were needlessly maimed and slain; weeping, 
famishing women were driven out to perish, and 
were plundered and murdered ; since there, the dead 
were mangled, and suflered to lie unburied, and to be 
eaten by dogs. These, and other deeds as awful as 
these, but of which I shall make no mention, shocked 
the civilization of the age. 

The subsequent efforts of the leaders of the Liber- 
als to form a provisional government at Navy Island, 
where they concentrated their scattered followers, 
drew down upon them universal contempt. They 
strove to inspire the deceived, shivering, and starving 
creatures around them with the belief that citizens 
of the United States would flock to their standard, 
and enable them to retrieve their fortunes. But, 
deluded from first to last ; incessantly quarrelling 
among themselves ; and showing to the world, in 
the columns of the newspapers, the meanness of their 
personal disputes ; the movement, which, in their in- 
fatuation they designed for a revolution, and for an 
imposing page in American annals, terminated in a 
disgraceful insurrection. In their appeals to the pop- 
ular ear, previous to the outbreak, they had likened 
their situation, and the objects for which they con- 
tended, to those of our fathers, — the Whigs of 1776 ; 
but they were answered, and truly, that several of 
the graver disabilities which restrained and oppressed 




HISTORICAL ESSAY. 128 

the thirteen Colonies, had been removed. So, too, 
they had adopted the general sentiments of our Dec- 
laration of Independence, and incorporated a large 
portion of it into their Manifesto of Wrongs. 

For reasons which wDl appear anon, I was a calm 
and interested observer; and the opinion which I 
then formed, I repeat after the lapse of twenty years. 
I need not to be told, that of the fallen, we should 
always speak in pity, and of the guilty, in mercy. 
But, we are not to repress our indignation, when, as 
in the case before us, men of talents and education, 
of political knowledge and experience, skulk away, 
and leave their dupes to die on the scaJSbld, or to 
pine and perish in prison. Such men, — the men who 
slip the halter for themselves, but fasten it round the 
necks of the ignorant and the lowly, — should stand 
accursed. 

At the suppression of the insurrection, Canada was 

in a deplorable condition, as the imagination can well 

picture. It often happens in human affairs, that the 

mischief all done, and the mischief all exposed, a 

remedy is thought of and applied. It was so then. 

Civil war produced, with all its miseries, needy or 

second and third rate knights, and baronets and 

barons were no longer sent to govern, or rather to 

mis-govern, the people of Canada. Lord Durham, a 

statesman of acknowledged wisdom, moderation, and 

ability, was soUcited to undertake the task of healing 

the disorders which other persons of rank had helped 

to increase, and which, had he been employed at the 

outset, could, and would have been prevented. His 

powers as ambassador were as great as were ever 

conferred on a British subject. The Colonial gentle- 



124 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

men with whom I constantly mingled, hailed his com- 
ing, much as they would have done the advent of an 
angel. His keen vision surveyed all Canada at a 
glance. Plans for bold and comprehensive reforms, 
were formed with the rapidity of intuition. His heart 
was in the work, and he labored incessantly. As 
Washington had been the saviour of the thirteen Col- 
onies, so he proudly thought to become the saviour 
of the domains which England conquered from France, 
and which, strangely enough, are all the continental 
passessions that remain to her in this hemisphere. 

Alas, that Lord Durham should have been arrested 
in his glorious career. But in politics, the idol of to- 
day is the martyr of the morrow, if he recognize the 
doctrines of human brotherhood rather than the dic- 
tations of his party. 

His Lortlship found the prisons full of persons 
charged with participation in the insurrection, and 
with crimes agjiinst persons and property. The clam- 
ors for the life of the leaders were awful. But there 
had been enough of death, — he nobly s^id, — enough 
of widowhood and orphanage ; and so, true to his na- 
ture, he resolved to save and to spare. In the intense 
excitement which prevailed, he feared that justice 
would not be done by juries, and, in pure mercy to 
the ruined and the fallen, he banished to the Ber- 
mudas several of the insurgents who made written 
confession of guilt, as the best means of allaying 
animosities, and of preventing further communication 
between the leading spirits who had been arrested, 
and those who were still at large. Unfortunately for 
himself, his course was technically wrong, for the 
Bermudas were not within his jurisdiction ; and, ac- 



I 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 125 

cording to the letter of criminal law, a British sub- 
ject cannot be deprived of his liberty, without the 
finding of a jury and the sentence of a judge. The 
decree of banishment was accordingly disapproved ; 
and Lord Durham abandoned his mission at once, 
and returned to England without leave of the queen 
or her ministers. 

He was proud and sensitive; and the proud and 
sensitive will not brook dishonorable imputation. 
That he erred, may be admitted. With some of his 
peers, his high character, his motives in tliis partic- 
ular case, were of no avail. In a word, his foes pur- 
sued him much as the famished wolf follows a lone, 
lost child in the forest — to lap blood, drop by drop. 
The vulgar of our race murder with the knife and 
with the club ; the gentlemen, to gain in politics, de- 
stroy with the tongue, with the pen, and with the press. 

Lord Durham did not long survive his disgrace. 
He lived long enough, however, to complete for pos- 
terity an elaborate report of what he did, of what he 
intended to do, and of what should be done, in Brit- 
ish America. This document, in the passion of the 
hour, was reviewed in Parliament and elsewhere with 
merciless severity. I quote a single instance. In 
1839, the " London Quarterly," in a notice of it, said, 
in concluding some very pungent remarks : " We can 
venture to answer, that every uncontradicted assertion of 
thai volume will be made the excuse of future rebellions^ — 
every unquestioned principle toUl be hereafter perverted into 
a gospel of treaso7i ; and thai, if thai raiik and infectious 
Report does not receive tJie high, marked, and oiergetic dis- 
countenance and indignation of the imperial crown and par- 

Uameiii, British America is lost'' 

11* 



126 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

But this Report, so filled with treasoniB, so sure to 
dismember the British empire a second time, in the 
apprehension of those who denounced it, is already 
considered a masterly State paper; and, curious to 
addj its recommendations have beeti adopted in almost every 
essenticd particular. 

The insurrection in Canada involved the United 
States. That some of our citizens were concerned in 
it, is beyond question ; the burning of the American 
steamer Caroline bv officers of the Crown ; the seiz- 
ure and trial of McLeod, the principal actor in the 
affair ; the avowal of the British ministry that they 
justified him, with their demand on the Federal gov- 
ernment for his release; these, and other circum- 
stances, formed a complication of difficulties, which 
caused the wisest to ponder. At this juncture, the 
peace of the country depended on the grand and 
massive man who now rests at Marshfield. It was 
easy for party men who were secure in their homes 
to call upon him, for party purposes, to quit the De- 
partment of State ; but we,* who lived upon the bor- 
der, who daily saw the elements of strife gaining 
strength, and who were exposed to the marauder's 
bludgeon and the marauder's torch ; we watched his 
movements with intense interest, and when we found 
that he would not be driven from his post, we blessed 
him. 

It is not necessary to trace the course of events in 
Canada further. Lord Durham's mission, in its re- 
sults, terminated the strifes. 

We pass to New Brunswick. The original popu- 

^ My home was still at Eastport, Maine. 



\ 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 127 

lation df this Colony was composed almost entirely 
of the .Loyalists of the Revolution. It was set off 
from Nova Scotia in 1784, without pressing necessity, 
except to provide for these unhappy victims to civil 
war. The judges of the Supreme Court first ap- 
pointed were natives of Massachusetts, and graduates 
of Harvard University. The secretary of the prov- 
ince was an Episcopal minister of New Jersey, who 
was in communication with Arnold while he was 
plotting treason. The judges of the inferior courts, 
the sheriflfe, collectors of the customs, and other func- 
tionaries, were also our banished countrymen ; and 
most of them were born in New England and the 
Middle States. Thus the offices were given to Loy- 
alist families, and descended from father to son. 

The first political agitation of moment in New 

Brunswick was, I think, in 1837, when Sir Archibald 

Campbell, — who had served his king as a soldier in 

almost every part of the world, — was compelled to 

retire, upon address of the House of Assembly for 

his removal from the executive chair. Sir John 

Harvey was his successor. He, too, was a military 

officer of much merit. He had warm friends and 

bitter foes. His career was even more stormy than 

that of his predecessor ; but he cared little for angry 

newspapers and angry politicians. The American 

people on the eastern frontier have reason to re- 

niember his course when the controversy relative 

to the North-Eastern Boundary had reached a point 

te threaten hostilities. Congress had conditionally 

placed millions of money and a large army at the 

disposal of the President ; and Maine, to defend the 

territory in dispute, had authorized a loan, raised 



128 raSTORICAL ESSAY. 

troops and established garrisons. The roads in one 
section of the State were filled miles together with 
sleds loaded with soldiers and the munitions of war. 
British regulars were moving in every direction, and 
a British frigate, with a regiment detached from 
Bermuda, lay anchored within a mile of my own 
home. All was dread, confusion, alarm. Worship 
was disturbed on the Sabbath, and business was 
neglected on week-days. In this condition of things, 
General Scott was ordered to Maine, to consult with 
the governor and the members of the legislature, to 
negotiate with Sir John Harvey, and, if possible, to 
prevent extremities. The two warriors, to the dis- 
pleasure of demagogues, but to the satisfaction of 
the country generally, agreed upon terms which pre- 
vented bloodshed at the lone military posts on the 
upper waters of the St. John ; and thus saved, prob- 
ably, England and the United Stiites from the calam- 
ities of war. 

Sir William Colebrooke, another officer in the 
British army, followed Sir John Harvey, and, for a 
time, was very popular. The appointment, however, 
of his son-in-law to an office next in rank to his 
own, gave much offence, and caused an organized 
opposition to his administration. In the end, the 
dispute broke up Sir William's cabinet, and produced 
a memorial from the Assembly to the queen. 

Lord Stanley, (who now is the Earl of Derby, and 
lately Prime Minister of England,) who was then 
Secretary for the Colonies, so far approved of the 
course of the opposition, as to disallow the appoint- 
ment, and to direct the return of the members of 
the Council who had retired. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 129 

The Liberals claimed to have gained a point never 
before conceded, namely, that, in filling Colonial offices^ 
persmis bom in England tvere to be excluded. In fact, it 
was so ; for when a similar question arose in Canada, 
subsequently, the governor-general affirmed that view 
of Lord Stanley's despatch. Let the reader mark 
the change : the Whigs of the Revolution made no 
demand hke this ; they asked merely for a recogni- 
tion of Colonial talents and a share of the patronage 
of the Crown; — it remained for the children of Loy- 
alists to a,sk for and obtain the monopoly of public 
office. 

The principal leader of the Liberals at this time, 
was the Hon. Lemuel A. Wilmot, who, of Loyalist 
descent, is a grandson of Daniel Bliss, a native of 
Concord, Massachusetts, and a graduate of Harvard 
University. Mr. Wilmot possesses brilliant powers, 
and is an eloquent and effective speaker. It hap- 
pened that I made his acquaintance when his for- 
tunes were considered desperate ; when some of his 
most ardent personal friends said he was a madman ; 
and when liis adversaries told him to his face that 
he was a traitor. He accepted, finally, the office of 
attorney-general, and at the present moment is a 
judge of the Supreme Court. 

Sir William Colebrooke was transferred to the 
government of British Guiana in 1848, and was suc- 
ceeded by Sir Edmund Head, late governor-general 
of British America. 

Unlike most who have administered Colonial affairs. 
Sir Edmund is a civilian. His life in New Brunswick 
was not without vexations; but he kept opposing 
politicians in tolerable humor, and departed for 



130 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

Canada, with the hearty good wishes of most of the 
people. 

Nothing which need detain us has occurred within 
ten or twelve years, and we hasten to Nova Scotia. 

In that Colony, the first difficulty of consequence 
with the servants of the Crown was in 1836, when 
the government was administered by Sir Colin 
Campbell, an old soldier, with many scars. Un- 
skilled in wordy strife, and used only to move men 
by the tap of the drum and the sound of the bugle, 
he made sad work of it among politicians and news- 
paper editors, and was soon involved with both. At 
this time there was not an incorporated city in Nova 
Scotia. The magistrates who held commissions from 
the Crown, and who were entirely independent of 
the people, controlled everything in Iheir respective 
parishes and counties. "Neglect, mismanagement^ 
and corruption, were perceptible everywhere." In 
the government of the Province, the legislative, ex- 
ecutive, and judicial powers were strangely blended ; 
for the same individual — such was the exact fact — 
was called upon in one capacity to make laws; in 
another, to advise the governor as to their execu- 
tion ; and, in a third, to administer them as a judge * 
on the bench. Nay, more ; the Episcopal bishop of 
the Province was a member of the Council; five other 
members of that body were of two family connec- 
tions, and five more were copartners in one mercan- 
tile firm; while the sessions were with closed doors, 
and the incumbents held office for life. To add that 
the Council was composed of only twelve members, 

I Even the chief justice of the Province performed these threefold 
and incompatible duties. 



tOKl 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 131 

and was not responsible, because it could not be 
reached ; to add this, and the reader has the outlines 
of the political institutions of Nova Scotia, and in 
several important particulars, of all British America, 
hardly more than thirty years ago. 

In this condition of affairs, the Hon. Joseph Howe, 
who is now known as a statesman, was elected to 
the House of Assembly. Like other leaders of the 
Liberals of whom I have spoken, he is of Loyalist 
descent His father was John Howe, of Boston, who 
embarked for Halifax with the British army at the 
evacuation, and became postmaster-general of the 
Province. Mr. Howe himself was bred a printer. 
Prosecuted for an article which appeared in his 
paper, arraigning the magistrates of Halifax for gross 
corruption and neglect of duty, and acquitted by 
the jury, to the great joy of those who wished for 
reform, he was adopted at once as their champion. 
With a temerity that amazed his own friends, he 
assailed the Council and the abuses of the existing 
system of government generally, in twelve carefully 
drawn resolutions. In the Canadas, as we have seen, 
the Reformers, or Liberals, were fast hurrying mut-- 
ters to a bloody issue ; and these resolutions, em- 
bracing as they did radical changes in every depart- 
ment, were opposed in a temper th^it would have 
silenced forever any common man. But they passed 
the Assembly finally, and were transmitted to Eng- 
land. Such was the beginning. 

Sir Colin Campbell resisted Mr. Howe, and the 
party of which he was the recognized head, for 
about three years, when the ministry wisely trans- 
ferred him to another Colony. 



132 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

Lord Falkland, who succeeded, married a daughter 
of King William the Fourth. His Lordship endeav- 
ored to put an end to the animosities which Sir 
Colin had bequeathed him; and his first important 
measure was, the formation of a coalition cabinet, 
in which Mr. Howe accepted a place. So diverse, 
however, were its members in opinion and in social 
rank, that the " Coalition " — as sure to fail there as 
everywhere else — lasted hardly a year and a half. 
He next dissolved the Assembly, and met a new one, 
only to encounter increased difficulties. In truth, 
the Liberals were determined upon extensive re- 
forms, and would not listen to overtures of compro- 
mise. In 1844, such had become the tone of the 
press and the people that favored and insisted upon 
change, that political discussions took the place of 
all others. In the Assembly there was a debate on 
fourteen successive days, in a temper that was not 
even decent. The relations between Lord Falkland 
and Mr. Howe had become personally hostile, and 
remarks were made by the latter which are not to be 
approved. 

It had ordinarily happened, that on the adjourn- 
ment of the Assembly, the people gradually became 
quiet and pursued their avocations, in forgetfulness 
of politics. It was not so then. 

To hear the fishermen and the wood-choppers 
speculate upon the wonders to be accomplished by 
" Reform," one would have thought that " Jo Howe," 
as they called him, once in power, fish and fuel 
would advance in price in Boston market full one 
quarter part. In 1845, Mr. Howe traversed Nova 
Scotia, and increased the popular excitement He 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 138 

addressed throngs in all the principal places, and 
often spoke three, and even four hours at a time. 

It was "Jo Howe," by day and by night The 
Yankee pedler who is immortalized in Sam Slick, 
drove good bargains in " Jo Howe " clocks. In the 
coal mine, in the plaster quarry, in the ship-yard, 
and in the forest, and on board the fishing-pogy, the 
jigger, and the pinkey, it was still "Jo Howe." 
Ships and babies were named "Jo Howe." The 
topers of the shops and taverns swore great oaths 
about "Jo Howe." The young men and maidens 
flirted and courted in "Jo Howe " badges, and played 
and sang "Jo Howe" glees. It was "Jo Howe" 
ever3rwhere. 

In the Assembly, the same year, Mr. Howe's 
speeches were frequent and personal. His invec- 
tives against Lord Falkland were bitter beyond ex- 
ample, and he declared, on one occasion, that it 
might become necessary "to hire a black fellow to 
horsewhip his Lordship through the streets of Hali- 
fax." 

• Meantime the Liberals made steady progress, and 
eflFected changes which, at the outset, they them- 
selves did not deem possible. 

Sir John Harvey, already mentioned as governor 
of New Brunswick, was ordered to assume the direc- 
tion of affairs in 1846, and specially instructed to 
adopt conciliatory measures, and to calm the public 
mind. He attempted to form a cabinet, as Lord 
Falkland had done, of Liberals and Conservatives, 
but giving the latter party a majority of one. He 
&iled, because the Liberals claimed to be in the 
ascendant, and because some of that party were 

VOL. I. 12 



134 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

averse to a second " Coalition." Sir John promptly 
referred the contest to the people, by dissolving the 
Assembly and ordering a general election. The 
Conservatives were defeated. 

The new Assembly met early in 1848, when the 
existing Council retired. The Liberals filled the va- 
cant seats with their own leaders, and disposed of 
the great law-offices of the Crown at pleasure. Mr. 
Howe became a member of the cabinet, and received, 
besides, the lucrative post of provincial secretary, 
which, as Colonists fix rank, is inferior only to the 
office of governor. Thus, in twelve years, the politi- 
cal millennium was ushered in ; but sooth to say, the 
Boston price-current continued to quote fish and 
wood and grindstones, according to the old commer- 
cial law of supply and demand, to the utter astonish- 
ment of many a simple " Bluenose " who had neg- 
lected his business, year after year, to make "Jo 
Howe " a great man. 

Men's motives are generally mingled, and it may 
be admitted that Mr. Howe desired, in this long 
struggle, to win personal distinction; but it is due 
to him to say that he declined office more than once, 
and that by his labors and sacrifices he achieved 
great and permanent good for his native Colony. 
His speeches and political papers have been pub- 
lished in Boston in two octavo volumes, and show 
that he well deserves the name of statesman.^ 

Such are the outlines of the political agitations in 
the British possessions, north and east of us. 

It remains to consider the remtts of these agita- 
tions, — to speak of the cmcessiom of the mother- 

^ Sec the notice of John Howe. 



k 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 135 

country. Upon this subject, details are unneces- 
sary. 

The whole system of monopoly, on which the 
Colonial form of government was founded, has been 
swept away. The disabilities, as relates to com- 
merce and manufactures, which existed in our fath- 
ers' time, have disappeared. There is not an im- 
perial custom-house, or an imperial revenue-officer, 
in all British America. Colonial ships voyage to all 
parts of the world. The substance of a long des- 
patch from Earl Grey to Lord Elgin, in 1846, was, 
that the Cohitisis may make vhat ilicy tvill; may buy 
where they please ; may sell ivhere tliey can. Had this 
State paper been framed seventy years earlier, and in 
1776, the public debt of England would have been 
five hundred millions of dollars less than it is, and 
one hundred thousand Anglo-Saxon men and women 
would not have perished in battle, in stonii, and in 
prison. 

Mark the progress in civilization and in political 
freedom. " Make what you will ; buy where you 
please ; sell where you can ! " In the annunciation 
of these words, England herself pronounced the vin- 
dication of the " upstart barristers," — John Adams, 
John Jay, and John Marshall, — the vindication of the 
" upstart tobacco planter " of Mount Vernon, and of 
their associates; and in the face of the civilized 
world she abandoned the accusation that tlie Whigs 
of the Revolution "were but successful rebels and 
traitors." In the old thirteen Colonies, she endeav- 
ored to maintain, by arms, the monopoly of ships 
and workshops and places of honor, for natives of 
the British Isles ; and humanity weeps over smoul- 



i 



136 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

dering ruins and divided and expatriated families, to 
save the Colonial system of government, which, with- 
out an element of human brotherhood, was trans- 
mitted by heathen Carthage and Rome, and which, 
all now agree, should never have been fastened upon , 
the Colonists of any Christian nation. Mark the 
change! Fourteen years after the promulgation of 
Earl Gray's despatch, the heir to the British throne, 
and his suite of nobles, mused at the spot where 
Washington is buried, and on the battle-ground 
where Warren died ! ^ 

Again, England no longer excludes Colonial tal- 
ents from places of honor or emolument The 
governor-general and the governors of the • separ- 
ate Colonies are still appointed by the Crown, but 
the subordinate posts are open to Colonists, in ac- 
cordance with the popular will. Nay, more. Mr. 
Howe, in several elaborate letters to Lord John 
Russell, claims that natives of the Colonies shall be 
eligible to the highest places in the church, in the 
army and navy ; shall be allowed to represent Eng- 
land at foreign courts, and to occupy the position of 
cabinet ministers at home. 

In view of these pretensions, recall that a governor 
of Massachusetts once refused to appoint John Ad- 
ams a justice of the peace; that Washington was 
denied the commission of colonel in the army, and 
that John Marshall, who lived to found the juris- 
prudence of a nation, was doomed, as a Colonist, 

1 The Prince of Wales visited Mount Vernon, October 5, and Bunker 
Hill, October 19, 1860. Amon;^ the distinguished personages who ac- 
companied him on his visit to the Colonies and to the United States, were 
the Duke of Newcastle, the Earl of St. Germans, Viscount Hincherbroke, 
and Honorable Major-Gcneral Robert Bruce. 



fflSTORICAL ESSAY. 137 

to plead before English-bom judges, in the county 
courts of Virginia. A single word more. 

A few years ago the most intense hate was cher- 
ished by Colonists towards people of the United 
States. Their fathers were the losers, otn's were the 
winners, in the war of the Revolution. Nor was 
kind feeling entertained among us. It was thought 
disloyal in a Colonist, and to evince a want of pa- 
triotism in a citizen of the republic, to seek to pro- 
mote sentiments of love on either side, and to unite 
kinsmen who, two generations ago, were severed in 
the dismemberment of the British empire. But the 
change is wonderful; and some persons who com- 
menced the work of reconciliation live to witness 
the consummation of their highest hopes. The chil- 
dren of the Whigs and the children of the Tories 
have become reconciled.' God be praised that it is 
so! The controversy relative to our rights in the 
fisheries in the British colonial seas, which for 
awhile, on the American side of the frontier, was 
conducted by my single pen, opened, as I ventiu'e 
to record, the way for the adjustment of all the 
questions of difference. The Treaty of Reciprocity, 
concluded in 1854, was the crowning measure of 
peace and good-will ; since, if revised — as it should 
be — it will be lasting. 

1 This chapter was written before the breaking out of the present 
unhallowed rebellion, but I make no change in the text, in consecjuence 
of the feeling towanls the North by a part of the politicians and of the 
newspapers in British America ; for what is said and written is not 
worthy of thought, much loss does it represent the great Colonial heart 

12* 



^ 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Introductory Remarks. Principles of Unbelief prevalent. The Whigs 
lose sight of their Original Purposes, and propose Conquests. Decline 
of Public Spirit. Avarice, Rapacity, Traffic with the Enemy. Gam- 
bling, Speculation, Idleness, Dissipation, and Extravagance. Want 
of Patriotism. Excessive Issue of Paper might have been avoided. 
Recruits for the Army demand Enormous Bounty. Shameless Deser- 
tions and Immoralities. Commissions in the Army to men destitute 
of Principle. Court-martials frequent, and many Officers Cashiered. 
Resignations upon Discreditable Pretexts, and alarmingly prevalent. 
The Public Mind fickle, and Disastrous Changes in Congress. The 
Whigs of England. 

It has been my constant endeavor to speak of those 
who opposed the Whigs, in the momentous conflict 
which made us an independent people, calmly and 
mildly. For — 

" Mercy to him that shows it is the rule 
And righteous limitation of its act, 
By which Heaven moves in pardoning guilty man ; 
And he that shows none, being ripe in years, 
A ml conscious of the outrage he commits, 
Shall seek it, and not find it, in his turn" 

Virtuous men, whatever their errors and mistakes, 
are to be respected ; and with regard to others, it is 
well to remember the beautiful sentiment of Gold- 
smith, that " we should never strike an unnecessary 
blow at a victim over whom Providence holds the 
scourge of its resentment." 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 139 

While intending to be just, I have felt that I might 
also be generous. 

^^ Can he be strenuous in his country's cause 
Who slights the charities for whose dear sake 
That country, if at all, must be beloved ? '* 

A word now of the winners in the strife. I pre- 
mise that I am of Whig descent. My father's father 
received his death-wound under Washington, at Tren- 
ton ; my mother's father fought under Stark, at Ben- 
nington. There are those wlio are still ready to 
do battle for every "Whig," and to denounce every 
^ Tory ; " who still believe that all who were known 
by the former name were disinterested and virtuous, 
and that all to whom the latter epithet was applied, 
were selfish and vicious, and deservhig of reproach. 
To these, I address the concluding chapter of this 
Essay. 

I do not care, of all things, to be thought to want 
appreciation of those of my countrymen who broke 
tlie yoke of Colonial vassalage ; nor, on the other 
hand, do I care to imitate the writers of a late school, 
and treat the great and the successful actors in the 
world's affairs as little short of divinities, and as 
exempt from criticism. In speaking of men who 
have left tlieir impress upon their age, something, I 
own, is due to the dignity of history ; but something, 
too, is due to the dignity of truth. The bandaged 
eyes and the even scales, I apprehend, are as fit em- 
blems for the student as for the judge ; and so, upon /^ 
the evidence, and upon the law of progress, I say 
that we are not to look for as great intellectual de- 
velopmentj or for as high civilization, among bound 
or even emancipated British Colonists, as, after the 



/ 



140 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

lapse of two generations, exist around us, and in 
Anglo-Saxon countries everywhere. 

We have now the off-hand limnings of John Ad- 
ams and of others, of the men and manners of the 
second half of the last century ; and those who are 
well informed as to the leading personages and events 
of that period will not doubt the general accuracy of 
the pictures. These sketches of the principal char- 
acters in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and in Con- 
gress, as well as the mention of the sectional jeal- 
ousies that prevailed, — of the personal quarrels and 
alienations that existed among the Whigs of high 
position in the civil and military line at home, and 
among those who were employed abroad on embas- 
sies of the last importance to the Whig cause, — show 
clearly that the prominent men of the Revolutionary 
era were great and good, little and bad, mingled ; 
just as elsewhere in the annals of our race. The 
Whigs of lofty virtue, like William III. of England, 
were compelled by the necessities of their condition 
to employ as instruments persons whom they knew 
or believed to be mere mercenaries, who would fall 
off and join the royal side the moment that interest 
or a case for individual safety should appear to re- 
quire; and, like William, they seemed oblivious of 
this fact, simply because, under the circumstances, 
it was sound policy to be blind, forgetful, and igno- 
rant. 

Nay, this general statement will not serve my pur- 
pose. Justice demands as severe a judgment of the 
Whigs as of their opponents ; and I shall here record 
the result of long and patient study. At the Revolu- 
tionary period, the principles of unbelief were diffused 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 141 

to a considerable extent throughout the Colonies. It 
is certain that several of the most conspicuous per- 
sonages of those days were either avowed disbelievers 
in Christianity, or cared so little about it, that they 
were commonly regarded as disciples of the English 
or French schools of sceptical philosophy. Again, 
the Whigs were by no means exempt from the lust 
of dominion. Several of them were among the most 
noted land speculators of their time. As I have else- 
where said, in the progress of the war, and in a man- 
ner hardly to be defended, we find them sequestering 
and appropriating to themselves the vast estates of 
those who opposed them. So we find that while the 
issue of the contest was yet doubtful, they lost sight 
of its original purposes, and in their endeavors to 
procure the alliance of France, they proposed that 
she should join them in an enterprise to conquer her 
own former Colonial possessions in America ; and the 
Saxon thirst for boundless sway may be seen in their 
calm and thoughtful proposition, to keep nearly all 
the soil and fishing-grounds to be acquired for their 
own use and aggrandizement. Still again, avarice and 
rapacity were seemingly as common then as now. 
Indeed, the stock-jobbing, the extortion, the forestall- 
ing, the low arts and devices to amass wealth, that 
were practised during the struggle, are almost incred- 
ible. Washington mourned the want of virtue as 
early as 1775, and averred that he "trembled at the 
prospect." Soldiers were stripped of their miserable 
pittance, that contractors for the army might become 
rich in a single campaign. Many of the sellers of 
merchandise monopolized articles of the first neces- 
sity, and would not part with them to their suffering 



r 



142 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

countrymen, and to the wives and children of those 
who were absent in the field, unless at enormous 
profits. The traffic carried on with the royal troops 
was immense. Men of all descriptions finally en- 
gaged in it, and those who at the beginning of the 
war would have shuddered at the idea of any connec- 
tion with the enemy, pursued it with avidity. The 
public securities were often counterfeited ; official 
signatures were forged ; and plunder and robbery 
openly indulged. Appeals to the guilty from the 
pulpit, the press, and the halls of legislation, were 
alike unheeded. The decline of public spirit ; the 
love of gain of those in office ; the plotting of dis- 
affected persons ; and the malevolence of faction 
became widely spread, and in parts of the country 
were uncontrollable. The useful occupations of life, 
and the legitimate pursuits of commerce, were aban- 
doned by thousands. The basest of men enriched 
themselves ; and many of the most estimable sunk 
into obscurity and indigence. There were those who 
would neither pay their debts nor their taxes. The 
finances of the State, and the fortunes of individuals 
were to an alarming extent at the mercy of gamblers 
and speculators. The indignation of Washington was 
freely expressed. "It gives me very sincere pleas- 
ure," he said, in a letter to Joseph Reed, " to find the 
Assembly [of Pennsylvania] is so well disposed to 
second your endeavors in bringing those murderers 
of our cause, the monopolizers, forestallers, and en- 
grossers, to condign punishment. It is much to be 
lamented, that each State long ere this has not hunted 
them down as pests to society, and the greatest ene- 
mies we have to the happiness of America. No pun- 



% 



fflSTORICAL ESSAY. 143 

ishment, in my opinion, is too great for the man who 
can huild his greatness upon his country's ruin." In 
a letter to another, he drew this picture, which he 
solemnly declared to be a true one : " From what I 
have seen, heard, and in part know," said he, " I should 
in one word say, that idleness, dissipation, and extrav- 
agance, seem to have laid fast hold of most ; that 
speculation, peculation, and an insatiable thirst for 
riches, seem to have got the better of every other 
consideration and almost every order of men ; and 
that party disputes and personal quarrels are the 
great business of the day." In other letters he la- 
ments the laxity of public morals, the "distressed, 
ruinous, and deplorable condition of affairs ; " the 
"many melancholy proofs of the decay of private 
virtue ; " and asks if " the paltry consideration of a 
little pelf to individuals is to be placed in competition 
with the essential rights and liberties of the present 
generation, and of millions yet unborn.** And scat- 
tered through his correspondence are passages which 
show " the increasing rapacity of the times ; " the 
" declining zeal of the people ; " and in which he re- 
joices over the " virtuous few," who were struggling 
against the corruptions and "stock-jobbing of the 
multitude." 

I pass next to discuss the question of patriotism. 
In the first place, then, it should be remembered that 
the war was undertaken for the holiest cause which 
ever arrayed men in battle ; that the Whigs were a 
minority in some of the States, barely equalled their 
opponents in others, and in the whole country com- 
posed but an inconsiderable majority; and that of 
consequence, there was every incentive to exertion. 



144 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

to action, to union, and to sacrifice for the common 
good. But what is the truth ? To say nothing of 
the Whigs of Vermont, who at one period were de- 
clared by Washington to be "a dead weight upon 
the cause;" some examination of the resources of 
the thirteen Federal States has served to convince 
me, that, had the advice and plans of the illustrious 
Commander-in-Chief, of Franklin, and other judicious 
and patriotic persons been adopted ; and had there 
been system and common prudence and integrity in 
the management of affairs, the army might have been 
well fed, clothed, and paid throughout the struggle. 
The prevalent impression is that America was poor. 
In my judgment it was not so. The people who, 
before the Revolution, bought tea to the amount of 
two and a half millions of dollars annually, and who, 
hi the most distressing periods of the contest, im- 
ported useless articles of luxury, were not poor, but 
able to maintain those who served in the field. Par- 
ticular States, and thousands of individuals, exhausted 
their means to aid in achieving the independence of 
their country; but I am satisfied that the want of 
patriotism in other States, and in other individual 
Whigs, produced the appalling calamities of the war, 
and compelled the resort to the seizure of private 
property, and other objectionable expedients. The 
issuing of bills of credit was, perhaps, unavoidable ; 
but their excessive depreciation might and should 
have been prevented. The exports of the Colonies 
prior to 1775 were large; and w^ith a liberal allow- 
ance for diminished production during hostilities, 
there were still provisions at all times to feed the 
people, and both the Whig and the Eoyal forces. In 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 145 

fact^ the prizes taken by the. numerous privateers 
were very valuable, and increased the ability of the 
country, probably, nearly as much as it was lessened 
by the partial interruption of agriculture. The 
King's troops were well supplied ; for his generals 
paid ^ hard money," and not the "^ continental stuff." 
" I am amazed," said Washington to Colonel Stewart, 
" at the report you make of the quantity of provision 
that goes daily into Philadelphia ^ from the County 
of Bucks ; " — and mark that this was written in Jan- 
uary of that memorable winter which the American 
army passed in nakedness and starvation at Valley 
Forge. So, too, there were men enough who in name 
were Whigs, to meet the strongest force that was 
ever employed to suppress the popular movement. 
There was always an army — on paper; but the 
votes of Congress were seldom executed by the 
States. At the close of one campaign there was not 
a sufficient number of troops in camp to man the 
lines; and at the opening of another, when the 
Commander-in-Chief was expected to take the field, 
" scarce any State in the Union," as he himself said, 
had " an eighth part of its quota " in service. The 
bounty finally paid to soldiers was enormous. Omit- 
ting details, the general fact will be indicated by stat- 
ing that the price for a single recruit was as high 
sometimes as seven hundred and fifty, and one thou- 
sand dollars, on enlistment for the war, besides the 
bounty and emoluments given by Congress; and 
that one hundred and fifty dollars "in specie" was 
exacted and paid for a term of duty of only five 
months. Such were the extraordinary inducements 

1 Then occupied b}- the British Army. 

VOL. T. 13 



146 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

necessary to tempt some men to serve their country, 
when I their dearest interests were at issue. Still, 
large numbers of Whigs demanded that Washington 
should face and fight their enemies, without troops, 
without stores, and at times, without even their own 
confidence and sympathy. If we allow that much 
of the reluctance to enter the army arose from the 
knowledge of the privations and sufferings to be en- 
dured in camp, and from aversion to receive payment 
for service in a depreciated currency, we shall palliate 
the conduct of the class expected to be soldiers only 
to censure by implication another class, who pos- 
sessed, but kept back, the means of supporting those 
who fought their battles. 

Making every allowance for the effects of hunger 
and want, for the claims of families at home, and for 
other circumstances equally imperative ; desertion, 
mutiny, robbery, and murder, are still high crimes. 
There were soldiers of the Revolution who deserted 
in parties of twenty and thirty at a time, and several 
hundred of those who thus abandoned the cause, fled 
to Vermont, and were among the early settlers of 
that State. A thousand men, the date of whose 
enlistment had been misplaced, perjured themselves 
in a body, as fast as they could be sworn, in order to 
quit the ranks which they had voluntarily entered. 
In smaller parties, hundreds of others demanded dis- 
mission from camp under false pretexts, and with lies 
upon their lips. Some, also added treason to deser- 
tion, and joined the various corps of Loyalists in the 
capacity of spies upon their former friends, or of 
guides and pioneers. Many more enlisted, deserted, 
and reenlisted under new recruiting officers, for the 




HISTORICAL ESSAY. 147 

purpose of receiving double bounty; while others, 
who placed their names upon the rolls, were paid the 
money to which they were entitled, but refused to 
join the army ; and others still, who were sent to the 
hospitals, returned home without leave after their 
recovery, and were sheltered and secreted by friends 
and neighbors, whose sense of right was as weak as 
their own. Another class sold their clothing, provis- 
ions, and arms, to obtain means for revelling, and to 
indulge their propensity for drunkenness; while some 
prowled about the country, to rob and kill the unof- 
fending and defenceless. A guard was placed over 
the grave of a foreigner of rank, who died in Wash- 
ington's own quarters, and who was buried in full 
dress, with diamond rings and buckles ; " lest the 
soldiers should be tempted to dig for hidden treas- 
ures." In a word, I fear that whippings, drummings 
from the service, and even military executions, were 
more frequent in the Revolution than at any subse- 
quent period of our history. 

If we turn our attention to the officers, we shall 
find that many had but doubtful claims to respect for 
purity of private character ; and that some were ad- 
dicted to grave vices. It is certain that appointments 
were conferred upon unworthy persons throughout 
the war. Knox wrote to Gerry, that there were men 
in commission " who wished to have their power per- 
petuated at the expense of the liberties of the peo- 
ple ;." and who " had been rewarded with rank with- 
out having the least pretensions to it, except cabal 
and intrigue." There were officers who were desti- 
tute alike of honor and patriotism, who unjustly 
clamored for their pay, while they drew large sums 



/ 



148 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

of public money under pretext of paying their men, 
but applied them to the support of their own extrav- 
agance ; who went home on furlough, and never 
returned ; and who, regardless of their word as gen- 
tlemen, violated their paroles, and were threatened 
by Washington with exposure in every newspaper 
in the land, as men who had disgraced themselves 
and were heedless of their associates in captivity, 
whose restraints were increased by their misconduct. 
At times, courts-martial were continually sitting ; and 
so numerous were the convictions that the names of 
those who were cashiered were sent to Congress in 
lists. "Many of the surgeons," — are the words of 
Washington — " are very great rascals, countenancing 
the men to sham complaints to exempt them from 
duty, and often receiving bribes to certify indispo- 
sitions, with a view to procure discharges or fur- 
loughs ; " and still further, they drew for the public 
" medicines and stores in the most profuse and extrav- 
agant manner, for private purposes." In a letter to 
the governor of a State, he affirmed that the officers 
who had been sent him therefrom were "generally 
of the lowest class of the people ; " that they " led their 
soldiers to plunder the inhabitants, and into every 
kind of mischief" To his brother, John Augustine 
Washington, he declared that the different States 
were nominating such officers as were " not fit to be 
shoeblacks." Resignations occurred upon discred- 
itable pretexts, and became alarmingly prevalent. 
Some resigned at critical moments, and others com- 
bined together in considerable numbers for purjposes 
of intimidation, and threatened to retire from the 
service at a specified time, unless certain terms were 



> 



HISTORICAL ESSAY 149 

complied with. For a single instance, to show the 
extent of the evil, I again quote from the Command- 
er-in-Chief, who wrote to a member of Congress, in 
1778, that " the spirit of resigning commissions has 
been long at an alarming height, and increases daily. 
The Virginia line has sustained a violent shock. Not 
less than ninety have already resigned to me. The 
same conduct has prevailed among the oflScers from 
other States, though not yet in so considerable de- 
gree ; and there are but too just grounds to fear that 
it will shake the very existence of the army, unless 
a remedy is soon, very soon, applied.'' The spirit 
did not abate ; since, two years after, he informed 
the President of Congress, that he had "scarcely a 
sufficient number [of officers] left to take care even 
of the fragments of corps which remained." I would 
not be understood to assert that there were not 
proper and imperative causes to justify the retire- 
ment of many ; but the illustrious man whose words 
I have so often quoted, and who was obliged to bear 
the disheartening consequences of these frequent 
resignations, was a competent judge of the motives 
and reasons which influenced those with whom he 
was associated ; and as we have his assertion that he 
was often deserted^ I have not hesitated to class the 
numerous throwing up of commissions with other 
evidences of a want of principle. 

The complaints of wives and children at home ; 
the inattention of Congress and of the State legisla- 
tures, to whom the officers had a right, both legal 
and moral, to look for sympathy and support in the 
poverty to which some were reduced, are to be taken 
into the account in forming, and should do much to 

13» 



/ 




150 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

soften, our judgment; but with the proofs before me, 
obtained entirely from the writings of distinguished 
Whigs, I am compelled to believe that many of those 
who abandoned Washington were guilty of a crime, 
which, when committed by private soldiers, is called 
desertion, and punished with death. Eighteen of the 
generals retired during the struggle : one for drunk- 
enness; one to avoid disgrace for receiving double 
pay ; some from declining health ; others from the 
weight of advanced years ; others to accept civil em- 
ployments ; but several from private resentments, 
and real or imaginary wrongs inflicted by Congress 
or associates in the service. The example of the 
latter class was pernicious ; since, when heads of di- 
visions or brigades quit their commands for reasons 
chiefly or entirely personal, it wiis to be expected 
that regiments, battalions, and companies would be 
left in like manner, without officers. Abundant tes- 
timony can be adduced to show that individuals of 
all ranks entered the army from interested motives, 
and abandoned it from similar reasons. John Adams 
wrote, in 1777 : — "I am wearied to death with the 
wrangles between military officers, high and low. 
They quarrel like cats and dogs. They worry one 
another like mastiffs, scrambling for rank and pay 
like apes for nuts." Wa.shington, more guarded to 
Congress, uses language almost as pointed in his 
letters to private friends. 

Again, the public mind was as fickle in the Revo- 
lution as at present. McKean, of Delaware, was the 
only member of Congress who served eight succes- 
sive years ; and Jefferson, Gerry, and Ellery were the 
only signers of the Declaration of Independence w^ho 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 151 

were in service when the definitive treaty of peace 
was ratified. The .attendance of members, too, was 
at times irregular, and public affairs often suffered 
by their absence. There were periods when several 
of the States were without representation ; and oth- 
ers, when the requisite number for the transaction 
of business, were not in their places. The entire 
control of matters, executive and legislative, of meas- 
ures to be taken to procure loans in Europe, and to 
raise money at home to provide for the army, and 
for every other branch of the public service, devolved 
frequently upon as few as thirty delegates ; and some 
of the most momentous questions were determined 
by twenty. Those who steadily attended to their 
duties were worn down with care and excessive la- 
bor. John Adams, one of them, was in Congress 
three years and three months, during which time he 
was a member of ninety committees, and chaiiman 
of twenty-five. In the course of the war, persons of 
small claims to notice or regard obtained seats in 
Congress, and by their want of capacity and principle, 
prolonged the contest, and needlessly increased its 
burdens and expenses. By the force of party disci- 
pline, as was bitterly remarked by a leading Whig, 
men were brought into the management of affairs 
"who might have lived till the millennium in silent 
obscurity, had they depended on their mental qual- 
ifications." 

Such, rapidly told, is the dark side of the story of 
the Revolution, as concerns the winners. I relate it 
here for several reasons. First, because it is due to 
the losers in the strife. Second, to show, what many 
persons are slow to believe, that tliere were wicked 



162 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

" Whigs " as weD as wicked " Tories." Third, to do 
something to correct the exaggerated and gloomy 
views which are often taken of the degenerate spirit 
of the present times, fomided on erroneous, because 
on a partial, estimate of the virtues of a by-gone 
age. 



> 



AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 

Abbott, Benjamin. Minister of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church. He was born on Long Island, N. Y., in 1732. 
His youth was passed in dissipation. Before the Revolution 
he became religiously inclined, and after due spiritual prep- 
aration, entered the ministiy. The prevalent impression was, 
that few preachers of his denomination favored the popular 
movement, and in common with most of them, " he was sus- 
pected of Toryism." But he persisted in addressing the 
people, as he had opportunity, though sometimes " at the 
peril of his life." Once, while preaching " in a private 
house, a mob of soldiers came rushing in with guns and 
fixed bayonets, one of whom approached him, and presented 
his gun as though he would run him through, while his asso- 
ciates in the adventure were standing around the door." 
Mr. Abbott, heedless of the interruption, finished his dis- 
course; and his assailants, awed by his intrepidity, retired 
without injuring him. On another occasion, a hundred 
armed men assembled at the place of meeting, but, instead 
of violence, they listened as orderly as others. Thus far, 
and indeed until 1789, he labored according to his own 
pleasure. After he placed himself under the direction of the 
Conference, he was stationed on several circuits in the State 
of New York, on one in New Jersey, and on one in Mary- 
land. He died at Salem, N. J., in 1796, aged sixty-four, 
and in the twenty-third year of his ministry. 

AcKERLY, Obadiah. Of New York. In 1783 he aban- 
doned his home and property, and settled in New Brunswick. 
He died at St. John in 1843, aged eighty-seven. Catharine, 



154 ADAMS. — AGNEW. 

his wife, died at the same city in 1830, at the age of seventy- 
two. 

Adams, Doctor . Of the State of New York. In 

1774, or early in 1775, he was hoisted up and exposed upon 
" Landlord Fay's sign-post, where was fixed a dead cata- 
mount." The party who inflicted this punishment regretted 
that they had not tied him and given him instead five hun- 
dred lashes. His residence was at Arlington. 

Addison, Rev. H. Of Maryland. Episcopal minister. 
He was attainted and lost his estate. In 1783, he was at 
New York, a petitioner for lands in Nova Scotia. In a 
Loyalist tract published at London in 1784, I find it said, 
that he was a gentleman of large proj)erty, and that on his 
arrival in England, Lord North allowed him a pension of 
£150 per annum, to support himself and son, which was less 
than he had formerly given his coachman and footman. 
And, adds the writer, Mr. Addison, disgusted at so small 
a consideration, resigned his pension and returned to New 
York, where he endeavored to make terms with the Whigs, 
and to cffvct the restoration of his estate which he valued at 
£30,000, but that he failed to obtain leave even to reside in 
Maryland. 

Addison, Daniel Delany. Of Maryland. He entered 
the Maryland Loyalists in 1776 ; was a captain in 1782, and 
a major at the peace. He went to England, and received 
half-pay. He died suddenly at the age of fifty, in Charlotte 
Street, Fitzroy Square, London, 1808. 

Agnew, John. He was rector of the Established Church, 
parish of Suffolk, Virginia. On the 24th of March, 1775, 
the Whig Committee of Nansemond County called him to 
an account for the loyalty of his pulpit performances. 

I have before me a copy of Lord Dunmore's Proclamation, 
dated November 7, 1776, on board the ship William^ of Nor- 
folk, which Mr. Agnew was ordered to read in church, and 
the indorsement on the back is, " which was done accord- 
ingly." He soon after quitted that part of the country, and 
became chaplain of the Queen's Rangers. He finally settled 



k 



AGNEW. ~ AlKM AN. 155 

in New Brunswick, and died near Fredericton, in 1812, aged 
eighty-five. He was taken prisoner with Stair Agnew and 
others, during the Revolution, and carried to France. On 
the passage out, the ship encountered a severe gale, and lay 
a wreck for twenty-four hours. 

Agnew, Stair. Believed to have been a son of the Rev. 
John Agnew. He was certainly from Virginia, and a cap- 
tain in the Queen's Rangers, and settled at Fredericton, 
where he resided until his death, in 1821, at the age of 
sixty-three. He enjoyed half-pay. While attached to the 
Rangers he was taken prisoner and carried to France, and 
was not exchanged until near the close of the war. It seems 
that at the battle of the Brandy wine he was severely wounded, 
and while on his passage to Virginia, for recovery, was cap- 
tured by the French squadron. Franklin, Minister to France, 
was appealed to, to effect his release and that of others made 
prisoners at the same time. Captain Agnew's letter from 
the Castle of St. Maloes, February 26, 1782, details the cir- 
cumstances of his captivity, and contains some feeling allu- 
sions to his " aged and beloved mother." He closes : " O, 
Gt>d ! who knows, perhaps she at this moment, from an inde- 
pendent affluence, is reduced by the vicissitudes of the times 
to i)enury. My heart, afflicted with the misfortunes of our 

family, can no more ." He was a member of tlie 

House of Assembly of New Brunswick for thirty years, and 
a magistrate of York County for a considerable period. His 
wife, Sophia Winifred, died in that county in 1820, at the 
age of fifty-two. 

AiKMAN, Alexander. Of South Carolina. He was born 
in Scotland in 1755, and at the age of sixteen he emigrated to 
Charleston, and became the apprentice of Robert Wells, a book- 
seller and printer of that city. He left the country in conse- 
cjuence of the Revolution, and after some wanderings, fixed 
his residence in Jamaica, where, in 1778, he established a 
newspaper called the " Jamaica Mercury," which title was 
changed to that of the " Royal Gazette," on his obtaining the 
patronage of the government of the Colony. For many years 



156 AKERLY. — ALLAIRE. 

he was a member of the House of Assembly, and printer to 
that body and to the King. In 1795 he visited Great Britain, 
but was captured on the passage, and compelled to ransom 
his property. He visited his native land three times subse- 
quently, but remained at home after the year 1814. He 
bore the character of an honorable, worthy, and charitable 
man. His estates in the parish of St. George's were known 
as Bimam Wood and Wallenford. He died at Prospect Pen, 
St. Andrew's, July, 1838, at the age of eighty-three. His 
wife was Louisa Susanna, second daughter of Robert Wells, 
his former master. This lady was four years his fellow-cterA 
in her father's office at Charleston, and joined him from Eng- 
land after no little peril, since she was taken once by the 
French, and kept in France three months, and was detained 
a second time by a British cruiser, because she took passage 
in a slave ship. She died at West Cowes in 1831, aged sev- 
enty-six. Her mother was a Ruthven, and of the lineage of 
the Earls of Gowrie. Mr. Aikman's children were ten, of 
whom there were two survivors at the time of his decease, 
namely, Mary, the wife of James Smith, of Jamaica ; and 
Ann Hunter, the widow of John Enright, surgeon in the 
Royal Navy, Of his sons, Alexander, who succeeded to his 
business, died in 1831, leaving a large family, 

Akerly, . In 1782, in command of a small party 

of Loyalists in New York. Among his prisoners was one 
Strong, who was hung. 

Alden, Abiather. Of Maine. Physician. One of the 
two Loyalists of Saco and Biddeford. An armed party took 
him, placed him on his knees upon a large cask, and with their 
guns presented to his body, told him to recant his opinions, 
or suffer instant death. He signed the i-equired confession, 
and was released. Subsequently he removed to Scarborough, 
in the same State. He was distinguished in metaphysics. 

Allaire, Anthony. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
Loyal American Regiment, and at the peace a captain in the 
same corps. He settled in New Brunswick, and received 
half-pay. He was one of the grantees of the city of St. John, 



I 



ALLEN. 157 

but, removing to the country, died in the parish of Douglas, 
in 1838, at the age of eighty-four. 

Allen, Willl\m. Chief Justice of Pennsylvania. He 
accepted and held tliat office at the request of distinguished 
men in the Province ; its emoluments were appropriated to 
charities. On the approach of the Revolution ho went to 
England, and died September, 1780. He was distinguished 
for his love of literature and the arts ; was a friend to Ben- 
jamin West when he needed a patron, and assisted Franklin 
to establish a college at Philadelphia. His father was an 
eminent merchant, and died in 1725. No person in Penn- 
sylvania, probably, was richer than Judge Allen, or possessed 
greater influence. A wag of the time said, he joined the 
royal side "because the Continental Congress presumed to 
declare the American States free and independent without 
first asking the consent, and obtaining the approbation, of 
himself and wise family." It is stated, that in 1761, he was 
one of the three persons in Philadelphia who kept a coach. 
His own was drawn by four horses, and his coachman, who 
was imported from England, was "a great whip." 

Allen, Wiijjam. Of Pennsylvania, and son of Chief 
Justice Allen. He was a Whig, and accepted the commission 
of lieutenant-colonel in the Continental service, and served 
under St. Clair. But in 1776 he abandoned the cause of his 
country, and joined General Howe, with his brothers. In 
Continental Congress, when he asked to resign his commis- 
sion — " Resolved that leave be granted." In 1778 he 
raised a corps called the Pennsylvania Loyalists, and, with 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel, was the commanding officer, 
from the influence of his family, and from his own personal 
standing, he expected to make rapid enlistments, but was 
clisappointed. At the siege of Pensacola, one of this corps 
attempted to desert, was seized, whipped to the extent of five 
Viundred lashes, drummed out of camp, with his hands tied 
l^ehind, with a large label pinned to his breast stating his 
csrime, escorted close to the enemy's line, and left to his fate. 
The day following, a shell was thrown into the door of the 

VOL. I. 14 



i 



168 ALLEN. 

magazine, as the men were receiving powder, and forty-five 
of tliis regiment were killed, and a number wounded. In 
1782, and near the close of the contest, though still in ser- 
vice, the Pennsylvania Loyalists were of but little conse- 
quence in point of numbers. Colonel Allen was noted for 
wit, for good-humor, and for affable and gentlemanly man- 
ners. The names of all the officers under his command at 
the period last mentioned will be found in this work. He 
was attainted of treason and lost his estate under the con- 
fiscation acts. I find his name last, in 1783, as a grantee 
of St. John, New Brunswick. 

Allen, Andrew. Of Pennsylvania, son of Chief Justice 
Allen, and himself the successor of Judge Chew, who suc- 
ceeded his father. He, at first, was found among the leading 
Whigs, and was a member of Congress, and of the Committee 
of Safety. In 1776 he put himself under protection of Gen- 
eral Howe, at Trenton, and during the war went to England. 
He was attainted, and lost his estate under the confiscation 
acts. In 1779 he was directed to testify before Parliament 
on the inquiry into the conduct of Sir William Howe and 
General Burgoync, while in America, but was not examined. 
He died in London in 1825, at the age of eighty-five. His 
son Andrew, a very accomplished gentleman, was many years, 
prior to the war of 1812, British Consul at Boston. 

Allen, John. Of Pennsylvania, a son of Chief Justice 
Allen. In 1776 he joined the British under General Howe, 
at Trenton. Unlike his brother, he was an avowed Loyalist 
from the first. He was attainted of treason, but died at Phil- 
adelphia, February, 1778, in his thirty-ninth year, before the 
day on which he was ordered to surrender himself for trial. 

Allen, James. Of Philadelphia ; the remaining son of 
Chief Justice Allen, and the onlv one of them who did not 
join the Royal Army. He remained at home wholly inactive, 
though his sympathies were supposed to be loyal. He wms 
in declining health in 1776, and died before the close of the 
following year. His children were James ; Anne Penn, who 
married James Greenleaf; Margaret, who married Chief 



ALLEN. 159 

Jastice Tilghman ; and Mary, who married Harry Walter 
Livingston, of Livingston's Manor, New York. The last- 
named daughter was living in 1855. Mrs. Allen, who died 
in the year 1800^ was the only daughter of John Lawrence, 
and cousin of Margaret Shippen, second wife of Benedict 
Arnold. 

Allen, Isaac. A lawyer of Trenton, New Jersey. He 
entered the military service of the Crown, and in 1782 was 
lieutenant-colonel of the second battalion of New Jersey Vol- 
unteers. He had property in Pennsylvania, and the executive 
council of that State ordered, that, unless he should surrender 
himself and take his trial for treason within a specified time, 
he should stand attainted. He went to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 
He rose to distinction in that Province, and among other 
offices held a seat in the Council, and was a judge of the 
Supreme Court. His residence was at Fredericton, and he 
died there in 1806, aged sixty-five. His sister Sarah died at 
the same place in 1885, aged ninety-one. 

Allen, Adam. He was an officer in the Queen's Rangers, 
and, it is believed, a lieutenant. He went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that 
city. He received half-pay. In 1798 he was in command 
of a post at Grand Falls, on the River St. John, and wrote a 
piece in verse descriptive of these Falls, which his son, Jacob 
Allen, of Portland, New Brunswick, sent to the press in 1845. 
He died in York County, New Brunswick, in 1823, aged 
sixty-six. 

Allen, Jolley. Of Boston. In an account of his suffer- 
ings and losses, he relates that, " sometime, I think in the 
month of October, 1772, I bought two chests of tea of Gov- 
ernor Hutchinson's two sons, Thomas and Elisha, about 
eleven o'clock in the forenoon." This purchase was the 
prime cause of all his subsequent misfortunes. lie sold goods 
" cheap for cash ; " he boarded many of the British officers ; 
and he kept " horses and chaises to let." In a word, Jolley 
was a shrewd, dashing, tlmving man. A Loyalist, body and 






160 ALLISON. — AMBROSE. 

soul, he left Boston with the Royal Army, at the evacuation in 
March, 1776. The man who engaged to convey his family 
and property to Halifax, was a knave, and unskilful in the 
management of a vessel. Soon parting with the fleet, they 
arrived, not in Nova Scotia, but at Cape Cod ; where his 
goods were seized and confiscated, and where all on board 
were imprisoned. His brother Lewis petitioned for leave 
to take his seven children ; and the Assembly, in granting 
the request, stipulated that Lewis should receive <£36.8 from 
Jolley's effects ; that he should give bonds to support the chil- 
dren, and should maintain Jolley himself; while a committee 
were to take possession of all the property, to deliver to Lewis 
" the children's four feather beds and bedding, and the wear- 
ing apparel of the children and of the late wife of Jolley," 
and his own clothing. In September, 1776, our unhappy 
Loyalist was allowed to make sale of a part of his goods at 
Cape Cod, in order to pay the debts contracted there by him- 
self and family ; while the selectmen of Provincetown were 
directed to deliver the remainder to a committee of the Court, 
to be disposed of on public account. I find him next in 1779, 
when he was in London, and one of the Loyalists who ad- 
dressed the king. He died in England in 1782. Sir William 
Pepperell and George Erving were his executors ; and he 
directed that, after the troubles were over, his remains 
should be removed to the family vault under King's Chapel, 
Boston. 

Alijson, Edward. Of Long Island, New York. He 
acknowledged allegiance in 1776, and was subsequently a 
captain in De Lancey's Third Battalion. At the peace he 
settled in New Brunswick, and received half-pay. He died 
in that Province. 

Althouse, John. Of New York. In 1782 he was a 
captain in the New York Volunteers. At the peace he went 
to St. John, New Brunswick, and was one of the grantees 
of the city. He died in that Province. 

Ambrose, Michael. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
Prince of Wales' American Volunteers. He went to New 



N 



AMORY. 161 

Brunswick at the peace, and received lialf-pay. He died in 
the parish of St. Martin in that Province. 

Amory, Thomas. Of Boston. He was bom in Boston 
in 1722, and graduated at Harvard University in 1741. He 
studied divinity, but never took orders. In 1765 he married 
Elizabeth, daughter of William Coffin, and purchased the 
house built by Governor Belcher, at the corner of Harvard 
and Washington Streets, which was his principal residence 
for the rest of his life. He took very little part in the contro- 
versies which preceded the Revolution, except that he was 
one of the Addressers of Gage. He was, however, on terms 
of friendship with many of the British officers stationed in 
Boston ; and, it is related that, while several were dining 
with him, a mob attacked his house, and broke some of the 
windows. Mr. Amory spoke to them from the porch, and 
commanded them to disperse ; meanwhile, the officei-s made 
their escape through the garden. He remained in Boston 
^luring the siege, and at the evacuation in March, 1776, 
accompanied by his younger brother Jonathan, he went to 
W^ashington, at the instance of the selectmen, to request that 
"the British might be permitted to retire without molestation, 
on condition that they embarked without injury to the town. 
This proposition had the sanction of Sir William Howe ; 
and, though no positive arrangement was concluded, an un- 
<ierstanding to this effect was respected on both sides. His 
wife's family — the Coffins — were mostly refugee Loyalists. 
Of her nephews, two were distinguished : namely, Isaac, who 
T)ecame an Admiral in the Royal Navy ; and John, who rose 
to the rank of Lieutenant-General in the British Army. 
Suspected of sympathy with the enemy, Mr. Amory removed 
to Watertown, where he lived some years. He died in 1784 ; 
his widow survived until 1823. He left nine children, seven 
of whom were married, and resided in Boston. 

The mingling of the blood of the loyal and of the disloyal, 
at the present time, causes one to muse on the political asper- 
ities of the past. On the memorable 17th of June, 1775, 
Linzee, of the King's ship-of-war Falcon^ cannonaded the 

14* 



162 AMORY. 

works which Prescott, the " rebel," defended ; but the 
granddaughter of the first was the wife of Prescott the his- 
torian, who was a grandson of the last ; and this lady is a 
daughter of Thomas C, the eldest son of the subject of this 
notice. Jonathan, the second son of our Loyalist, married 
Hettie, daughter of James Sullivan, Governor of Massachu- 
setts ; while the wife of John Amory, another son, was near 
of kin to Henry Gardner, the " rebel," who succeeded Harri- 
son Gray, the last royal treasurer of the same State. Again, 
Nathaniel, still another son, married a niece of our Commo- 
dore Preble, and her sister was the wife of Admiral Wormley 
of the Royal Navy. Once more : William, a fifth son of the 
Loyalist, was an officer in the navy of both countries, and 
under our own flag distinguished himself in several engage- 
ments. But "loyalty," as understood in olden time, is still 
represented in the family, by the union of Mr. Amory's 
grandson Charles, with Martha Greene ; and of his grandson 
James Sullivan, with Mary Greene, nieces of the late Lord 
Lyndhurst. We leave this pleasant record of oblivion of the 
differences of another age, to add that Mr. Amory's grand- 
son, Thomas C, married Esther Sargent ; and that William, 
of the same degree of consanguinity, is the husband of Anna, 
daughter of David Sears, of Boston. Of the sons here men- 
tioned, Thomas C. was a successful merchant, and died in 
1812 ; Jonathan, also a merchant, died in 1828. Thomas 
C. Amory, Jr., also a descendant, is the author of the " Life 
of Governor Sullivan," (his grandfather on his mother's side,) 
in two vols., 8vo. 

Amory, John. Of Boston. Brother of the preceding. 
He was born in Boston in 1728, and married Catherine, 
daughter of Rufus Greene, by whom he was the father of 
nine children, who grew up and settled in his native town. 
He built the house opposite the Stone Chapel, corner of Tre- 
mont and Bowdoin Streets, and lived there, and in Washing- 
ton Street on the site of Amory Hall. He engaged exten- 
sively in commerce with his younger brother. The letters 
of his business house from 1760, during the Stamp Act excite- 



ANDERSON. 163 

ment and the Tea war, give many interesting particulars 
of tliat stirring period. These letters moreover, predicted, 
long before the war broke out, a sanguinary contest, and the 
actual separation of the Colonies from the mother-country, 
if the government persisted in its measures of coercion. Parts 
of this correspondence were published in the English papers, 
and to one letter a member of Parliament ascribed influence 
in the repeal of the Stamp Act. At the beginning of hostil- 
ities, his house owed their English creditors <£ 23,000 sterling; 
and while those who owed them^ from inability, or taking 
advantage of the times, paid, if at all, in a depreciated cur- 
rency, they remitted their whole debt without delay. In 
1774 it became important that one of the partners should 
go to England. The subject of this notice went, taking his 
wife. Her protracted illness, which terminated in her death 
in 1778, prevented his return ; and, considered a " refugee," 
his property was put in sequestration. His brother wrote 
that, should the result be confiscation, he would sliare what 
he had with him. His sympathies, it is said, were with his 
countrymen in the struggle in which they were engaged for 
their liberties ; and he left England and lived on the Conti- 
nent. He embarked for America shortly before the peace ; 
but landing at New York, then held by the British, was forced 
to take the oath of allegiance to the Crown, not being per- 
mitted to live in Boston in consequence of the " Banishment 
Act." He went, however, to Providence, where he remained 
until 1784, when, on his petition to the Legislature of Mas- 
sachusetts, he was restored to the rights of citizenship. He 
Jied in 1805, leaving a large estate. One of his daughters 
^married John Lowell, widely known as a political writer ; 
and another was the wife of John McLean, who liberally 
-endowed the Massachusetts General Hospital. 

Anderson, Samuel. Of New York. At the beginning 
of the Revolution he went to Canada. He soon entered the 
service of the Crown, and was a captain under Sir John John- 
eon. In 1783 he settled near Cornwall, Upper Canada, and 
received half-pay. He held several civil offices : those of 



164 ANDERSON. 

magistrate, judge of a district court, and associate justice of 
the Court of King's Bench, were among tliem. He continued 
to reside upon his estate near Cornwall, until his decease in 
1836, at the age of one hundred and one. His property in 
New York was abandoned and lost. 

Anderson, William. Of West Chester County, New 
York. Was a Protester against the Whigs at White Plains 
in 1775. At the peace, accompanied by his family of four 
persons, and by one servant, he went from New York to 
Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted him fifty 
acres of land, one town and one water-lot. His losses in con- 
sequence of his loyalty were estimated at ^300. He re- 
moved from Shelburne to St. John, New Brunswick, and was 
a grantee of that city. 

Anderson, Peter. In 1782 a Loyalist Associator at New 
York, to settle at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, the following year. 
He went to St. John, New Brunswick, and was a grantee of 
that city. He died at Fredericton, in that Province, in 1828, 
at the age of ninety-five. 

Anderson, Joseph. Lieutenant in the King's Regiment, 
New York. At the peace he retired to Canada. He died 
near Cornwall, Canada West, in 1853, aged ninety. He 
drew half-pay for a period of about seventy years. '* One 
of the last survivors of the United Empire Loyalists." 

Anderson, James. Of Boston, Massachusetts. Was an 
Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. 

December, 1775 : — "I am credibly informed," wrote Wash- 
ington to the president of Congress, " that James Anderson, 
the consignee and part-owner of the ship Concord and cargo, 
is not only unfriendly to American liberty, but actually in 
arms against us, being captain of the Scotch company at Bos- 
ton." In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. He was at 
New York in July, 1783, and one of the fifty-five who peti- 
tioned for lands in Nova Scotia. 

Anderson, Culbert. Of South Carolina. Died prior 
to 1785. Estate confiscated ; but two plantations in the 
neighborhood of Ninety-Six, restored to Mary his widow and 
her children, by act of the General Assembly. 



ANDREWS. 165 

Andrews, John, D. D. Provost of the University of 
Pennsylvania. Ho was born in Maryland in 1746, and 
educated at Philadelphia. In 1767 he was ordained in Lon- 
don as an Episcopal clergyman, and became a missionary ; 
and subsequently a rector of Queen Ann's County, Mary- 
land. " Not partaking of the patriotic spirit of the times," 
he removed from Maryland, and was absent several years. 
In 1785 he was appointed to the charge of an Episcopal 
academy at Philadelphia, and four years after received the 
professorship of moral philosophy in the college of that city. 
In 1810 he succeeded Doctor McDowell as provost. He 
died in 1813, aged sixty-seven. " In stature he was tall and 
portly, and his personal appearance and carriage commanded 

respect He was a fine specimen of the old school 

gentleman of a former generation." His wife deceased in 
1798. He was the father of ten children, the eldest of 
whom, Robert, graduated at Philadelphia in 1790. 

Andrews, Samuel. An Episcopal clergyman of Connec- 
ticut. His principles separated him from his flock, and he 
became the first rector of the church of his communion at 
St. Andrew, New Brunswick. After a ministry of fifty- 
eight years, he died at that place, September 26, 1818, aged 
eighty-two. His wife Hannali died at St. Andrew, January 
1, 1816, at the age of seventy-five. 

Andrews, Samuel. Of North Carolina. Major in the 
Loyal Militia. At the beginning of the Revolution he left 
his seat at Newbern, and took refuge on board a ship-of-war 
at Wilmington. Early in 1776 he received a commission as 
lieutenant, served under General McDonald, and was taken 
prisoner. In 1781 he raised a company, and joined Lord 
CornwalliS. He was engaged in the capture of Governor 
Burke, and when Fanning was wounded, he assumed com- 
mand, and conducted the prisoners to the British lines. Pro- 
motion followed. At the evacuation of Charleston, he retired 
with his family to Florida. Obnoxious to the Whigs by his 
course during the war, he was one of the three whom they 
refused to pardon, in the act of oblivion. I have a copy of 



166 ANSLEY. — ARMSTRONG. 

his memorial claiming compensation for his services and losses, 
in his own handwriting, by which it appears that he lost by 
confiscation, a farm, dwelling-house, two stores, a grist-mill, 
with a stone house, two negroes, fifty head of cattle, several 
horses and sheep, furniture, &c. He was at Shelbume, Nova 
Scotia, in July, 1785, for the purpose of pressing his claim 
upon the commissioners, "under very disagreeable circum- 
stances." Unsuccessful, he subsequently employed David 
McPherson, London. 

Ansley, Ozias. In 1782 he was an ensign in the first 
battalion of New Jersey Volunteers, and adjutant of the 
corps. At the peace he settled in New Brunswick, and 
received half-pay. He was a magistrate and a judge of the 
Common Pleas for several years. He died at Staten Island, 
New York, in 1828, aged eighty-five. His son, the Rev. 
Thomas Ansley, an Episcopalian clergyman of Nova Scotia, 
died at St. Andrew, New Brunswick, in 1831, aged about 
sixty-five. His grandson, Daniel Ansley, Esq., (1847,) re- 
sides at St. John. His daughter Charity, wife of Nathaniel 
Brittain, died in 1848, in her seventieth year. 

Arden, Doctor Charles. Of Jamaica, New York. In 
1775 he was a signer of a declaration against the Whigs. 
In 1776 he was accused of further defection ; and one of his 
offences consisted in persuading other adherents of the Crown 
to have no concern with a concjress or with committees. Sev- 
eral witnesses were examined. He went to England before 
the peace. 

Armstrong, William. He was a captain in a Loyalist 
corps. At the peace he retired on half-pay, and, as is believed, 
settled in New York. In 1806 he joined the celebrated Mi- 
randa in his expedition to effect the independence of the prov- 
ince of Caraccas, and, in due time, of all Spanish America. 
Captain Armstrong was known to possess considerable military 
knowledge, method, industry, and vigilance, and I'eceived a 
commission as colonel, and the command of the First Regi- 
ment of Riflemen in the Columbian Army ; and, as he had 
become familiar with the duties of the quartermaster's 



ARMSTRONG. 167 

department, in the Revolution, he was created, also, quarter- 
master-general, with two assistants. Under Miranda, Colonel 
Armstrong was extremely unpopular, and was accused of 
" obsequiousness to his superiors, and of superciliousness and 
tjranny in his treatment of those in his power." He seems 
to have been involved in many quarrels. While the Leander 
was in the harbor of Jacquemel, (February, 1806,) he and 
Captain Lewis, the ship's commander, had a warm contro- 
versy regarding their rank and rights while associated on ship- 
board. The steward's slovenly habits displeased the former, 
and he gave the delinquent a " hearty rope's ending," which 
enraged Lewis, and drew from him the declaration, th^t every 
person in his vessel was subject to his authority, and should 
be punished by no other. Armstrong insisted, on the other 
hand, that he would chastise whomsoever he pleased. Both 
resorted to great bitterness of speech in the war of words 
which ensued. Miranda took the side of the Colonel, and 
behaved worse than even Lewis or Armstrong, and, " before 
the storm was over, appeared to be more fit for bedlam than 
for the command of an army." Not long after this occur- 
rence, the Bee^ another of the vessels attached to the expe- 
dition, ran foul of the flag-ship, and caused considerable dam- 
age ; when Armstrong, seizing a trumpet, called to. the master 
of that vessel, and bade him never to approach so near the 
Leander in future. Lewis, angry at the interference of the 
quarer master-general, rebuked him severely for the act, and 
the quarrel between them was renewed. In this instance, 
Miranda decided in favor of Lewis. The dislike between 
the two officers, who took so opposite views of their right to 
supremacy, became settled and irreconcilable, and a third 
quarrel soon occuri'ed, in which the chief sustained Arm- 
strong ; and Lewis, in the violence of his pavssion, resolved 
to resign, and ordered his servant to collect his baggage and 
prepare to leave the ship. A mediator was, however, found, 
and the dispute apparently settled. At a subsequent time, 
Miranda and the Captain became involved in a controversy, 
and Armstrong endeavored to produce a reconciliation be- 



168 ARMSTRONG. 

tween them ; but lie not only failed in this, but drew upon 
himself the resentment of both. Lewis renewed his threat to 
resign, and now actually threw up his commission. Besides 
these quarrels, the Colonel had several others. The moment 
the Leander cast anchor at Grenada, Lieutenant Dwyer quit- 
ted the ship. During the passage, he had been in continual 
collision with Armstrong, either on his own account, or in 
defence of his officers and men, whom the lordly personage 
assailed with words or violence. The notions of the Quarter- 
master-General of the Columbian Army appear to have been 
not a little tyrannical and arbitrary. It is related, that he 
kept three officers (on very slight provocation), confined to 
the ship's forecastle upwards of two weeks, and during this 
time refused them the liberty of walking on the quarter-deck 
and of entering the cabin. 

Miranda required of his officers subscription to the following 
oath : "I swear to be true and faithful to the free people of 
South America, independent of Spain, and to serve them 
honestly and faithfully against all their enemies or opposers 
whatsoever, and to observe and obey the orders of the supreme 
government of that country legally appointed ; and the orders 
of the general and officers set over me by them." Some objec- 
tion was made to the form of this oath, which the General 
obviated by assurances to the gentlemen who were citizens of 
the United States, that they might annex to their signatures 
the condition that they did not intend to cancel their allegi- 
ance to their own country. After this difficulty was settled, 
Armstrong read and explained the Articles of War of the 
United States, and the alterations in form^ not in substance 
or spirit, which had been made to adapt them to the service 
in which they were engaged. " Notice, gentlemen," said the 
Colonel, '* the object of the change is to suit the wording of 
the Articles to the local names and situations of the country 
where they are to take effect. Thus, for the Army of the 
United States, will be substituted the Army of Squth Amer- 
ica ; and for the President, or Congress of the United States, 
will be used, the Supreme Authority of the free people of 
South America, or sometliing of this kind." 



ARMSTRONG. 169 

The Americans who had connected themselves with this 
enterprise were generally persons of some ability, but it is 
understood that most, if not all of them, were in straitened 
circumstances, and that some were extremely needy. Arm- 
strong's half-pay as a Loyalist officer might have prevented 
him from being in a sitifation of destitution. His pay under 
Miranda was fixed at ten dollars per day, to commence Jan. 
1, 1806, which was the date of his commission of colonel. 

The common men, sailors and soldiers were an ignorant 
and undisciplined mob, and the quartermaster-general had 
enough to do to keep them quiet. As in his intercourse with 
the officers, his disputes with them were continual, hardly a 
day piassed without some one or more of them being taken 
to task for misconduct, or placed in arrest and confinement. 

The failure of Miranda to pay his officers was a new source 
of difficulty and contention, and was a principal cause of 
biinging matters to a crisis. John Orford, a lieutenant of 
engineers, was especially importunate, and in answer to his 
second communication on the subject of arrearages due to 
him, received the following letter : — 

" Port of Spain, December 2d, 1806. 

"Sib, — By order of Geneml Miranda, I have to inform 
you, that he received yours of the twenty-ninth ult., the pur- 
port of which he conceives to be highly improper, and con- 
trary to every military principle ; that in duty to himself, and 
for the good of the service, he thinks it proper that you should 
be dismissed from it, and you are hereby dismissed from it, 
and no longer to be considered as an officer under his com- 
mand." 

Other officers connected with this ill-starred attempt to 
revolutionize South America, applied for dismissals, and the 
defection became general. Armstrong, however, retired with- 
out notice or leave, and his chief accused him of desertion. 
Departing in the sloop-of-war Haivk^ for Dominica, the quar- 
termaster-general of the Columbian army took passage at that 

VOL. I. 15 



170 ARMSTRONG. — APTHORP. 

island for London. Inferior officei's, induced to believe that 
the desertion of one so near Miranda's person gave them foil 
liberty to abandon him in the same informal manner, retired 
from his service without writing letters of resignation, though 
some of them did observe that form in taking their leave of 
him and his fortunes. Of Armstrong's career after his arrival 
in England I have obtained no information. 

Armstrong, Richard. Major' in the Queen's Rangers. 
Entered the corps as a captain. He was one of the most effi- 
cient partisan officers in service on the side of the Crown. 
In 1783, he and Captain Saunders were deputed to write 
Colonel Simcoe a parting address. 

Apthorp, East. An Episcopal clergyman of Massachu- 
setts. He was bom in 1733, and was educated in England. 
In 1761 he was appointed a missionary at Cambridge, by the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts ; 
and during his labors there, was engaged in a warm theologi- 
cal controversy with Doctor Mayhew. Retiring to England, 
he died there in 1816, aged eighty-three years. His wife was 
a niece of Governor Hutchinson, and a daughter of Judge 
Foster Hutchinson. His only son was a clergyman. One 
daughter married Doctor Cary ; one. Doctor Butler ; and a 
third, a son of Doctor Polev ; — the husbands of the two first 
were heads of colleges. Mr. Apthorp was a distinguished 
writer. In 1790 he lost his sight. 

Apthorp, Thomas and William. Of Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. Both merchants ; were proscribed and banished in 
1778. The year after, William came from New York to 
Boston to solicit the mercy of his countrymen, and occupied 
for awhile a private room in the deputy jailer's house ; but 
letters were received to his disadvantage, and he was commit- 
ted to close prison by order of the Council. 

Apthorp, Charles Ward. Of New York. He was 
appointed a member of the Council of that Colony in 1763, 
and served until 1783. He had lands in Maine, and property 
in Brookline and Roxbury, Massachusetts, which were con- 
fiscated. He died at his seat, Bloomingdale, in 1797. 



ARNOLD. 171 

Arnold, Ma rg abet. Daughter of Edward Shippen, 
Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, JEind second wife of General 
Benedict Arnold. Bom in 1760, or in the year following ; — 
died in London in 1804, in her forty-fourth year. She was 
very beautiful, and, it would seem, very ambitious. By her 
father, her relatives, and her circle of friends, she was dearly 
loved. She appeared with her knight at the gorgeous fete, or 
mUchiama^ in honor of Sir William Howe, on his return to 
England. British and American officers admired her. The 
ill-fated Andr^ visited her often while he was stationed in 
Philadelphia, and was a correspondent after tlie Royal Army 
retired to New "York. By some she was thought frivolous, 
vain, and artftil ; but I have no means of ascertaining the 
truth. To the additional fault charged — " extravagance" — 
she may be held amenable, since her father wrote in Decem- 
ber, 1778, that, " the style of life his fashionable daughters had 
introduced into his family," and " their dress," were obstacles 
to his remaining in Philadelphia. Margaret was the youngest. 
Though her marriage followed in less than four months, her 
hand, I conclude, was not promised ; for it said in the same 
letter that, while she was " much solicited by a certain gen- 
eral,*' the consummation of the proposed union " depended 
npon circumstances." As a maiden, she was happy. As a 
wife, she bore great trials and many sorrows. Her name 
appears here, because tlie third Vice-President of the United 

A Much has been inferred against Mrs. Arnold because of her acquaint- 
ance with Andr^ before her marriage, and because he — honoring her 
above all others — was her knight at this the great f(lte of the Royal Army 
of the Revolution. Fortunatelv, there is conclusive evidence that on this 
occasion he gave his attentions to another lady. I have a copy of a long 
and minute account of the ^^ mischianza" written by Andrd himself. Lord 
Cathcart appeared in honor of Miss Auchmuty. The knights were of 
two Orders : the ** Blended Rose/' and the ** Burning Mountain.'* An- 
dre was the third of the former. These are his own words, — " Captain 
Andrew in honor of Miss P. Chew — Squire, Lieut. Andre ; Device, two 
game-cocks ; Motto, No rival** 

The knight of Margaret Shippen, the subject of this notice, was Lieu- 
tenant Sloper, of the " Blended Rose." The knights of the two other 
Mid»es Shippen, were Lieutenants Underwood and Winyard. 



172 ARNOLD. 

States accused that slie instigated one of the startling crimes 
in history. 

The first husband uttered of the first wife — " The woman, 
whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, 
and I did eat." So, if we are to beheve Aaron Burr, the 
principal miscreant of the American Revolution could have 
said, " Margaret my wife, she gave me of the tree of treason, 
and I did eat." 

A gentleman may, if he will, pass lightly over the sins of 
a lady, because of his sympathy for the innocent o€ her lin- 
eage ; but, I purpose to examine the accusation against this 
unfortunate wife with care, and to determine the case upon 
the probabilities and the evidence. There is no testimony, 
as far as I know, except her own alleged confession, in the 
presence of two persons. According to Davis, she told Mi-s. 
Prevost that *' she was heartily sick of the theatricals she 
was exhibiting ; " that " she was disgusted with the American 
cause, and those who had tlie management of public affairs ; 
and that, through great pereuasion and unceasing perseve- 
rance, she had ultimately brought the General into an ar- 
rangement to surrender West Point to the British.'" Parton, 
the latest biographer of Burr, is more particular. He relates, 
that one evening while Burr was at Mrs. Provost's, a lady 
veiled and attired in a riding-habit, burst into the room, and, 
after assurance of her safety, exclaimed — " Thank God ! 
I 've been playing the hypocrite, and I'm tired of it." He 
relates further, tliat Mrs. Arnold gave an account of the way 
she had deceived Washington, Hamilton, and others at West 
Point, who believed her innocent of the treason ; that she 
avowed participation in the negotiations with the enemy, and 
" induced her husband to do what he had done ; " and that, 
while at Mrs. Prevost's, she took " care to resume her acting 
of the outraged and frantic woman, whenever strangers were 
present." — Such are the material points. 

The falsehood of Burr's story is apparent at once. For 
to believe it, is also to believe that a woman, who, not nine- 
teen years old when her husband opened the correspondence 



^ 



ARNOLD. 173 

• 

with Sir Henry Clinton, was able and wise enough to herself 
conceive and to assist in executing a great, possibly to the 
Whig cause, a decisive, militarj' crime ; and was yet such an 
utter fool, as, while the country was ringing with the cry of 
" Treason ! Treason ! " to needlessly, boastingly confess lier 
guilt in the presence of a Whig officer, who, in the perform- 
ance of a common duty, would have arrested her at the 
instant. How absurd ; surpassing intellectual strength and 
pitiable mental weakness in the same character ! Burr told 
too much ; and his lie drops apart by the very weight of its 
contradictions. 

She had "deceived" Washington and Hamilton. Did 
Burr, in his malignity, mean to strike at the sagacity of both ? 
He disliked the first ; and thus early did he hate the man he 
afterwards slew. And, what was the deception ? " Arnold, 
a moment before the setting out," wrote Hamilton to Colonel 
Laurens, went to the apartment of his wife, *' and informed 
her that some transactions had just come to light whicli must 
forever banish him from his country. She fell into a swoon 
at this declaration, and he left her in it to consult his own 
safety, till the servants, alanned by her cries, came to her 
relief. She remained frantic all day, accusing every one who 
approached her with an intention to murder her child (an 
infant in her arms) ; and exhibiting every other mark of the 
most genuine and agonizing distress. Exhausted by tlie fatigue 
and tumult of her spirits, her frenzy subsided towards evening, 
and she sank into all the sadness of affliction. It was impos- 
sible not to have been touched with her situation. Every- 
thing affecting in female tears, or in the misfortunes of beauty ; 
everything pathetic in the wounded tenderness of a wife, or 
in the apprehensive fondness of a mother ; and, I will add, 
till I have reason to change the opinion, everything amiable 
in the sufferings of innocence ; conspired to make her an 
ORJect of sympathy to all who were present. She experienced 
"16 most delicate attention, and every friendly office, till her 
departure for Philadelphia." 
Again, in a letter to his future wife, Hamilton said, that 

15* 



174 ARNOLD. 

Mrs. Arnold, " for a considerable time, entirely lost herself. 
The General (Washington) went up to see her, and she 
upbraided him with being in a plot to murder her child. One 
moment she raved, another she melted into tears. Sometimes 
she pressed her infant to her bosom, and lamented its fate, 

in a manner that would have pierced insensibility 

itself. All the sweetness of beauty, all the loveliness of inno- 
cence, all the tenderness of a wife, and all the fondness of a 
mother, showed themselves in her appearance and conduct. 
We have every reason to believe that she was entirely unac- 
quainted with the plan ; and that the first knowledge of it 
was when Arnold went to tell her he must banish himself 
from his country and from her forever. She instantly fell 
into a convulsion, and he left her in that situation.'* 

Parton, in commenting upon the letter to Laurens, remarks, 
that the Aid of the Commander-in-Chief gave " the romantic 
falsehood of the affair," and, in " love," was full of tenderness 
to woman ; and that " it fell to Burr's lot to become ac- 
quainted with the repulsive truth." The reply is, that, WasA- 
ington was not in " love ; " nor, as Parton says of Hamilton, 
was he " a young gentleman of rhetorical turn; " and it is quite 
probable that some of " the other American officers," who 
were also " deceived," were married, and of mature years. 
Besides, — as will be seen in the course of this inquiry, — 
Mrs. Arnold's physical organization was somewhat peculiar ; 
and, at times, she lost entire control of her lips, just as she 
did on the distressing occasion under consideration. A Ger- 
man dramatist has the beautiful sentiment that, "a mother 
with an infant in her arms, has nature's passport through the 
world." If this deserted wife, in her agony, felt and uttered 
that lier child was without this " passport," and was to fall 
a victim to its father's wickedness, — constituted as she was — 
who can wonder ? The very idea of " playing the hypocrite," 
at such a moment, is monstrous. " Theatricals," in a motlier, 
when her husband disgraces and abandons her ! 

Mrs. Arnold was bred a gentlewoman ; and, so young, 
was she so fallei), so fertile in the i-esources of sin ; was she 



ARNOLD. 175 

so destitute of the feelings of her sex, as to act a part ? With 
the grave, penetrating eye of Wasliington upon lier, did she 
dare to play the " hypocrite " 80 far as to upbraid him, and 
to declare that he was " in a plot to murder her child ? " 
Impossible ! " Theatricals " — in the presence of the illus- 
trious man who only six months before had written his con- 
gratulations^ on the birth of Edward Shippen Aniold — this 
very babe I Would Burr have us believe that the daughter 
of Chief Justice Shippen had less affection for her young, 
than is manifested by the bird and the beast, for the fledgling 
and the lamb ? 

Again, Arnold himself acquitted her of all complicity in 
his crime. " The mistaken vengeance of my countrymen," 
he said in a letter to Washington after the treason, " ought 
to fall only on me. She is as good and innocent as an 
angel, and is incapable of doing wrong." The declaration 
of a criminal is not evidence, I well know, unless corroborated. 
Major Franks, who is a competent witness, confirms the state- 
ment. He was an Aid ; and, because he was charged with 
the particular duty of attending her, was laughingly called 

— " the nurse." When asked by a lady to express his opin- 
ion concerning her knowledge of Iier husband's plans, he 
replied, — " Madam, she knew nothing of them — nothing I ' 
She was ignorant of them as a babe." And further, Arnold 
could not venture to trust her, because, " she was subject to 
occasional paroxysms of physical indisposition, attended by 
nervous debility, during which she would give utterance to 
anything and everything in her mind ; " and this " was a fact 
well known amongst us of the General's family, so much so 
as to cause us to be scrupulous of what was told her or said 
within her hearing." I submit with confidence, that Major 
Franks, in these few words, explains Mrs. Arnold's mental 
condition, as stated by Hamilton ; for any proud, well-bred, 

' Arnold had announced the birth; and the Commander-in-Chief, at 
the close of a letter dated at Morristown, March 28, 1780, said in reply, 

— " Let me congratulate you on the late happy event Mrs. Washington 
joins me in presenting her wishes for Mrs. Arnold on the occasion." 



176 ARNOLD. 

sensitive woman, with a constitutional tendency to " parox- 
ysms " and " nervous debility," would do much, if not pre- 
cisely as she did, when informed of her own ruined hopes in 
life, and that the author of her woes must fly to save his life. 

Again : as soon as the^ traitor was safe on board of the 
Vulture^ he addressed a letter to Washington, in which he 
asserts his wife's innocence, and uses these significant words : 
" I beg she may be permitted to return to her friends in Phil- 
adelphia, or to come to me, as she may choose." Mark the 
order of thought. If she was the partner, nay, the author of 
his crime, he would not have suggested the possibility of a 
separation ; but doubt was predominant in his mind, and 
he expressed himself accordingly. This is of moment, since 
nature and observation teach tliat, husband and wife, when 
guilty of the same sin, cling to ono ft n other as by a new vow, 
and as closely as did the pair who were expelled from Eden. 
Mrs. Arnold's decision was free ; and, if principal or accom- 
plice, the laws of her being would have impelled her to renew 
the relations which legally existed between herself and the 
father of her child. But the bond was broken ; j^nd, under 
an escort of horse, with the protection of a flag, she departed 
fi'om West Point for the parental roof. 

I conclude here the circumstantial part of her case. The 
allegation of the third Vice-President of the United States 
concerns common girlhood, common wifehood, and universal 
motherhood ; hence the time bestowed upon it. In my judg- 
ment, the subject of this notice should be acquitted. The 
probabilities are all in her favor, and there is no evidence 
against her. Indeed, more ; dates and facts prove her entire 
innocence. 

Her husband began to complain of the " ingratitude " of 
his country as early as February, 1777, before he ever saw her^ 
and more tJian two years before he married her ; and, from that 
time down to the discovery of his crime, in September, 1780, 
he was continually quarrelling with individuals, or State 
authorities, or members of Congress, or officers in the army. 
In a word, before his second marriage, (April 8, 1779,) his 



ARNOLD. 177 

clamor abont his " wrongs," his importunities for " redress," 
his questionable business and pecuniary transactions, together 
with his arrogance, had disgusted his enemies, and exhausted 
the patience of those who labored earnestly and sincerely to 
relieve his embarrassments, to appease his anger, and to do 
him more than justice. Benedict Arnold, mentally, morally, 
betrayed his country, while his wife was a maiden. The 
Loyalists seem to have known his true character far better 
than the Whigs ; and to have supposed that he favored them 
long pre^dous to his overt treason. There is proof of this in 
the private correspondence of Galloway, the leading Loyalist 
of Pennsylvania. Thus Charles Stewart wrote, December 
17, 1778 : " General Arnold is in Philadelphia. It is said that 
he will be discharged, being thought a pert Tory, Certain it 
is, that he associates mostly with these people^ and is to be mar- 
ried to Miss Shippen," &c. David Sproat, in a letter dated 
January 11, 1779, remarked — "You will hear that General 
Arnold, commandant in Philadelphia, has behaved with lenity 
to the Tories^ and that he is on the eve of marriage to one of 
Edward Shippen's daughters." 

I pass to the distinct question of Burr's veracity. There 
are so many victims to prejudice, to persecution in our history, 
that, when I began to trace his strange career, I was prepared 
to find him one of them. But I incline to the opinion now, 
that his life was a long, an unbroken lie ; for I own my in- 
ability to determine, when, and under wliat circumstance, I 
can put faith in a man who averred, as he did, that he never 
so much as wished harm to any human being ; that he never 
did, said, or wrote anything to throw a cloud over any woman's 
name ; and that no woman could lay her ruin to him. In 
the eighty-three years which have elapsed since the alleged 
eager, imprudent boasting of Mrs. Arnold at Mrs. Provost's, 
hundreds of volumes of biography and correspondence of the 
Revolutionary era have been published ; but, as far as my 
knowledge extends, not one of them contains a syllable to 
corroborate Burr's story, or in any way to implicate tlie sub- 
ject of this notice. Nor is this all. When I mingled with 



178 ARNOLD. 

Loyalist families in the British Colonies, Arnold himself, the 
beauty, character, and fate of his wife, were among the favor- 
ite topics of conversation. Gentlemen of the lineage of the 
Colonel, who went up the Hudson hi the Vulture with Andr^ 
and other well-informed persons, never once suggested that 
by tradition, even, Mrs. Arnold was involved, in the treason. 

My purpose is accomplished. I have attempted the vindi- 
cation of the second wife of Benedict Arnold, simply as a 
duty to her and to her sex. The stain of descent from Atiw, 
from a man, who, in trade was a vulgar, dishonest horse- 
jockey and cattle-dealer, and who, as a military officer, was 
false to his duty ; this, this, her children's children must bear. 

I hasten to complete this article, which is already too long 
for the limits of this work. When she stopped at Mrs. Pre- 
vost's, she was on her way from West Point to Philadelphia. 
She never meant to see her husband aorain. On her arrival 
at her father's house she was treated with the utmost kindness, 
nor were the endeavors to soothe her anguish bv affectionate 
attentions, entirely lost ; but new sorrows awaited her. On 
the 27th of October, 1780, the Executive Council of Penn- 
sylvania issued an order commanding her to depart the State 
within fourteen days from that date, and not to return during 
the war. Her father and others sought to avert this decree 
of exile. The representation that she had resolved to separate 
from the man who had destroyed her happiness ; the pledge of 
her word that she would hold no correspondence with him ; the 
promise of every security for her good conduct, were disre- 
garded ; and on the 9tli of November she obeyed the edict of 
banishment. At the peace, she again thought of leaving her 
husband ; but concluded, finally, to follow him to New Bruns- 
wick. The Loyalists who went to . that Province in 1783, 
lived, at firet, in log or rough-board huts. The country was 
an unbroken wilderness; and bears sometimes came to the 
very doors of these rude dwellings. Arnold was among those 
who soon built frame-houses, and secured many of the com- 
forts of civilized life. Within the traitor's home there, within 
his home in England, was a sad, a stricken wonian. " Her 



ARNOLD. 179 

heart was broken." She came once to her native land. Her 
visit is mentioned in a letter dated at Philadelphia, in Jan- 
nary, 1790. The writer remarks, tliat she had been there six 
months, and intended to stay the remainder of the winter ; 
that *'*' she is handsome, and a woman ; " that out of respect 
to her family, many warm Whigs had been to see her, though 
the common opinion was, that, as her presence placed her 
friends in a painful position, she would have shown more 
feeling by staying away. I learn from another source, that 
she was treated with so much coldness and neglect, even by 
those who had most encouraged her ill-starred marriage, that 
her feelings were continually wounded. — " She never could 
come again.'' 

Her portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence, is (1856) in the 
possession of the Misses Mcllvaine, Philadelphia. That she 
was very beautiful, is said by all who speak of her. Accounts 
differ as to the time and place of her decease ; the English 
and correct record is, that she died in 1804, in Bryanstone 
Street, Portman Square, London, in her forty-fourth year. 
Her sisters would have brought her yoimger children to 
America, — wisely enough was the offer declined. The story 
of Margaret Shippen has a moral for maidens ; she married 
against the wish, the judgment^ of a fond, of a devoted father. 

Mrs. Arnold was the mother of four sons and one daughter : 
namely, Edward Shippen, who was a lieutenant in the Ben- 
gal Cavalry, and paymaster of Mattra, and who died in India, 
in 1813 ; James Robertson, of whom presently ; George, who 
was a lieutenantxjolonel in the Bengal Cavalry, and who died 
in India in 1828 ; William Fitch, who, a magistrate in the 
County of Bucks, England, and late a captain in the Lancers, 
married the only daughter of Captain Ruddach, of the Royal 
Navy; and who, the father of six children, was living in 1855 ; 
and Sophia Matilda, the wife of Colonel Pownall Phipps, of 
the East India Company Service, who was also living eight 
years ago, and the mother of one son and two daughters. 

A word in conclusion, of the most distinguished son. James 
Robertson Arnold entered the corps of Royal Engineers in 



180 ARNOLD. 

1798. He served two vears at Bermnda. and from 1818 to 
1823, commanded the Engineers in Xova Scot^ and New 
Brunswick. After the accession of William IV. he was one 
of his Majesty's aids. While in the Pro\nnces jost named, he 
visited his father's house, — King Street, St. John, — and, as 
I have often been told, •' threw himself into a chair, and wept 
like a child." He expressed a wish to see his mother's family 
in the United States ; but added. — "'I suppose I should be 
insulted on account of mv fether/' ic. A gentleman who 
was in ser\'ice with him, and an intimate acquaintance, speaks 
of him in terms of high commendation : and relates that he 
was a small man, innth eyes of remarkable sharpness, and in 
features thouorht to resemble his tather. His wife was Vir- 
ginia, daughter of Bartlett Goodrich, of the Isle of Wight, 
In 1841, he was transferred from the Engineers, and appointed 
a Major-General, and a Knight of the Hanoverian Guelphic 
Order. He died in London, December, 1852. 

Arnold, Benedict. Of Connecticut. Major-General in 
the Continental Armv. Xothing need be said in these vol- 
umes of a man whose life and infamv are so univeisallv known. 
A word, however, of his priA'ate character, in ftirther vindi- 
cation of Margaret, his second wife. He was descended firom 
the Arnolds of Rhode Island, an honorable iamilv. who for a 

m 

long period figured in the public atlairs of that Colony. He 
was bretl an apothecary-, and ftx)m 1763 to 1767 was settled 
at New Haven, as a druggist and bookseller. I am inclined 
to believe that he was a finishe<l scoundrel from earlv man- 
hiwd to his grave. Xor do I believe that he had any real 
and tine hearted attachment to the Whig cause. "He fought 
as a mere adventurer, and took sides from a calculation of per- 
sonal giiin, and chances of plunder and advancement. 

No honorable man would have formed a copartnership with 
others for purchasing goods within the enemy *s lines as he 
did^ and to the enormous amount of one hundred and forty 
thousand dollars. And no honest man would have lived, 
could have lived as he did, while at Philadelphia. His play, 
his balls, his ct>ncerts, his banquets, were enough to have 




ARNOLD. 181 

• 

impaired the fortune of an European noble. His house was 
the best in the city, and had been the mansion of Penn, the 
last royal governor of Pennsylvania, and the descendant of 
the illustrious founder of the Colony. This dwelling he fur- 
nished magnificently, kept his coach-and-four, and a numerous 
retinue of servants, and indulged in every kind of luxury, 
and ostentatious and vain profusion and display. 

But Arnold should have the benefit of every circumstance 
which, in the judgment of any, can lessen or palliate his guilt. 
Beyond all doubt, then. Congress treated him unjustly. If 
Lis case had never been submitted to that body, or if it had 
been examined and disposed of by Washington, it is certainly 
jH)9mble that his career might have terminated far less dishon- 
orably. 

He was made a brigadier-general in the British service, 
and received a large amount of gold to cover his alleged losses 
in deserting the standard of his country. After he went to 
England, Mr. Van Schaack, a New York Loyalist, who was 
also there, paid a visit to Westminster Abbey. " His mus- 
ings were interrupted by the entrance of a gentleman accom- 
panied by a lady. It was General Arnold, and the lady was 
doubtless Mrs. Arnold. They passed to the cenotaph of Major 
Andrd, where they stood and conversed together. What a 
spectacle ! The traitor Arnold in Westminster Abbey, at 
^he tomb of Andre, deliberately perusing the monumental 
inscription which will transmit to future ages the tale of liis 
own infemy. The scene, with the associations which nat- 
urally crowded upon the mind, was calculated to excite vari- 
ous emotions in an American bosom ; and Mr. Van Schaack 
turned from it with disgust." 

From the conclusion of the war till his death, Arnold re- 
sided chiefly in England ; but for a while he was engaged in 
ti^de and navigation at St. John, New Brunswick. He was 
disliked, was unpopular, and even hated at St. John. [See 
^lias Hardy and Alpheus Pine, in this work, for illustra- 
tion.] Persons of that city still relate instances of his pei-fidy 
3^^d meanness. George Gilbert, Esquire, (a son of Bradford 

VOL. I. 16 



182 ARNOLD. 

• 

Gilbert, who was a Massachusetts Loyalist,) has now (Au- 
gust, 1846,) twelve chairs which are called the " Traitor's 
Chairs," and which were carried from England to St. John 
bv Arnold: When he removed from New Brunswick he sold 
them to the first Judge Chipman, who, after keeping them 
some years, sold them to their present possessor. They are 
of a French pattern, are large, and covered with blue-fignred 
damask ; the wood-work is white, highly polished or enam- 
elled, and striped with gold. 

The Lord Sheffield^ the first ship built in New Brunswick, 
came over the falls of the River St. John, in June, 1786. The 
current story in that Province is, that the builder was unable 
to })urchase the necessary sails and rigging, and that Arnold 
became the owner — by fraud. 

He died in London, June 14, 1801. The following brief 
notice appeared in the " Gentleman's Magasdne: " — '* At his 
house in Gloucester Place, Brigadier-General Arnold. His 
remains were interred on the 21st, at Brompton. Seven 
mourning-coaches and four state-coaches formed the caval- 
cade." 

His first wife bore him, — Benedict, who was an officer of 
artillery in the British Army, who, it is believed, was com- 
pelled to quit the service, and who died young in the 
West Indies ; and Richard and Henry, of whom presently. 
The names of five other children appear in the preceding 
notice. 

" We '' (the English nation), said the ' London Times,' in 
1850, " are actually this moment supporting, out of the public 
funds, the descendants of Arnold the American traitor." 

It may be added that General Arnold's mother had six 
children, of whom he and his sister Hannah alone lived to 
the years of maturity. This sister adhered to her brother 
Benedict throughout his eventful and guilty career, and was 
true to him in the darkest periods of his history. She died 
at Montague in Upper Canada in 1803, and was, as is uni- 
formly stated, a lady of excellent character. She was accom- 
plished, pleasing in person, witty and afiable. She loved, but 



ARNOLD. 188 

ftt the bidding of her brother, broke off the engagement. She 
never married. 

In 1852 the newspapers announced the decease at Norwich, 
Connecticut, of Elizabeth Arnold, cousin of the Traitor, and 
the last of his kindred in that vicinity. Her age was ninety- 
two. She was carried to the poor-house at her own request, 
and died there. 

Arnold, Henry. A son of General Arnold by his first 

marriage. He entered the king's service after his father's 

defection, and was a lieutenant of cavalrv in the American 

Liegion. He accompanied his lather to St. John, and was 

employed in his business. He slept in the wareliouse near 

Liower Cove in that city, and lodged there the night the 

building was burned. He lived afterwards at Troy, New 

York, with his aunt Hannah, and was engaged in mercantile 

pursuits. At a subsequent period, he removed to Canada, 

'^Nrhere, in 1829, he was a man of property. He received 

Jialf-pay, and a grant of lands from the British government. 

Arnold, Richard. Brother of Henry. In 1782 he was 

silso a lieutenant of cavalry in the American Legion, com- 

snanded by his father. In every particular his history, down 

^^o the year 1829, is identical with that of his brother Henry, 

sind need not, therefore, be repeated. Persons are still living 

sit St. John, who resided there when General Arnold's store 

"^¥as burned. The impression was, at the moment, and still 

5s, that the fire was caused by design, and for the purpose of 

defrauding a company in England, that had underwritten 

pon the merchandise which it contained, to an amount far 

xceeding its worth.^ These persons differ as to the fact, 

hether Arnold himself was at St. John, or absent in Encj- 

land, at the time of the fire ; and hence, the degree of blame 

"^hich should be attached to the two sons may be uncertain. 

> The story as first told was as follows : — " We learn from Nova Scotia, 

that the highest suspicion prevails there, that the infamous traitor, Bene- 

<iict Arnold, set fire to his own house, (store,) having previously effected 

an insurance in Loudon upon it, to a much larger amount than the real 

iralue of his property " — Ne:oport Herald of September 11, 1788. 



\ 



1 84 ARNOLD. — ASHLEY. 

That both Henry and Richard slept in the store on the night 
of the conflagration, and that neither could give a satisfactory 
account of its cause, seems, however, to be certain. 

Arnold, Oliver. Of Connecticut. He was bom in that 
State, and graduated at Yale College, in 1776. He went to 
St. John at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that 
city. Having labored some years as an Episcopal missionary, 
he was inducted into office as Rector of Sussex, New Bruns- 
wick, and finished his course in that capacity in 1834, at the 
age of seventy-nine. He was ardently attached to the Epis- 
copal Church, and was regarded as an excellent man. In 
domestic life he was peculiarly kind and affectionate. 

AsBY, James. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchinson 
in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same year. 
A Boston Whig wrote to a friend at New York as follows : 
" The Addressers of Mr. Hutchinson, and the Protesters 
against our public measures, lead a devil of a life. In the 
country the people will not grind their com, and in the town 
they refuse to purchase from, and sell to, them." 

Ashley, Jonathan. Minister of Westfield, and subse* 
quently of Deerfield, Massachusetts. He graduated at Yale 
College in 1730. He was a warm Loyalist, and difficulties 
occurred between him and his people in consequence. An 
Ecclesiastical Council, convened in May, 1780, by mutual 
consent, to arrange the diff*erence, dispersed after a session of 
eleven days without arriving at any conclusion. He expressed 
his particular sentiments freely and boldly. His flock was so 
nearly divided, that sometimes one party had the ascendency, 
sometimes the other. " When the Whigs were in the ma- 
jority, they refused to vote him his firewood." Among the 
anecdotes which show his zeal in the royal cause, I select two : 
" When the provincial Congress of Massachusetts issued the 
proclamation for the Annual Day of Thanksgiving, they sub- 
stituted the ejaculation, ' God save the people,' instead of the 
former one, ' God save the king.' He read the proclamation 
from the pulpit, but when he had come to the close, he raised 
himself above his ordinary height, and, with great vehemence. 



ASHLEY. 185 

sobjoined, * And God save the king,' I say, * or we are an 
undone people-' " 

The other relates to an exchange witli the Rev. Mr. New- 
ton of Greenfield, who also was a Loyalist. The Deerfield 
minister was told by his Greenfield brother that he might 
avail of the occasion to speak of the Revolution, " by way of 
caution to his people." I find the result stated thus : " Mr. 
Ashley somewhat enlarged upon the liberty granted him, and 
seriously offended the congregation. During the intermission 
of service at noon, the friends of the patriot cause assembled, 
and talked the matter over. They finally resolved themselves 
into a meeting, and chose a committee to take measures in 
relation to the afternoon preaching, which they did by fasten- 
ing up the meeting-house. When Mr. Ashley came to com- 
mence the afternoon service, he was met at the door by one 
of his Deerfield parishioners, who gave him a significant nudge 
with his elbow. After repeating this form of salutation, Mr. 
Ashley asked him the reason of the attack, and admonished 
him that he " should not rebuke an elder." " An elder? — an 
elder ? " replied his tormentor, " if you had not said you was 
an elder, I should have thought you was a poison sumach." 
Mr. Ashley had to retire without entering the church. But 
this was not the last of the reverend gentleman's troubles. 
Returning to his own parish, at Deerfield, he soon after 
preached a sermon in which he spoke against the patriot 
cause, and gave his opinion that those Americans wlio fell at 
Lexington had met with a fearful doom in the next world. 
On the following Sabbath, he undertook to enter his pulpit, 
but found it spiked up. After ineffectual attempts to enter, 
he turned to one of his deacons, and requested him to go and 
get his hammer, and force for him an entrance. The deacon 
was a blacksmith, but informed his pastor that he did not work 
on the Sabbath. At last, an axe was procured and the pulpit 
entered." 

He was a man of strong mind, and an earnest preacher. 
He died in 1780, aged sixty-seven. Several of his sermons 

were published. 

16 



i 



186 ASHLET. - ASPDEN. 

" During the forty-eight years of his ministry at Deerfield, 
he officiated in 249 marriages and 1009 baptisms, and admit- 
ted 392 members to his church." 

Ashley, Joseph, Jr. Of Sunderland, Massachusetts. He 
went to Halifax in 1776, and was proscribed and banished 
in 1778. He died in New York before the peace. The Hon. 
Chester Ashley, Senator in Congress, from Arkansas, who 
died at Washington in 1848, at the age of fifty-seven, was of 
the same family. 

AsPDEN, Matthias. Of Philadelphia. Son of Matthias 
Aspden and Rebecca, daughter of Philip Packer. He was 
born in that city about the year 1756 ; and at the beginning 
of the Revolution was a merchant, the owner of a house, 
wharf, and warehouses, and transacting business which gave 
him a profit of £2000 annually. At first, he inclined to the 
Whigs, and joined a company of volunteers ; but his confi- 
dence in the invincible power of the Crown, and the fate of 
his friends Hunt and Kearsley, caused a change of sentiment. 
In 1776 he abandoned the country. He intended to embark 
in one of his own vessels, but at the moment he was ready, 
'* the carting " of the two gentlemen just mentioned, occurred, 
and he resolved to remain rather than be thouorht remiss in 
their trijils. Yet, he soon obtained leave of the Whigs to sail 
from New York in the packet Swallow^ and was disappointed 
a second time, in consequence of difficulties with Governor 
Try on. At last, he took passage in the schooner Bertham^ 
bound to Corunna, Spain, and arrived in London before the 
close of the year. 

By a proclamation of the Council of Pennsylvania in 1780, 
he was required to appear and be tried for treason, before 
April 1, 1781, on pain of being attainted and losing his estate 
by confiscation. He failed ; and his house, wharf, and ware- 
houses in Philadelphia (which, after the peace, according to 
his statement, rented for £1000 per annum), were given to 
the University. 

In 1786 he returned to America, but finding his life in 
peril, hastened back to England. However, he petitioned 



ASPDEN. 187 

for and received a fiill pardon from the State in April, 1786 ; 
and thenceforward seems to have passed a life undisturbed by 
aught save his ovm self-caused vexations and his incessant 
clamors for pecuniary compensation from all the governments 
with which he had ever been connected. The Legislature of 
Pennsylvania, the House of Commons, the Board of Com- 
missioners on Loyalist Claims, the High Chancellor, the Privy 
Council, the Lords of the Treasury, all turned a deaf ear to 
his complaints ; whereon he published them in the " London 
Morning Post." Like the bat in the fable, he sought to 
find gain from both parties, and obtained it from neither. He 
was in France, under the Alien Bill, in 1802 ; at New York, 
under a passport, in 1815 ; and in July, 1817, departed Phil- 
adelphia for England, by way of Canada. He was addressed 
by the South Sea Company on the election of officers in 1823, 
as the Right Honorable Matthias Aspden^ at Messrs. Hoare ^ 
Co.^ Bankers^ Fleet Street; a title which he claimed, because, 
as he said, his grandfather, Thomas Aspden, married Elizabeth 
Scroop, " a descendant of the ancient and noble family of that 
name." He died at London, August 9, 1824. 

His will gave rise to the most extraordinary suit that ever 
occurred under the confiscation acts of the Revolution. The 
documents which pertain to the case were printed in 1837, 
and make upwards of three hundred pages : the eye seldom 
rests on so curious a medley* of transactions in business, of 
every-day gossip, of personal complaints, and general mention 
of human vicissitudes — joy, sorrow, affliction, death. Some 
of his own letters and other papers are strange enough. 
Travelling in Italy, in 1804, he seems to have been con- 
vinced that now and then he met relatives of persons (par- 
ticularly servants of foreign extraction), whom he had once 
known. " At this place (Avignon) saw a good many Phil- 
adelphia-looking faces, and relations, I am sure, of Anna, 
that many years ago lived with my Aunt Bailey ; . . . . am 
inclined to think I also met in Italy old Conrad, that lived 
with her about the same time, and used to carry me to school 
on a pillow before him, — or a cousin of his — at Naples ; 



188 ASPDEN. 

.... and at this place, relations of my neighbor, the razor- 
grinder's wife, who passed for Germans.' ' But perhaps the 
queerest of these is a letter from London, on business, to the 
president, for the time being, of the United States Bank, in 
1808 ; in which he complains bitterly of being annoyed by 
spirits, and calls for the application of the laws against sor- 
cery : " For my own part, I had no idea of anything of this 
kind untill the winter of IT'OS, in Omriond Street, when for 
the first time in my life I slept with a light in my chamber, 
and forced to the resource of it all the winter thro'. Going 
to Richmond in the summer, I had there frequent and repeated 
proofs of there being spirits and daemons, from hearing and 
seeing, if the latter are not also spirits. And now, and for 
several years past, nothing more clear, notorious, and com- 
mon ; for I seldom go out to a coffee-house that I am not 
dog'd or. bitched all the way ; and while there, to my great 
annoyance and others present, and back, by voices out of the 
air that I mostly know, and to the great reproach and scandal 
of the police of this city, or the bench of bishops, at which- 
ever door the laying of evil spirits may lay. As early as the 
age of four or five, I was taught to believe there was no such 
things as spirits, and was not afraid to go anywhere alone, or 
to sleep in a strange house in a chamber alone, with a window 
looking into a churchyard ; and which the commands of the 
Lord in the Bible to the Jews, to destroy the witches and 
wizards out of the land, had tended to strengthen and confirm. 
And this by one that was a spirit or daemon herself or itself, 
if I am not much mistaken, and which accident led me to dis- 
cover, in looking for lodgings a few years agoe, at a lodging- 
house in my present neighborhood, where I met the original, 
and was struck with it ; who, very soon after I came into the 
room, went out with a person like a clergyman with her ; she 
was something bigger than the counterfeit ; when she returned 
home in the year 1762, sent the counterfeit abroad ; excellent 
hands for a motherless babe to fall into. But as I am alive 
and tolerably well, except some remains of the gout in my 
feet, I may say from this, and many other tilings, that I am 
truly sensible that there is a Providence over all." 




ASPDEN. 189 

To retarn to Mr. Aspden's will. The suit to determine 
the rightfiil heirs to his property was brought in 1824, in 
the United States Circuit Court, and decided, finally, in 
1848, He devised his estate, real and personal, " to the per- 
son who should be his heir-at-law," and in another part of the 
instrument, " to the person who should be his lawful heir." 
The claimants were upwards of two hundred, and were divi- 
ded into three classes : 1. The heirs of Mary Harrison, sister 
of the half-blood on the father's side, and the heirs of Roger 
Hartley, half brother on the mother's side. 2. The Packers 
— cousins of the whole blood, a very large and constantly 
increasing class of claimants, one of whom originally instituted 
the proceedings, the suit standing — Packer vs. Nixon, Execu- 
tor of Matthias Aspden. 3. The English Aspdens — rela- 
tions of the whole blood of the father, and who would have 
been heirs at common law. 

The opinion of Judge Grier was in substance as follows : 
The testator left neither wife nor lineal descendant ; but there 
were the issue of the half-blood descendants of Mary Harrison 
and Roger Hartley. The issue on the father's side, the first 
cousins, (the Packers,) are dismissed ; they have no claim on 
any possible construction of this will. The only question is 
between the heir at common law and the half-blood. 

The 11th section of the act of 1794, gives the estate of an 
intestate who dies, leaving no child or issue of such child, to 
the brother or sister of the half-blood, unless whore the estate 
is acquired by descent, gift of devise from the parents, in 
which case, all who are not of the blood of the parent from 
whom the estate was derived, shall be excluded. It is evident, 
therefore, that the issue of the half-blood is in this case sub- 
stituted to the heir at common law. 

" The Court are, therefore, of opinion that the issue of the 
brother and sister of the half-blood are the lawful heirs, and 
the persons entitled." 

The decision was therefore in favor of the American heirs, 
of the issue of Mary Harrison and Roger Hartley ; to whom 
the decree gave property valued at more than $500,000. 



k 



190 ATHERTON. 

The English claimants appealed. The Supreme Court 
affirmed the opinion of Judge Grier, and the estate was 
divided accordingly. 

I conclude this singular story with a paragraph which 
appeared in a Philadelphia paper, March, 1853 : — 

" Romance in Real Life. — John Aspden, whose sud- 
den death on Monday was noticed in our columns, is to be 
buried this afternoon. Mr. Aspden was one of the Eng- 
lish claimants of the immense estate left by Matthias Aspden. 
Before the case was decided by the Supreme Court in favor off 
the American heirs, the latter proposed to the deceased to 
compromise the matter, and offered to pay him the sum of 
$200,000 to relinquish his claim ; this he refused to do, and 
the decision of the Court cut him off without a farthinff. On 
Monday morning the estate was divided between the heirs-at- 
law, and almost at the same moment John Aspden fell dead, 
at a tavern in Carter's Alley, of disease of the heart, supposed 
to have been induced by disappointment and mortification. 
At the time of his death his pocket contained a solitary cent 
— his entire fortune ! To day the man who might have been 
the possessor of a quarter of a million of dollars, will be borne 
to his grave from an obscure part of the District of South- 
war k.'\ 

Atherton, Joshua. Of Amherst, New Hampshire. He 
was born at Harvard, Massachusetts, in 1737, and graduated 
at Harvard University in 17G2. He was the law-student of 
Abel Willard, of Lancaster, and of James Putnam, of Wor- 
cester, and opened an office at Petersham. He removed to 
Litchfield, and, in 1773, — when he was appointed Register 
of Probate of the County of Hillsborough — to Amheret, where 
he soon acquired property and reputation in his profession. 

An open and firm Loyalist, in the events that followed, he 
was a sufferer in person and estate. He was entreated by his 
Whig friends to change his course, while other friends who 
adhered to the Crown, urged him to fly to England or Nova 
Scotia ; but he refused to adopt the counsels of either. His 
house was often surrounded by his political foes, who maix!hed 



ATHERTON. X91 

him off to a tavern and drank freely of flip, punch, and toddy 
at his expense. He bore tlie indignities to which he was 
exposed so meekly, and " treated " so generously, as to win 
the good nature of his tormentors, and to cause tlieni to toss 
their liats, to hurrah for the Tory, and to express tlieir regrets 
that he *' was not one of the sons of liberty." Minor annoy- 
ances I must pass without mention. In 1777 lie was sent 
prisoner to Exeter by order of the Committee of Safety, where 
he remained nearly or quite a year. Though released on 
entering into recognizance with sureties in a large sum, he 
was still confined to the limits of the county until late in 1778, 
when,' upon his petition, and his acknowledgment of the 
authority of the Whigs, his liberty was restored by proclama- 
tion. He took the oath of allegiance to the United States, and 
the oath of an attorney, in 1779, and was admitted to prac- 
tice in the Superior Court. His pecuniary affairs at this time 
were in a deplorable condition. " He lay like some thrifty 
tree uprooted by the late gale, prostrate, divested of its foliage, 
its limbs broken and scattered. His fiimily was much in- 
creased, and increasing. His and their sufferings will hardly 
bear relation." In a few years, however, his business became 
extensive, and he was often the leading counsel in the trial of 
important cases. So, too, his* loyalty was forgotten, and marks 
of respect and confidence Vere frequent, and grateful to his 
feelings. He was a member of the Convention for the adop- 
tion of the Federal Constitution, and led the party that 
opposed it. His principal objections to that instrument, per- 
sonally, were the provisions relative to slaves and slavery. 
Subsequently, he was elected to the House and Senate of 
New Hampshire, and, in 1793, was appointed Attorney-Gen- 
eral of that State. Taking part with the Federalists in the 
discords here occasioned by the French Revolution, he lost 
his popularity ; and when, in 1798, he accepted the office of 
Commissioner under the Act to lew a Direct Tax in the 
United States, " he had the honor to be hung in effigy in the 
town of Deering." Two years later, shattered mentally and 
physically, he retired to private life. His disease — an or- 



192 ATKINS. 

ganic affection of the heart — terminated in death, April, 
1809, in liis seventy-third year. " He was remarkable for 
his social qualities. His courtesy and urbanity will ever be 
remembered bv those who were familiar with him. His hos- 
pitality was unbounded. The clergy, the gentlemen of the 
bar, the judges, officers of the Revolution, and every stranger 
of distinction within the reach of his invitations, were his wel- 
come guests." He was a good scholar, and possessed one of 
the best libraries in the State. Abigail, daughter of the Rev. 
Thomas Goss, of Bolton, Massachusetts, became his wife in 
1765, and died in 1801. At the time of her marriage she 
was hardly more than sixteen years of age ; — " in the joyous 
day of her nuptials, little did this young girl know or think 
of the trials, hardships, and mortifications of her fiiture life." 
She proved an " angel wife and mother." Charles Hum- 
phrey Atherton, who graduated at Harvard University in 
1794, who was at the head of the Hillsborough County bar 
for several years ; who was a representative in Congress, and 
who died at Amherst in 1853, was his son. He was the 
father of six daughters : namely, Frances, Abigail, Rebecca 
Wentworth, Nancy Holland, Catharine, and Elizabeth Wil- 
lard ; some of whom (1852), survive, and all of whom, 
the fourth excepted, married. The late Hon. Charles G. 
Atherton, Representative and Senator in Congress from 
New Hampshire, who died in 1853, was a grandson of our 
Loyalist. 

Atkins, Gibbs. Of Boston. He went to Halifax in 1776, 
and was proscribed and banished in 1778. He returned to 
the United States, and died in Boston in 1806, aged sixty-six. 

Atkins, Charles. Of Charleston, South Carolina. In 
1774 he was appointed a member of the Committee of Corre- 
spondence of that city. In 1780 he was an Addresser of Sir 
Henry Clinton, and a Petitioner to be armed on the srde of 
the Crown. He received a military commission, and in 1782 
was an officer in the Volunteers. He was banished, and his 
property was confiscated. He went to England. In 1794, 
in a memorial dated at London, he stated to the British Gov- 



ATKINSON. 198 

emment, that large debts dae to him in America at the time 
of his banishment remained unpaid, and he desired relief. 

Atkinson, Thbodore. Of Portsmouth, New Hainpshire. 
He graduated at Harvard University in 1718, and in after- 
life rose to much distinction. He held, at various times, the 
offices of Representative in the Assembly, Naval Officer, 
Sheriff, Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas, Colonel of the 
Militia, Collector of the Customs, Secretary of the Colony, 
and Chief Judge of the Superior Court ; and had a seat in 
the Council. In 1775 a committee of the Provincial Con- 
gress requested him to deliver up all the records and papers 
in the Secretary's olBSce, which he refused, as " against his 
oath and honor." On a second visit the committee, without 
heeding his objections, took possession of the documents of his 
office, except the volumes which contained the charter grants 
of lands, which were then in the hands of Governor Went- 
worth. The missing books. Congress, by resolution of July 
7, 1775, voted that Mr. Atkinson should be held accountable 
for to the people. He died in 1779, at the advanced age of 
eighty-two. He bequeathed <£200 sterling to the Episcopal 
Church of Portsmouth, the interest of which he directed to 
be expended in bread, and distributed on Sundays to the poor 
of the parish, which, as I understand, has been dealt out 
under the provision of his will, until the present time, (1859,) 
a period of eighty years. ** His coach was the coach of the 
town." He was a man of wealth, and owned more silver 
plate, probably, than any other person in New Hampshire. 
The town of Atkinson perpetuates his name. 

Atkinson, Theodore, Jr. Of New Hampshire, and 
son of the preceding. He graduated at Harvard University 
in 1757. Entering upon political life, he became a member 
of the Council and Secretary of the Colony. He died at 
Portsmouth, on Saturday, October 28, 1769, at the early 
age of thirty-three, and his remains were deposited in the 
family tomb. Queen's Chapel, with great pomp and circum- 
stance. On Saturday, November 11th — jvst ttvo weeks af- 
ter — his widow, whose maiden name was Frances Deering 

VOL. I. 17 






li^4 AUCHMUTT. 

Weiitwortli, was msrried in the same chapel by the Rev. 
Ai'tliur Browne, to Governor John, afterwards Sir John 
Wentworth. She was a Boston lady, very accomplished and 
gay ; and, as Lady Wentworth, had a diversified career. She 
was a cousin of both husbands, and her earliest attachment 
was for Wentworth ; but while he was absent in England sho 
married Atkinson. There was much gossip at Portsmouth 
about tlie three cousins at the Revolutionary era, founded on 
the facts here stated. And witliin a few y^ars, a story relat- 
ing to the parties appeared in one of the magazines, which, 
extracted by the newspaper press, went the rounds. The 
leading incidents of the tale were both ridiculous and untrue. 
The towns of Francestown, Deering, and Wentworth, in 
New Hampsliire, perpetuate the wife's name. 

AucHMUTY, Uf.v. Samdel, D. D. Of New York. Rector 
of Trinity Church. Son of Robert, Judge of Vice-Admi- 
ralty. Graduated at Harvard Univereity in 1742. I lose 
sight of him until 1754, when he was employed by the So- 
ciety for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foi-eign Parts, 
as Catechist to the negroes in New York, at a salary of 
XiiO; and where, he wrote the Society, that In six months 
he had baptized twenty-three children and two adults, and 
was preparing three others. He succeeded the Rev. Dr. 
Barclay as Rector, in 1704, with the Rev, Mr. Inglis and 
the Rev, Mr, Ogilvie, as assistants. Oxford, England, con- 
ferred the degree of S. T. D. in 176(i, and Kings College, 
New York, tlic year following. In 1771, I find his name 
first on an Address to the Ejiiscopalians of Virginia, urging 
the necessity of an " American Episcopate," or, the resi- 
dence of bishops in the Colonies. Trumbull calls him a 
" high-church clergyman," and makes him the subject of 
remark in McFingal. In April, 1775, Dr. Auchmuty wrote 
from New York to Captain Montresor, chief engineer of 
General Gage's army at Boston, that "we have lately been 
plagued with a rascally Whig mob hero, but they have 
effected nothing, only Sears, the king, was rescued at the 
jail-door." . . . . " Our magistrates have not the spirit of a 
louse," &c. 



AUCHMUTY. 195 

In September, 1776, nearly one thousand buildings were 
burned in the western part of the city, and among them 
Trinity Church, the Rector's house, and the Charity School ; 
St. Paul's Chapel and King's College barely escaped. The 
Vestry of Trinity reported the loss by this fire to the Church 
to be — Trinity Church and organ, £17,500; two Charity 
School-houses and fences, £2000 ; Library, £200 ; Rector's 
house, £2500 ; total, £22,200 ; besides the annual rent of two 
hundred and forty-six lots of ground, — the tenant buildings 
being all consumed. After the fire. Dr. Auchmuty searched 
the ruins of his church and of his large and elegant man- 
sion, but found no articles of value, except the church plate 
and his own. His personal losses by the conflagration, he 
estimated at upwards of $12,000. He died in 1777. His 
wife was a daughter of Richard Nichols, Governor of New 
York. Notices of his two sons follow. His daughter Jane 
was the second wife of Richard Tylden, of the family of 
Tylden, Milsted, County of Kent, England ; one of her sons 
is the present Sir John Maxwell Tylden, who was in the 
army twenty years ; and another, William Burton Tylden, 
is a major in the Royal Engineers. Of Dr. Auchmuty's 
two other daughters, I have no account, save that they were 
married. 

Auchmuty, Sir Samuel. Of New York. Lieutenant- 
General in the British Army. Eldest son of the Rev. Dr. 
Auchmuty. At the beginning of the Revolution he was a 
student at King's College, and was intended by his father for 
the ministry. But his own inclinations were military from 
his boyhood. 

Soon after he graduated, and in 1776, he joined the Royal 
Army under Sir William Howe, as an ensign in the 45th 
Jlegiment, and was present in most of the actions in that and 
the following year. In 1783 he commanded a company in 
the 75th Regiment, in the East Indies, and was with Lord 
Comwallis in the first siege of Seringapatam. In 1801 he 
joined the expedition to Egypt, and held the post of adjutant- 
general. He returned to England in 1803, and three years 



V 
V 



196 AUCHMUTY. 

after was ordered to South America, where, as brigadier- 
general, lie assumed command of the troops ; and, in 1807, 
assaulted and reduced — after a most determined resistance 
— the city and fortress of Monte Videa In 1809 he was 
transferred to India. Subsequently, he succeeded Sir D, 
Baird, as chief of the staff in Ireland. He was knighted in 
1812 ; his nephew, Sir John Maxwell Tylden, lieutenant- 
colonel of the 52d Regiment, being his proxy. He twice 
received the thanks of Parliament, and was presented with 
a service of plate by that body, and by the Ekst India Com- 
pany. His seat, — Syndale House, — was in Kent, near 
Feversham. He died in Ireland, suddenly, in 1822, at the 
age of sixty-four. 

AucHMUTY, Robert Nichols. Of New York. Son of 
Rev. Dr. Samuel Auchmuty. He was a graduate of King^s 
College, New York ; and, in the Revolution, served as a vol- 
unteer in the British Army. He died at Newport, Rhode 
Island, in 1813. His wife was Henrietta, daughter of Henry 
John Overing. His daughter Maria M., widow of Colonel E. 
D. Wainwright, of the United States Marines, died at Wash- 
ington, D. C, January, 1861, aged seventy-one. 

Auchmuty, Richard Harrison. Of New York. Sur- 
geon in the British Army. Taken prisoner in the storming 
of Stoney Point. With Cornwallis at Yorktown ; — and 
died soon after the surrender, while on parole. 

Auchmuty, Robert. Of Boston. In 1767 he was ap- 
pointed Judge of Vice- Admiralty of Massachusetts and New 
Hampshire, in place of Chambers Russell, deceased. John 
Adams, with whom he was associated in the defence of Cap- 
tain Preston, for the affair in King Street, March 5, 1770, 
called the " Boston Massacre," describes his arguments at 
the bar thus : — " Volubility, voluble repetitions and repeated 
volubility; fluent reiterations and reiterating fluency; such 
nauseous eloquence always puts my patience to the torture." 

His letters to jKjrsons in England were sent to America, 
with those of Governor Hutchinson, by Franklin, in 1773, and 
created much commotion. He went to England in 1776, 



AUCHMUTY. — AVERY. 197 

and at one period was in very distressed circamstanees. He 
never returned to the United States. His estate was confis- 
cated. His mansion in Roxbury became the property of 
Governor Increase Sumner, and was occupied by him at the 
time of his decease. Mr. Auchmuty died in 1788. 

Walker & Son, booksellers, London, have on their Catalogue 
of 1856, among their rare American tracts, the following: — 
" Auchmuty (Robert, an Absent^e^^ Certificate of the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts of the Sale of R. Auchmuty's 
Library, at Public Auction, according to Law, Signed mid 
Sealed 12th Feb. 1784, with Autograph Certificate of John 
Browne, Chairman of the Committee of Sequestration, Signed 
and Dated 10th Feb. 1784, Boston ; Statement of the Manner 
in which Mrs. Brinley and Mrs. Breynton Executed the 
Directions of the Will of R. Auchmuty, Esq., with his Will 
annexed, &c., showing every thing that was done for those 
purposes, 20 pages, 4to." 

Auchmuty, James. Of New York. Son of Robert. " I 
send you," wrote General Scott to the Provincial Congress, 
July 5, 1776, " James Auchmuty, storekeeper in the Engi- 
neer Department, and brother to Dr. Auchmuty, with his 
wife and child." He himself wrote Mr. Jay, in October of 
the same year, that, while others held as prisoners of war 
were paid the regular allowance, not a shilling had been given 
him. Soon after, he gave his parole to depart to Danbury, 
Connecticut, and to remain neutral until exchanged or dis- 
charged. At the peace he removed to Nova Scotia, where 
he became eminent as a lawyer, and was appointed judge. 
He had a son in the British Army, who was killed in battle 
in the West Indies. 

Avery, Ephraim. Of Pomfret, Connecticut. Episcopal 
minister. He received the degree of A. B. from Yale College, 
and that of A. M. from King's College, New York. In 1765 
he succeeded Mr. Punderson as minister of Rye, and con- 
tinued his pastoral relations until the Revolution, " when he 
became so obnoxious to the Whigs," that his farm animals 
were driven off and his other property plundered. He died 

17* 



198 AXTELL. — AYMAR. 

November, 1776. General Israel Putnam was one of the 
hnsbands of his mother. She died in the Highlands in 1777, 
and was deposited in Beverly Robinson's tomb. 

AxTELL, William. Of New York. Member of the Coun- 
cil of that Colony. He was descended from David Axtell, a 
colonel in Cromwell's army, who was beheaded at the restor- 
ation of the Stuarts. When examined by the Whig Com- 
mittee, in 1776, he stated that the bulk of his property was 
in Great Britain and the West Indies. In reporting his case 
to the Provincial Congress, the Committee remarked that 
they believed him to be "a gentleman of high honor and 
integrity." He had a country-seat at Flatbush, was the first 
man in wealth and importance there, and invited Whig pris- 
oners to sup with him. Miss Shipton, a relative and an in- 
mate of his house, married Colonel Giles, of the Continental 
Army. In 1778 Mr. Axtell was commissioned by Sir Wil- 
liam Howe, colonel of a corps of Loyalists. In 1788 the 
colore of the regiment of Waldeck were consecrated in front 
of his mansion at Flatbush. The troops formed in a circle, 
and officers and men took a solemn oath to support the new 
standards ; a splendid dinner and a ball followed ; and the 
ladies presented the officers who bore the colors, with a knot 
of blue and yellow ribbons. In November of the last men- 
tioned year, Colonel Axtell's furniture was sold by auction 
at his town-house, Broadway, New York. His estate was 
confiscated. He went to England, received a considerable 
sum for his losses, and was allowed the half-pay of a colonel. 
He died at Beaumont Cottage, Surrey, in 1795, aged seventy- 
five. His wife died before his departure from America. He 
left no issue. 

Aymar, Francis. Descended from a family that fled to 
the United States during the religious persecutions in France. 
Was born in the city of New York in 1759, and died at St. 
Andrew, New Brunswick, October, 1843, aged eighty-four 
- years. He was one of the grantees of, and settled at St. John, 
New Bnmswick, in the autumn of 1783, and continued his 
residence there until 1807, when he returned to the United 



BABBIT. — B ACHE. 1 99 

States, and lived alternately at Eastport, Maine ; New York ; 
and St. Andrew, np to the time of his decease. He was the 
&ther of fifteen children, of whom the following survived 
him : Daniel, William, John, Francis, Nancy, Mary, Betsey, 
Eleanor, Sarah, and Phebe. 

Babbit, Daniel. He died at Gagetown, New Brunswick, 
1830, at the age of eighty-seven. 

Babcock, Rev. Luke. An Episcopal minister. He was • 
the youngest son of Chief Justice Babcock, of Rhode Island, 
was bom in 1738, and graduated at Yale College in 1755. 
Having been ordained by the Bishop of London, he was ap- 
pointed to the mission of Philipsburgh, New York. In 1774, 
King^B College conferred the degree of A. M. Soon after 
the breaking out of the Revolution his papers were examined, 
and he was personally interrogated touching his allegiance to 
the Crown. The result was, that in October, 1776, he was 
ordered to Hartford, where he remained until the following 
February, when his health failed, and he was directed to re- 
move within the lines of the Royal Army. " He got home 
in a raging fever, and delirious,'* and died, February 18, 1777. 
Mr. Seabury said, — "I know not a more excellent man, and 
I fear his loss, especially in that mission, will scarcely be made 
up." His remains were deposited in the family vault of the 
Van Cortlands. 

In 1780 the parsonage was broken into by a band of " cow- 
boys," with disguised persons and blackened faces, and the 
ladies robbed of their valuables. The leader, in parting, made 
a profound bow, and thus addressed Mrs. Babcock : — 

** Fare you well, and fare you better, 
And when I die, 1 '11 send you a letter.** 

f 

Mr. Babcock's brother Henry, a graduate of Yale College, 
was a lawyer, a colonel in the Whig service, in command at 
Newport, Rhode Island, and " a man of fine person, accom- 
plished manners, and winning eloquence." 

Bache, Theophylact. Of New York. He came to 
America, probably, in 1755. He was a merchant, and liis 



200 B ACHE. — BACON. 

business was principally with the West Indies and Newfound- 
land. He was also agent of the packets which plied between 
Falmouth, England, and New York. In 1773 he was elected 
President of the Chamber of Commerce. He was a deter- 
mined Loyalist. His brother Richard married Sarah, daugh- 
ter of Doctor Franklin, and was a Whig. The political sym- 
pathies of Theophylact were, possibly, the same as Richard^s 
at the outset, since he was associated with Jay and Lewis on 
the Committee of Correspondence. 

July 1, 1776, in a letter to Philip Livingston, he denied 
that he was inimical to American rights, and said, that the 
distressed state of his wife and numerous family, required all 
his attention, and would, he hoped, be a sufficient apology for 
not appearing before Congress, as required to do by that body. 
At one period of the war his place of residence was at Flat- 
bush, Long Island. Obnoxious to some of the Whigs, in the 
course of events, a daring attempt to carry him off was made 
in 1778, by a Captain Marriner, an eccentric, witty, and inge- 
nious partisan, which resulted successfully. Marriner's plan 
embraced three other Loyalists of rank and consequence ; 
but Bache and Major Moncrieffe, with four slaves, were those 
whom he actually captured, and they were placed in a boat 
and conveyed to New Jersey. The marauders struck Mrs. 
Bache several times for entreating them not to deal harshly 
with her husband, and they plundered the house of plate, 
wounded a female servant, and dragged off Mr. Bache him- 
self without giving him time to put on his clothes. Such is 
the account. 

Mr. Bache was kind to Colonel Graydon, a Whig ; gave 
him frequent invitations to tea, and to partake of his Ma- 
deira, and offered his purse to relieve his supposed necessities. 
" He is remembered as a fine specimen of a gentleman, — 
courteous, hospitable, with a touch of the sportsman, loving 
his gun and his dog, and everywhere acceptable as a polished 
and agreeable companion." He died in New York, in 1807, 
aged seventy-eight. His wife was a Miss Barclay. 

Bacon, John. Of New Jersey. Leader of a band of 



BACON. - BAILEY. 201 

inarandera in the counties of Burlington and Monmouth. 
In the fight at Cedar Bridge, he was accused of killing one 
Cook, and the State offered a reward for his capture, dead 
or alive. In April, 1782, a brother of Cook, John Stewart, 
and four others, all heavily armed, surprised him on a very 
dark night, in a tavern, when he surrendered and was dis- 
armed. But Cook thrust his bayonet into his body, and, on 
his attempt to escape, Stewart shot him dead. 

Badgely, . June 20, 1782, he was condemned to 

death for treason in New Jersey, and the day of execution 
appointed. His case caused a spirited letter from Sir Guy 
Carleton to Washington. The papers show that Badgely 
"joined the enemy long after the passing of the treason act." 

Badger, Moses. An Episcopal minister. He graduated 
at Harvard University in 1761. His wife was a daughter 
of Judge Saltonstall of Massachusetts, and sister of Colonel 
Richard and Leverett, the two Loyalist sons of that gentle- 
man. Mr. Badger went to Halifax in 1776, but was at New 
York at or about the time of the death of Leverett, and wrote 
to the family on the subject. At one period he was chaplain 
to De Lancey's second battalion. After the Revolution, Mr. 
Badger was Rector of King's Chapel, Providence, and died 
in that city in 1792. It appears, that some years prior to 
the war he was an Episcopal missionary in New Hampshire, 
authorized to labor throughout that Colony. 

Bailet, Jacob. He graduated at Harvard University in 
1755. Principally through the instrumentality of the Ply- 
mouth proprietors in Maine, an Episcopal Church was 
erected at Pownalborough, now Dresden, in that State, and 
for several years Mr. Bailey was the officiating clergyman, 
as a missionary of the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel. Few around him agreed with him in political 
sentiment. 

For the single offence of continuing divine service, he 
relates, he was threatened, insulted, condemned, laid under 
heavy bonds, and doomed to transportation. His family con- 
sisted of a wife, a young infant, and two girls of about eleven 



202 BAILEY. 

years. Informed of a design against his life, he resolved to 
leave them, destitute of money, and of provisions except a few 
garden roots ; and escape, as he best could do. He accom- 
plished his pui*pose, but returned. Again molested, and told 
that if he attempted to officiate in public or in private, imme- 
diate confinement in prison would follow, he determined to 
abandon the country, and in the summer of 1779 he went to 
Halifax, N. S. I give an account of his appearance when 
he landed in that city, in nearly his own words. His feet 
were adorned with shoes which sustained the marks of rebel- 
lion and independence. His legs were covered with a thick 
pair of blue woollen stockings, which had been so often mended 
and darned by the Angel's of frugality, that scarce an atom of 
the original remained. His breeches, which just conc^led 
the shame of his nakedness, had been formerly black, but the 
color being worn out by age, nothing remained but a rusty 
gray, bespattered with lint, and bedaubed with pitch. Over 
a coarse tow and linen shirt, manufactured in the looms of 
sedition, he wore a coat and waistcoat of the same dandy gray 
russet ; and, to secrete from public inspection the innumerable 
rents, holes, and deformities, which time and misfortunes had 
wrought in these ragged and weather-beaten garments, he 
was furnished with a blue surtout, fritted at the elbows, worn 
at the button-holes, and stained with a variety of tints. To 
complete the whole, a jaundice-colored wig, devoid of curls, 
was shaded with the remnants of a rusty beaver, its monstrous 
brim replete with notches and furrows, and grown limpsy by 
the alternate inflictions of storm and sunshine, lopped over 
his shoulders, and obscured a face meagre with famine and 
wrinkled with solicitude. His wife's dress was no better. 
She was arrayed in a ragged baize night-gown, tied round the 
middle with a woollen string ; her petticoats were jagged at 
the bottom, were ragged above, and drabbled in mud. Hfe 
became Rector of St. Luke's Church, Annapolis, Nova Scotia, 
and died in that relation in 1808, at the age of sixty-seven. 
During the last twenty-six years of his life he was absent 
from his church only one Sunday. 



BAILEY. — BAINBRIDGE. 203 

His wife, Sally, daughter of Dr. John Weeks, of Hamp- 
ton, N. H. ; three sons and three daughters, survived him. 
Charles Percey, the oldest son, who was remarkable for per- 
sonal beauty, was a captain in the British Army, and was 
killed at the battle of Chippewa, in the war of 1812. Re- 
becca Lavinia died at Annapolis. Charlotte Maria is (1853) 
still living. Thgrnas Henry was an officer in the militia, and 
died young, leaving a wife and three children. William Gil- 
bert was a lawyer of extensive practice, died young, also, 
and left a family. Elizabeth Anna married Mr. James Whit- 
man. Mrs. Bailey died at Annapolis in 18^18, at the age of 
seventy. Mr. Bailey was poor throughout his life. " Though 
oppressed himself by want and debt, his hospitality never 
ceased to flow, and by the kindness of his nature he always 
retained the personal regard of all who knew him." 

The Life of Mr. Bailey, by the Rev. William S. Bartlet, 
late Rector of St. Luke's Church, Chelsea, Mass., is instruc- 
tive and interesting, and has afforded materials for several 
notices in these pages. 

Bailey, William. In 1782 was captain-lieutenant of 
the Loyal American Regiment ; he settled afler the war in 
New Brunswick, and received half-pay. He died on the River 
St. John, near Fredericton, in 1832, at the advanced age of 
TiiDety-seven. 

Bailey, Zachariah. Died at Fredericton, New Bnms- 
'wick, in 1823, aged seventy-two. 

Bailie, George. Of Georgia. In 1777 the Committee 
of Safety for the parish of St. John, gave him and two others 
pennission to ship rice to Surinam, under bond and security 
that it should not be landed in a British port. He had pur- 
chased goods to a considerable amount of William Parton, 
(a Loyalist mentioned in these volumes,) and that gentleman, 
hy an arrangement with the^ Governor of Florida, changed 
4e destination of the vessels, and the bond was forfeited, 
^e result was that Bailie was included in the Banishment 
and Confiscation Act. 
Bainbridgb, Absalom. Of Princeton, New Jersey. Phy- 



204 BAINBRIDGK - BALDWIN. 

sician. He was descended from Sir Arthnr Bainbridge, of 
Durham County, England, and his American ancestor was 
one of the founders of New Jersey. At the Revolutionary 
era the family was of great respectability. Soon after the 
beginning of the war, he retired to New York. In 1778 he 
was a surgeon in the New Jersey Volunteers ; and at Flat- 
bush that year, offered two guineas reward for a runaway 
negro boy, Priam, — " hair light-colored and of the woolly 
kind." His wife was a daughter of John Taylor, of Mon- 
mouth County, N. J. He died at New York in 1807, aged 
sixty. 

His son William, bom at Princeton, N. J., in 1774, entered 
the United States Navy during the aggressions of France, as 
a lieutenant ; was commissioned post-captain in 1800, before 
he was twenty-six ; and, December 29, 1812, in command 
of the frigate Constitution^ he captured the British frigate 
Java. He died in 1833, in his sixtieth year. Another son, 
Joseph, was also a captain in the United States Navy. 

Baird, William and Archibald. The first went to St. 
John, New Brunswick, at the peace, and was a grantee of that 
city. Archibald was collector of the customs at Georgetown, 
S. C. ; and, expelled for refusing to swear allegiance to the 
Whigs, he went to Europe, and died previous to* August, 1777- 

Baldwin, John. Of Philadelphia. Accused, in 1776, 
of refusing to receive "Continental money," he was snm- 
moned before the Council of Safety, and when informed of 
the complaint against him, acknowledged its truth. The 
Council urged the pernicious influence of his conduct, and 
gave him several days for reflection, in the hope that he would 
change his purpose. Persisting, at a second hearing, he was 
proclaimed " an enemy to his country, and precluded from all 
trade and intercourse with the inhabitants of these States ; '' 
and he was ordered to jail, there to remain without bul or 
mainprise until he shall be released by order of the Council, 
or some other power lawfully authorized so to do." 

There died at St. George, N. B., in 1840, at the age of 
ninety-one years, a Loyalist of the name of John Baldween, 



I 



BALL. — BANNISTER. 205 

who served the Crown nearly the whole of the Revolution, 
who was distinguished for bravery, and who, I suppose, was 
the subject of this notice. 

Ball, . Captain of a militia company in the town 

of Berne, New York. His command consisted of eighty-five 
men ; of whom sixty-three joined him in going over to the 
king at the commencement of hostilities. His ensign, Peter 
Deitz, and the remainder of his men, were Whigs. Deitz 
was commissioned captain, and his brother, William Deitas, 
lieutenant. Peter was killed in 1777, and William succeeded 
him in command, and by his activity incurred the hate of the 
Tories, when with his family they made him their prisoner, 
and tied him to his gate-post to witness the death of his father 
and mother^ his wife and children, who were successively 
brought out and murdered before his eyes. The unhappy 
Deitz himself was carried to Niagara, where he ultimately 
became a victim of Tory cruelty. 

Ballingall, Robert. Of South Carolina. He was in 
commission under the Crown after the surrender of Charles- 
ton in 1780, and his estate was confiscated. 

When Sir Henry Clinton issued his proclamation ordering 
all prisoners taken at the capitulation to return to that city, 
Ballingall waited upon the ill-fated Colonel Isaac Hayne, and 
communicated the orders he had received on the subject. 
Hayne asserted that he was not bound to obey, and plead that 
his children were all ill with the small-pox, that one child had 
died, and that his wife was on the eve of dissolution ; and 
finally declared, that no human force should remove him from 
the side of his dying wife. A discussion followed, and, at 
last, Hayne consented to give Ballingall a written stipulation 
to " demean himself as a British subject, so long as that coun- 
try should be covered by the British Army." 

Balmaine, William. He settled at Grand Lake, New 
Brunswick. While at St. John, in 1809, he fell from a win- 
dow and was killed. His age was seventy-two. 

Bannister, John. A " young man of family, property, 
^tid convivial habits,*' who went to England during the war, 

^OL. I. 18 



206 BANYAR. — B ARBARIE. 

and was on intimate terms with Count Rumford. He died 
previous to 1813. 

Banyar, GoLDspROW. Of New York. He was bom in 
London in 1724, and came to America at the age of fourteen. 
In 1746 he was sworn in as Deputy Secretary of the Colony, 
Deputy Clerk of the Council, and Deputy Clerk of the 
Supreme Court ; and, six years later, was appointed Register 
of the Court of Chancery ; and in 1753, Judge of Probate. 
His public employments ceased with the termination of the 
Royal Government. When the Whigs assumed the direction 
of af&irs, he retired to Rhinebeck, New York. At the peace 
he removed to Albany, " where he always took a great inter- 
est in the internal improvements of the State, and contributed 
to all a liberal support." His wife was the widow of John 
Appy, Judge- Advocate of the forces in America. Blind in 
the last years of his life, he was led about the streets by a 
colored servant. He died at Albany in 1815, at the age of 
ninety-one ; " leaving to his descendants a large fortune, and 
a more enduring inheritance, — the recollection of his many 
virtues and the example of a life devoted to duty." His son 
Goldsbrow died in New York in 1806. 

Barbarie, John. Captain in the New Jersey Volunteers. 
Taken prisoner at Statcn Island in 1777, and sent to Trenton. 
In garrison during the siege of Ninety-Six, South Carolina, 
and wounded. In the battle of Eutaw Springs, again wounded. 
He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, and was 
a grantee of that city. He received half-pay. He was a 
colonel of the militia, and a magistrate of the County of York. 
He died at Sussex Vale in 1818, at the age of sixty-seven. 
His son, Andrew Barbarie, Esq., was a member of the House 
of Assembly. 

Barbarie, Oliver. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
Loyal American Regiment. He settled at St. John in 1788» 
and was the grantee of a city lot. Ho died at Sussex Vale^ 
New Brunswick. 

" Euphemia, relict of Oliver Barbarie, late of the Barraclc 
Department," died at Holyhead, England, at the house o€ 
her brother, Captain Skinner, in 1830, aged sixty-four. 



i 



BARCLAY. 207 

Barclay, Thomas. Was the son of Henry Barclay, 
D. D., Rector of Trinity Church, New York, and was born 
in that city, October 12, 1753. He was a graduate of Colum- 
bia College, and a student of law of John Jay. At the be- 
ginning of the Revolution he entered the British Army under 
Sir William Howe, as a captain in the Loyal American Regi- 
ment, and was promoted to a major by Sir Henry Clinton in 
1777. He continued in active service until the peace. His 
estate in New York was confiscated, and at the close of the 
contest he fled with his family to Nova Scotia. Of the House 
of Assembly of that Province he was for some time Speaker ; 
and of the militia, Adjutant-General. From 179G till 1828 
he was employed iii civil stations, under the British crown, 
of great trust and honor. He was successively a commis- 
sioner under Jay's Treaty, the Consul-General for the North- 
ern and Eastern States, and Commissary for the care and 
exchange of prisoners. At the conclusion of the war of 1812, 
between the United States and Great Britain, he was ap- 
pointed Commissioner under the fourth and fifth Articles of 
the Treaty of Ghent, which post he continued to hold until 
within two years of his decease. 

In an autograph letter in my possession, dated at Annapolis 
in 1799, he said to a fellow-exile : — "I find that those who 
were termed Royalists or Loyalists, in addition to their attach- 
ment to their king and country, preserve their principles of 
honor and integrity, of openness and sincerity, which marked 
the Americans previous to the year 1773 ; while those who 
have sold their king for a Republican Government, have 
adopted all the frivolity, intrigue, and insincerity of the 
French, and in relinquishing their allegiance, resigned at the 
same time, almost universally, religion and morality." 

In private life he was estimable. He was a sincere and 
devout Christian of the communion of the Church of Eng- 
land. A prominent trait in his character was kindness and 
charity to the poor. His official conduct was the subject of 
frequent and marked approbation of the sovereigns whom he 
served, and at the close of his services he was rewarded with 



208 BARD. — BARD AN. 

a pension of £1200 per annum. His habits of industry and 
application were extraordinarT ; and he was never in bed at 
sunrise for forty years. He died at Xew York in April, 
1830, aged seventy-seven years. His son. Colonel Delancey 
Barclay, an aide-de-camp to Georj^e the Fourth, died in 
1826 ; he had repeatedly distinguished himself, particularly 
at Waterloo. 

Bard, Samuel. Of Xew York. Physician, L.L. D. 
He was bom in Philadelphia in 1742, and graduated at 
King's College, N. Y. In 1762 he went to Edinburgh to 
complete his medical education, and was absent five years. 
Soon after his return, he hel|>ed to organize a medical school, 
of which he became a professor. In 1772 his father, Dr. 
John Bard, retired to the country, when he succeeded him 
in practice, and became eminent. Averse to war, unwilling 
to break off connection with England, and to mingle in the 
turmoils of the time, he joined his father at Hyde Park, in 
1775. Other removals followed ; but he finally settled in 
New Jersey. He returned to Xew York after the Royal 
Army took possession, and found himself an object of suspic- 
ion, and of utter neglect. Rwluced to his last guinea, he 
accidentally met the mayor, (Matthews) who treated him 
kindly, and who, by his good offices subsequently, was the 
means of restorinor him to the confidence of his former friends. 
The leadei*s of the Royal party became at last his frequent 
guests. At the peace he was urged to leave the country on 
account of his known associations and political sentiments ; 
but he declined. After the Federal Government was orijan- 
ized, he was Washington's family physician. He died in 
1821, in his eightieth year ; his wife departed just one day 
before him, and a common grave received their remains. 
The universal testimony is, that he possessed almost every 
virtue which adorns manhood. 

Bakdan, John. Arrested by Lieutenant Nowell, he was 
asked what he intended to do with the Rebels, and answered : 
— "Kill them, as fast as I can." Nowell i-eleased him on 
payment of seven dollars in paper currency, and was tried 



B ARFIELD. — BARNES. 209 

by a court-martial, and " dismissed from the army with 
infamy." 

Barfield, . Captain of a company of Tories. In 

an affair with the Whig partisan Melton, he was successful. 
Gabriel Marion, a nephew of the General, fell into his hands, 
and as soon as recognized, was put to death.. ^^ His name was 
fatal to him." 

Barker, Wiloam. Of Maine. Born in England in 
1734 ; emigrated to Massachusetts about the year 1774 ; 
removed to the Kennebec River in 1775. " Opposed to the 
Revolution at heart," but did not often publicly avow his 
opinions. In the course of the war he lived a year or two 
in Dresden. The Whigs annoyed him in various ways, but 
he did not leave the country. He died at Gardiner, in 1822. 
Dorothy, his wife, died in 1814. One daughter, Nancy, 
married Peter Grant ; another, Elizabeth, was the wife of 
Joshua Lord. 

Barker, Joshua. He entered the British Army during 
the French war, and served with distinction in the West 
Indies. After he attained the rank of captain, he retired on 
half-pay. In the Revolution, he '' was as little obnoxious as 
perhaps any man in his situation could be ; always wishing 
for the blessings of peace, and the good of his country." In 
his address he was courteous and graceful ; in his temper, 
calm ; in his counsels, clear and determined. He bore a long 
indisposition with fortitude and resignation. He died at Hing- 
ham, Massachusetts, in 1785, aged seventy-three. 

Barnard, John. Of Massachusetts. He was born in 
1745, and graduated at Harvard University in 1762. He 
went to St. John, New Brunswick, and was a merchant. He 
died in 1785, aged forty. 

Barnard, Thomas. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Settled 
in Nova Scotia, and died at Yarmouth, about the year 1833. 

Barnes, Henry. Merchant of Marlborough, Massachu- 
setts. He was a magistrate and a man of some note. The 
records of the town, however, as examined by a friend, show 
hardly more than that he distilled a liquor from cider, which 

18* 



210 BARNES. 

he exported, and which he petitioned the selectmen for leave 
to sell there at retail. 

Towards the close of February, 1775, General Gage ordered 
Captain Brown and Ensign D'Bemicre, to go through the 
Counties of Suffolk and Worcester, and to sketch the roads as 
they went, for his information, " as he expected to have occa- 
sion to march troops through that country the ensuing spring." 
The two officers set out from Boston, disguised like countrymen 
in brown clothes and reddish handkerchiefs round their necks. 
Their adventures until their arrival at Marlborough, do not be- 
long to this sketch. Recommended to Mr. Barnes " as a friend 
to government," they found his house in a snow-storm, discov- 
ered themselves, and were told by him, that they need not be 
at " the pains of telling him, he knew their situation." . That 
" the town was very violent," that •' they could be safe no- 
where but in his house," and that " they had been expected 
the night before," «fec., &c. The people were suspicious, and 
began to assemble in groups in all parts of the village. Mes- 
sages were sent to Barnes, and other circumstances occurred, 
which, after the lapse of twenty minutes, compelled him to 
declare to his guests that they would be attacked, and that 
he could not protect them. He accordingly took them out of 
his house by the stables, and directed them to a by-road. 
They made their escape to the tavern • of Jones, the Tory 
landlord of Weston ; " it snowed and blew," relates one of 
them, " as much as I ever see it in my hfe." 

In the House of Representatives, November, 1775, the 
" Petition of Henry Knox ^ humbly showeth : That your 
petitioner having been obliged to leave all his goods and 
house funiiture in Boston, which he has no prospect of ever 
getting possession of again, nor any equivalent for the same, 
therefore begs the Honorable Court, if they in their wisdom 
see fit, to permit him to exchange house furniture with Henry 
Barnes, late of Marlborough, which he now has it in his power^ 
to do." The prayer was refused ; but the Whig was allowed 

1 Subsequently, Chief of Artillery in the Continental Army, and Secre- 
tary at War under Washington. 



BARNES. - BARRELL. 211 

to use the Loyalist's household goods, on giving receipt to ac- 
count for them to the proper authorities. 

In December, 1775, Catharine Goldthwait prayed the in- 
terposition of the General Court, stating in a petition that 
she was the niece and adopted heir of Barnes ; that she had 
resided with him about seventeen years ; that at his depart- 
ure from town, she was left with a part of his family in pos- 
session, and that the committee of Marlborough had entered 
upon his estate, sold a part, and proposed to dispossess her 
entirely. Barnes went to England. In 1777 he was at 
Bristol with his wife and niece, and in September, thirteen 
of his fellow Loyalists were his guests ; and, later still the 
same year, he dkied with several of the Massachusetts exiles 
at Mr. Lechmere's, when the conversation was much about 
the political condition of their native land. 

In 1778, Mr. Barnes was proscribed and banished. In 
1781 he supped with one of his countrymen, who told him 
that the people of the Old Bay State complained of Congress 
and of their French allies, without restraint. He died at Lon- 
don in 1808, at the age of eighty-four. 

Barnks, Joshua. A captain in DeLancey's corps. In 
1778, the Whig Major Leavenworth, of Massachusetts, hear- 
ing that Barnes was out on a plundering expedition, formed 
the plan of capturing him ; and, leading him into an ambus- 
cade, took him with his full company of sixty-four, prisoners. 
Barnes, John. Of New Jersey. Sheriff' of the County 
of Hunterdon. After the Declaration of Independence, he 
refused to act under the Whigs ; and, when summoned before 
the State Convention, said he was willing to be superseded. 
In 1778, he was a major in the New Jersey Volunteers. 

Barbell, Walter. Of Boston. Inspector-General of 
the Customs. In his religious sentiments he was, with his 
^mily of five persons, a follower of Robert Sandeman ; he 
Embarked at Boston with the British Army in 1776, for Hal- 
ifax, and arrived in England in the summer of the same year. 
In 1779 he was a member of the Loyalist Association formed 
in London ; his second daughter, Polly, died in London in 1810. 



212 BARRELL. — BARRY. 

Barrell, Colburn. Of Boston. At the Boston Latin 
School in 1744. With his wife and daughter, the guest of 
John Adams in 1771. An Addresser of Hutchinson and a 
Protestor against tlie Whigs in 1774. He was at New York 
in 1783, and one of the fiih-five petitionee for lands in Nova 
Scotia. [See Abljah Willard.'\ He was a Sandemanian. 

Barrett, Charles. Of Ipswich, New Hampshire. He 
was born in Concord. At the beginning of tlie war, he was a 
man of property and influence, and in command of a company 
of militia. He was fearless in his utterance against the meas- 
ures of the Whigs ; was often involved in difficulty, and suf- 
fered many indignities. At one time, by vote of the town, 
he was confined to the limits of his own farm. He gave his 
adhesion to the new State government at the peace, and was 
a delegate to the Convention to consider the Federal Consti- 
tution, when, it would seem, he was an ultra Democrat. He 
opposed the adoption of the Constitution with warmth ; and, 
as relates to the Executive, said that " The Presidents will 
be four-year old Kings, and soon Kings for life." He died in 
1808. 

Barron, Wiujam. Of Petersham, Massachusetts. Prior 
to the Revolution, he held a commission in the British Army. 
In the struggle, his sym})athies were entirely with the Crown ; 
but he was not active. He was a gentleman of refined man- 
ners, and a brave soldier. He died at Petersham in 1784, 
greatly lamented. Two of his sons graduated at Harvard 
University; William Amherst, who was a tutor there in 
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, and who died unmar- 
ried, in 1825 ; and Thomas, who studied law, was some 
time in England, and died, probably, in Ohio, in 1830, or 
the next year. John Quincy Adams was a classmate of 
William Amherst. 

Barry, Robert. At the close of the Revolution he em- 
barked at New York for Shelburne, Nova Scotia. He became 
an eminent merchant, established branch-houses in various 
parts of the Province, and his name is connected with the 
largest of the early commercial enterprises of Nova Scotia. 



•^ 



BARRY. — BARTON. 213 

He was distingnished for qualities which adorn the Christian 
character, and throughout life was highly esteemed. His 
death occurred at Liverpool, Nova Scotia, September, 1843, 
in the eighty-fourth year of his age. 

Barry, W. Lieutenant in the Royal Forestera. He 
died of a fever in October, 1781, near Hellgate, New 
York, and was buried at Hallet's Cove, with the honors 
of war. 

Barton, Thomas. An Episcopal minister. He gradu- 
ated at Trinity College, Dublin, and in 1754, was sent by 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel to the new 
Mission in the Counties of York and Cumberland, Penn- 
sylvania. His post was on the frontier, and his duties par- 
ticularly onerous. " He had to ride one hundred and forty- 
eight miles every six weeks, to attend his three congregations, 
and, often at the head of his people, went to oppose the sav- 
ages." In 1758, he was chaplain to the expedition against 
Fort DucjWesne, and formed the acquaintance of several dis- 
tinguished persons. In 1770 he received the degree of A. M. 
from King's College, New York. Adhering to the Royal cause, 
subsequently, he was first confined to the limits of his coun- 
ty, and finally to his house. In November, 1776, he wrote : 
" I have been obliged to shut up my churches, to avoid the 
fiiry of the populace, who would not suffer the Liturgy to be 
used, unless the Collects and Prayers for the King and Royal 
Family were omitted, which neither* my conscience nor the 
declaration I made and subscribed when ordained, would 
allow me to comply with ; and, although I used every pru- 
dent step to give no offence even to those who usurped author- 
ity and rule .... yet, my life and property have been 
threatened, upon mere suspicion of being unfriendly to what 
is called the American cause." 

After a restraint of two years, and in November, 1778, he 
withdrew to New York. His loss of liberty occasioned a dis- 
ease, of which he died May 25, 1780. The Memoirs of Rit- 
tenhouse were written by his son William Barton. Another 
son, Benjamin Smith Barton, doctor of medicine, was a distin- 



214 BARTON. — BASS. 

guished professor in the University of Pennsylvania, and suc- 
ceeded the celebrated Rush. Professor Barton was the first 
American who published an elementary work on botany. 

Barton, Thomas. Colonel, and in command of a body of 
Loyalists. Three incidents occur in 1777 : First, that he at- 
tempted to cut off a party of Whig militia, and was defeated. 
Second, that he was successful against a detachment of Whigs 
at Paramus. Third, that he was captured on Staten Island, 
with about forty of his men, and sent to New^ Jersey. At the 
peace he retired to Nova Scotia, and received a large grant of 
land at Digby. He died about the year 1790. His family 
returned to the United States. 

Bartram, John. Of Pennsylvania. An eminent botanist. 
He was born in Chester County, Pennsylvania, in 1701. His 
taste was for botany, from his youth, and in this department 
he became so eminent as to be appointed American botanist 
to George the Third. The first botanic garden in this country 
was founded by him on the Schuylkill, about four miles below 
Philadelphia. He was so earnest in pursuit of knowledge that 
he hardly allowed himself time to eat. He was a proficient 
in the learned languages, in medicine and surgeiy, and in 
natural history. Linnaeus pronounced that he was "the 
greatest natural botanist in the world." Besides these ac- 
complishments, he was an ingenious mechanic ; built his own 
stone house, and made most of his own farming took and other 
articles required on his estate. He was gentle in manners, 
amiable in disposition, modest, and charitable. He died in 
1777, aged seventy-five. 

His son, William, who was elected Professor of Botany in 
the Univei*sity of Pennsylvania, in 1782, but declined on ac- 
count of ill health, deceased in 1823, at the age of eighty-four. 
His youngest son, John, who succeeded him in the botanic 
garden above mentioned, died in 1812. 

Bass, Rev. Edward, D. D. Fii*st Bishop of Massachu- 
setts. He was born in Dorchester in 1726, and graduated at 
Harvard University in 1744. He fitted for the ministry as a 
Congregationalist. Ordained in England in 1752; he was 



BATES. - BAUM. 216 

Rector of St. Paul's Church, Newburyport, fifty-one years. 
Elected Bishop of Massachusetts in 1797, his jurisdiction 
was subsequently extended over the Episcopalian churches 
in Rhode Island and New Hampshire. His course in the 
Revolution is in dispute; but of his loyalty I entertain no 
doubt. He died at Newburyport *in 1803, after two days 
illness, aged seventy-seven. A marble monument has been 
erected to his memory. ''He was a sound divine, a critical 
scholar, an accomplished gentleman, and an exemplary Chris- 
tian." 

Bates, Walter. Of Stamford, Connecticut. In the 
spring of 1783 he arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, in 
the ship Union. He settled in King's County, and for many 
years was its sheriff. He died at Kingston in that county in 
1842, aged eighty-two. 

Batwell, Rev. Daniel. Of Pennsylvania. Episcopal 
minister in York and Cumberland Counties. He received a 
grant of land from the Proprietaries of the Colony near Car- 
lisle. Soon after the Declaration of Independence he became 
an active Loyalist, was apprehended and committed to York 
jail. Congress gave him leave to dispose of his personal es- 
tate, and to remove with his family to the city of New York. 
In 1782 he was chaplain of the third battalion of the New 
Jersey Volunteers. He went to England, and died there. 
Baum, Jeremiah. Of Maine. He was tried by a court- 
artial, and executed in Maine in 1780, by General Wads- 
orth, who commanded the Eastern department between the 
iscataqua and the St. Croix. This act of severity gave the 
eneral himself great pain, and was condemned by many 
higs ; but it appears to have been necessary, and to have 
ecked the treacherous intercourse of the eastern Tories 
ith their British friends who held Castine. 
Eaton, in his history of Warren, thus relates the transac- 
--^ ^Dn : — 

" General Wadsworth ' issued a proclamation denouncing 

cX^ath upon any one convicted of aiding or secreting the 

^'•^emy. Subsequent to the proclamation, a man by the name 



i 



216 BAXTER. 

of Jeremiah Baum, residing back of Damariscotta, was taken 
up, charged with piloting a party of the British through the 
back country for the purpose of pillaging. He was tried on 
the twenty-third and twenty-fourth of August, by a court- 
martial at Wadsworth's head-quarters, condemned and sen- 
tenced to be hung." Many efforts were made to procure his 
pardon, but Gen. W. remained inflexible. 

*' On the day after the sentence, a gallows was erected on 
Limestone Hill, and the miserable man was conducted to it in 
a cart, fainting at the sight, and rendered insensible from fear. 
Mr. Coombs, who was standing near, was asked to lend his 
handkerchief to tie over the prisoner's eyes. Supposing it a 
farce, he complied; and the prisoner, to appearance already 
dead, was swung off, to the astonishment of the spectators. 
The General was greatly moved, and was observed walking 
his room in apparent agitation the most of the following day. 
Many friends of the Revolution regretted that such an ex- 
ample of severity, however necessary, should fall on such a 
victim." 

Baxter, Simon. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed 
and banished, and lost his estate under the Confiscation Act. 
He fell into the hands of a party of Whigs during tlie war, 
and was condemned to die. When brought out for execution, 
he broke and fled with the rope about his neck, and succeeded 
in reaching Burgoyne's army. ' He went to New Brunswick 
at the peace, and died at Norton, King's County, in 1804, 
aged seventy-four. His widow. Prudence, died the same 
year, at the age of seventy-three. 

Baxter, Stephen. Of Bedford, New York. He made 
humble confession at Stamford, Connecticut, December 1775, 
that he " had opposed the liberties of America by horrid curs- 
ing and profane swearing," and he asked the forgiveness of 
those whom he had abused personally, and of the Whigs gen- 
erally. But a "Recanter" was still a Tory; and in 1788 
he went to Nova Scotia. 

Baxter, Joseph. Settled in New Brunswick and died 
there. Joanna, his widow, died in that Province in 1842, 
aged eighty-six. 



H 



BAXTER. - BAYARD. 217 

Baxter, Elijah. Died at Norton, King's County, New 
Brunswick, in 1852, 

Bayard, Samuel Vetch. Of New York. In 1777 Gov- 
ernor Trj'on appointed him to succeed Golden as Surveyor 
and Searcher of the Customs, and said to Lord George Ger- 
main : " From the steady loyalty of his father, and the depre- 
dations made on his estate, and in consideration that his two 
sons are now in the Provincial service, I rest in absolute con- 
fidence that his Majesty will confirm my appointment in oppo- 
sition to all solicitations whatever." 

I find the death of a Samuel Vetch Bayard, at Wilmot, 
Nova Scotia, in 1832, aged seventy-five. Possibly, one of the 
** sons " mentioned by Trj'on, as it is said " he served under 
the Crown, and was a military officer." 

Bayard, Samuel. Of New York. In 1774 he was en- 
gaged in a controversy with other proprietors of lands in 
New York, and in behalf of himself and associates, submitted 
a memorial to the British Government, praying to be put in 
quiet possession of a part of the tract called the Westenhook 
Patent. After General Lee took command in the city in 
1776, Mr. Bayard was made prisoner, and placed under 
guard at the house of Nicholas Bayard. He entered the 
service of the Crown, and in 1782 was major of the King's 
Orange Rangers. 

Bayard, William. Of New York. Head of the mer- 
cantile house of William Bayard & Co. He was associated 
inrith Jay, Lewis, and others, as a member of the Committee of 
Fifty, and he appears to have been of Whig sympathies at the 
beginning of the controvei'sy. In 1773, Mr. Quincy, of Mas- 
sachusetts, on his return from the South, passed through New 
York, and recorded in his journal, under the date of May 
12th, — " Spent the morning in writing and roving, and dined 
-with Colonel William Bayard at his seat on the North River." 
In 1775 the Massachusetts delegates to the Continental Con- 
gresis were his guests also. In 1776 he was an Addresser of 
Lord and Sir William Howe. He went to England, and his 
property was confiscated. Governor Franklin recommended 

VOL. I. 19 



218 BAYLEY. — BEACH. 

him to Lord George Germain, for relief. He died very aged^ 
in 1804, at his seat, Greenwich House, Southampton, Eng- 
land. 

Bayley, Richard. Of New York. An eminent physician. 
He was bom in Connecticut in 1745, and in 1769 and 1770 
attended lectures and hospitals in London. In 1772 he began 
practice in New York, and his attention was early attracted to 
the croup, which professional men had treated as putrid sore 
throat. His experiments resulted in the adoption of active 
treatment, and in an entire change of remedies for that for- 
midable disease. In 177G he was in the British Army under 
Howe, as a surgeon, but incapable of enduring separation from 
his wife, he resigned just before her decease in 1777. For 
the remainder of his life he was engaged in duties of a profes- 
sional kind. He occupied the chairs of anatomy and surgery 
in Columbia College, and published letters and essays on med- 
ical subjects. He died in 1801, aged fifty-six. He is repre- 
sented as a man of high temper, strong in his attachments, in- 
vincible in his dislikes, and of honorable, chivalrous character. 

Bayley, Phiup. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. In 
1775 he signed and published a Submission, or Recantation, 
in which he asked forgiveness for the past, and promised that 
his future conduct should convince the public that he would 
risk his life and interest in defence of the liberties of the coun- 
tr}'. In. his case, as in several othei's, the written recantation 
was probably extorted from an unwilling mind to avert some 
impending blow. Many recanters went into exile. Bayley, 
in 1778, was proscribed and banished. The captain-lieutenant 
of the Royal Fencible Americans in 1782 was Philip Bailey, 
and, possibly, the subject of this notice. 

Beach, Rev. Abraham, D. D. Episcopal minister. He 
was born in Cheshire, Connecticut, in 1740, and graduated at 
Yale College in 1757. He went to England for ordination in 
1767, and was appointed missionary at New Brunswick, and 
Piscataqua, New Jersey. In July, 1776, he was told that un- 
less he omitted prayers for the King and Royal Family, he 
must discontinue service on the Sabbath. As he would not 



BEACH. 219 

consent to this condition, he shut the churches in which he 
officiated. In a few months, however, worship was resumed 
in one of them. Early in 1777 he said : " My present con- 
dition is truly distressing, being situated about a quarter of a 
mile beyond the picket-guard of the King's troops. Parties 
of Washington's army are eVery day skulking about me. A 
few days ago, they drove oif my cattle, horses and sheep ; and 
since I sat down to write this letter, about fifty of them sur- 
rounded my house, and fired from thence on the out-sentry 
of the Hessians," &c. Until the peace, he continued in his 
perilous position, but, ^' dispensing spiritual consolation alike 
to Whigs and Tories." In 1783 he was appointed temporary 
missionary at Amboy ; and in 1784, assistant minister of 
Trinity Church, New York. After twenty -nine years' duty, 
and in 1813, he resigned ; when the Vestry, " in consideration 
of his very long and faithful services in the church, as one of 
its most faithful pastors, granted him an annuity of j£1500 for 
life, secured by bond, under seal of the Corporation." He 
retired to his farm on the Raritan River, where he passed the 
remainder of his life. He died in 1828, at the age of eighty- 
eight. His wife Ann, daughter and sole heiress of Evart Van 
Winkle, one of the original Dutch settlers of New Jersey, 
died in 1808. " In his intercourse with society, no man could 

be more frank or more free from all guile While 

his dignified person, expressive countenance, and lively feel- 
ings, commanded the respect and affection of all who knew 
him." 

Beach, Rev. John. He graduated at Yale College in 
1721, and for several years was a Congregational minister in 
Connecticut ; but finally became an Episcopalian. In 1732 
he went to England for ordination, and on his return, was 
employed as an Episcopalian missionary in Reading and New- 
town, Connecticut. After the Declaration of Independence, 
he continued to pray for the King, and to give other evidence 
of his loyalty. His course gave great displeasure to the Whigs, 
and he suffered at their hands. He died in March, 1782. 
During his life, he was engaged in one or more religious 



220 BEACH. 

controversies. Several of his compositions of this description, 
and a number of sermons, were published. The following 
extracts from two of his letters to the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel, whose missionary he was, contain inter- 
esting information. The last, as will be seen, was dated only 
a few months before his death. 

" Newtown, May 5, 1772. 

" As it is now forty years since I have had the advantage 
of being the venerable Society's missionary in this place, I 
suppose it will not be improper to give a brief account how I 
have spent my time, and improved their charity. Every Sun- 
day I have performed divine service, and preached twice, at 
Newtown and Reading alternately. And in these forty years 
I have lost only two Sundays through sickness ; although in 
all that time I have been afflicted with a constant colic, which 
has not allowed me one day's ease or freedom from pain. 
The distance between the churches at Newtown and Reading 
is between eight and nine miles, and no very good road, yet 
have I never failed one time to attend each place according to 
custom, through the badness of the weather, but have rode it 
in the severest rains and snow-storms, even when there has 
been no track, and my horse near miring down in the snow- 
banks, which has had this good effect on my parishioners, 
that they are ashamed to stay from church on account of 
bad weather, so that they are remarkably forward to attend 
the public worship. As to my labors without my parish, I 
have formerly perfonned divine service in many towns where 
the Common-prayer had never been heard, nor the Scriptures 
read in public ; and where now are flourishing congregations 
of the Church of England, and in some places where there 
never had been any public worship at all, or any sermon 
preached by any ])roacher of any denomination. 

" In my travelling to preach the Gospel, once was my life 
remarkably preserved in passing a deep and rapid river. The 
retrospect on my fatigues, as lying on straw, &c., gives mo 
pleasure, while I flatter myself that my labor has not been 



BEACH. 221 

quite in vain, for the Church of England people are increased 
much more than twenty to one ; and what is infinitely more 
pleasing, many of them are remarkable for piety and virtue ; 
and the Independents here are more knowing in matters of 
religion than they who live at a great distance from our 
church. We live in harmony and peace with each other, 
and the rising generation of the Independents seem to be 
entirely firee from every pique and prejudice against the 
church, &c., &c. 

"John Beach." 

•* Newtown, October 81, 1781. 

" It is a long time since I have done my duty in writing to 
the venerable Society, not owing to my carelessness, but to the 
impossibility of conveyance from here, and now do it sparingly. 
A narrative of my troubles I dare not now give. My two 
congregations are growing ; that of Reading being commonly 
about three hundred, and at Newtown about six hundred. I 
baptize about one hundred and thirty children in one year, 
and lately two adults. Newtown, and the Church of England 
part of Reading are, (I believe,) the only parts of New England 
that have refused to comply with the doings of the Congress, 
and for that reason have been the butt of general hatred ; but 
Ood has delivered us from entire destruction. I am now in 
The eighty-second year of my age, yet do constantly alter- 
nately perform and preach at Newtown and Reading. I have 
l)een sixty years a public preacher, and, after conviction, in 
the Church of England fifty years ; but had I been sensible 
of my insufficiency, I should not have undertaken it. But 
now I rejoice in that I think I have done more good towards 
men's eternal happiness than I should have done in any other 
calling. I do most heartily thank the venerable Society for 
their liberal support, and beg that they will accept of this, 
^hich is, I believe, my last bill, X325, which, according to 
former custom, is due. 

" At this age I cannot well hope for it, but I pray God I 

may have an opportunity to explain myself with safety ; but 

19* 



222 BEAMAN. — BE ARDSLEY. 

must conclude now with Job's expression — * Have pity upon 
me, have pity upon me, O ye my friends.' " 

Beaman, Thomas. Of Petersham, Massachusetts. Cap- 
tain. In 1770, he claimed that a school-house in town was 
on his land, and to prevent the obnoxious Whig school-master 
from entering it, [see Eimffn itfaw,] he locked it. How and 
Man broke in, and Beaman commenced a suit for trespass ; 
the case was in the courts for some time ; the costs were con- 
siderable, and finally paid by the defendants. April, 1775, 
Beaman acted as a guide to the British troops on their march 
to Lexington and Concord. He fled to Nova Scotia. In 
1778 he was proscribed and banished. 

Bean, Thomas. He went from New York to St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1783, and of the latter city was a grantee. 
He and Dowling were contractors for the building of Trinity 
Church, St. John. He died at Portland, New Brunswick, in 
1823, aged seventy-nine. 

Beard, . Of North Carolina. Captain of Tories. 

After a bloody affi*ay in the house of a Whig, whose daughter 
had refused his hand, he was captured, tried by a court-mar- 
tial, and hung. 

Beardsley, Rev. John. Of Poughkeepsie, New YorL 
Episcopal minister. He was born in Stratford, Connecticut, 
in 1732. He entered Yale College, but did not graduate; 
King's (now Columbia) College, New York, however, con- 
ferred the degrees of A. B. and A. M. He went to Eng- 
land for ordination, and returned early in 1762. In addition 
to the performance of his parochial duties at Poughkeepsie, he 
officiated a part of the time at Fishkill. At the beginning of 
the war he refused to take the oath of allegiance to Congress, 
and suffered indignities in consequence. In the end, his prop- 
erty was seized, and poor and even destitute, he and his family 
took refuge in New York. In 1778, he was appointed chap- 
lain in the Loyal American Regiment, commanded by Bever- 
ley Robinson, who had been a chief supporter of the Episcopal 
Church at Fishkill. At the peace, Mr. Beardsley accompan- 
ied his regiment to New Brunswick. After many depriva- 



BEARMORE. ~ BEDLE. 223 

tions and sufiferings, he was settled over the parish in Man- 
gerville, on the river St. John, and remained there more than 
seventeen years. His pastoral relations were dissolved in con- 
sequence of his infirmities. He retired to Kingston in that 
Province, on the half-pay of a chaplain, and died there in 
1810. He had four daughters. The eldest married a Ger- 
man officer who, some years after the peace of 1783, returned 
with his wife and children to his native land. His son John 
died at Woodstock, New Brunswick, in 1852. His voungest 
son, Hon. Bartholomew Crannel Beardsley, who died in Can- 
ada West, in 1856, was Chief Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, and a* member of the House of Assembly of New Bruns- 
wick. His grandson, H. H. Beardsley, of Woodstock, is 
(1852) a counsellor at law, and a member of the Assembly. 

Bearmore, . Major in a Loyalist corps. New York. 

In 1778, he attacked a Whig force of about forty, quartered 
in a dwelling-house and barns. He was taken prisoner the 
next year, much to the joy of the people who called him " a 
troublesome officer." 

Beckwith, Nehemiah. He settled at St. John, New 
Brunswick, but removed to Fredericton, where he died in 
1815. 

Becraft, . A Tory leader, cruel, and noted for deeds 

of blood. He boasted to his associates of having assisted to 
massacre the family of a Mr. Vrooman, in Schoharie, New 
York. The family, he said, were soon despatched, except 
a boy of fourteen, who ran from the house, when he started 
in pursuit, overtook him, and cut his throat, took his scalp, 
and hung his body across the fence. After the peace, he had 
the hardihood to return to Schoharie. He was seized, stripped 
naked and bound to a tree, and whipped nearly to death by 
ten men, some of whom had been his prisoners, and had heard 
him recount this exploit. Thus beaten, he was dismissed with 
a charge never to show himself in that country again ; an in- 
junction which he carefully kept. 

Bedle, John. Of Staten Island, New York. Born in 
1757. In the Revolution, private secretary to Colonel Bil- 




224 BELL. — BENEDICT. 

lop. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, and was 
employed a year or two in surveying that city. Removed to 
Woodstock about the year 1794, where he was a magistrate 
for forty years ; and after the division of York County, was a 
magistrate, a Judge of Common Pleas, and Register of Wills 
and Deeds for the County of Carlton ; he died in 1838, aged 
eighty-three. He married Margaret Dibble, now (1862) liv- 
ing at the age of eighty-six. His children were ten : Wil- 
liam Jarvis and Paul M., magistrates ; John, a Judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas ; Greorge A., Register of Deeds ; 
Joseph, Tyler, Walter Dibble, and three daughters. 

Bell, Andrew. Of New Jersey. Secretary to Sir Henry 
Clinton. A diary kept by him during the march of the Brit- 
ish Army, prior to the battle of Monmouth, is preserved in 
the Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society. In 
1783 he was a petitioner for lands in Nova Scotia. [See 
Ahijah WillardJ] A correspondent who knew him well, 
says, he "esteemed him highly for his probity, intelligence, 
and urbanity." His wife was Susannah, daughter of Daniel 
O'Brien, of Perth Amboy. Governor Paterson, of New Jer- 
sey, married his sister. He died without children in 1843. 

Bell, Joseph. Of New York. He was born in Eng- 
land, and emigrated to America just before the Revolution. 
He settled on a farm near Troy, but removed to the city of 
New York. At the peace, having suffered much for his loy- 
alty, he went to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, in command of a 
company of exiled Loyalists, accompanied by his family of 
three and a servant. In 1792 he removed to Yarmouth, 
Nova Scotia, where he died in 1829, aged eighty-nine. His 
wife died in 1809 ; but two children survived him. One, a 
daughter, married Joseph Bond, M. D., who arrived at New 
York in a privateer, who volunteered to serve in the army, 
was present at the capture of Cornwallis, was an officer of the 
customs and sheriff in Nova Scotia after the war, and who 
died in 1830, aged seventy-two, leaving ten children. 

Benedict, Eli. Of Danbury, Connecticut. Guide to 
the British troops to his native town. In 1782 an ensign in 



BENNERMAN. — BERNARD. 225 

the Guides and Pioneers. At the ponce he rcliimed to Dan- 
bury with the intention of living there. Threatened with a 
ride on tlie wooden-korge, ho fled. In 1799, administration on 
the estate of a person of this name, in tlie Province of New 
Brunswick. 

Bennf.rman, John. Of Portsmouth, Virginia. A cap- 
tain. He went to England, and was one of " his Majesty's 
Band of Gentleman Pensioners." In 1781 he married a Miss 
Rolt of Lincolnshire. He died in England in 178.5. 

Bebnarb, Sir Thomas, Baronet. He was the third 
son of Sir Francis Bernard, Baronet, Governor of Massa- 
chusetts, and graduated at Harvard Univereity in 1767. He 
went to England, wliere he married a lady of fortune. On 
the deatli of liis brother, Sir John Bernard — who was a 
Whig — he succeeded to the title. His time was much de- 
voted to institutions of benevolence in London ; and he wrote 
several essays with a design to mitigate the sorrows, and im- 
prove the condition of the humbler classes of English society. 
The University of Edinburgh conferred on him the degree 
of Doctor of Laws. He died in England in 1818. Lady 
Bernard died in 1813, while preparing to go to church. 

BEKNARn, Sir John, Itaronet. The brother of Sir 
Thomas — above mentioned — remained in America; and, 
as i-cmarked, was a Whig. To |»reserve the following inci- 
dents, then, is the reason for this notice. Soon after the 
Revolution he was in abject poverty, and the misfortunes 
of himself and his family seem to have unsettled his mind. 
When, in 17t>9, Sir Francis was recalled from the govern- 
ment of Massachusetts, he possessed a coiisitlerable landed 
estate in Maine, of which the large island of Mount Desert, 
Mouse Island, (now East|iort,") and some territory on the 
main, formed a part. .lolin, at or about the time of his 
father's departure, had an agency for the settlement of these 
and other lands ; and, prohahly, until the conflscation of the 
property of Sir Fi-ancis, in 1778, was in comfortable circum- 
stances. His place of residence during the war ajipeai-s to 
have been at Bath, thougli he was sometimes at Machias. 



226 BERNARD. — BERGUYN. 

Not long after the peace, he lived at Pleasant Point, a few 
miles from Eastport, in a small hut built by himself, and 
with no companion but a dog. An unbroken wilderness was 
around him. The only inhabitants at the head of the tide- 
waters of the St. Croix were a few workmen, preparing to 
erect a saw-mill. Robbinston and Perry were uninhabited. 
Eastport contained a single family. Yet, at the spot now 
occupied by the remnant of the tribe of the Passamaquoddy's, 
he attempted to make a farm. He had been bred in ease, 
had hardly done a day's work in his life ; and yet he believed 
that he could earn a competence by labor. He told those 
who saw him, that " other young men went into the woods, 
and made themselves farms, and got a good living, and he 
saw no reason why he could not." But he cut down a few 
trees, became discouraged, and departed. His abject condi- 
tion in mind and estate rendered him an object of deep com- 
miseration ; and his conduct during hostilities having entitled 
him to consideration, the Legislature of Massachusetts restored 
to him one half of the island of Mount Desert. Of his sub- 
sequent history, while he continued in the United States, but 
little is known to me. He came to Maine occasionally, and 
was much about Boston. Later in life he held offices under 
the British crown at Barbadoes and St. Vincent ; and was 
known as Sir John Bernard, Baronet. He died in the West 
Indies in 1809, in his sixty-fifth year, without issue, and was 
succeeded by his brother Thomas. 

Berguyn, . Of North Carolina. Was in Eng- 
land, June, 1778, and about to return to America, on news 
that the Assembly of that State had voted to admit all Loy- 
alists who might apply. In 1786 the Commissioner for the 
district of Wilmington, instead of selling his whole property 
as allowed by law, consented to the sale of a part of it, in a 
manner to test the legality of the Confiscation Act itself. The 
next year he was party to a suit, in which the question of 
his right to sue was decided in his favor, and a lawyer wrote 
— " We may be sure " that the attempt to forfeit his estate 
" will end in smoke." 



BERTON. — BETTYS. 227 

Berton, Peter, Of Long Island, New York. He went 
to New Brunswick in 1783, and was a Judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas. His youngest son, James D., a native of 
Long Island, died at Fredericton in 1848, aged seventy. 

Bethune, John. Of North Carolina. Chaplain in the 
Loyal Militia. Taken prisoner in the battle at Cross Creek, 
1776, confined in Halifax jail, but ordered, finally, to Phil* 
adelphia. After his release, his continued loyalty reduced 
him to great distress. He was appointed chaplain to the 
84th Regiment, and restored to comfort. At the peace he 
settled in Upper Canada, and died at Williamstown in that 
Colony in 1816, in his sixty-fifth year. 

Bethune, George. Of Boston. He graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1740. In 1774 he was an Addresser of 
Hutchinson in May, and one of the Protesters against the 
proceedings of the town meeting in June of that year. The 
next year he had retired to Jamaica, New York, where he 
was suspected of carrying on a correspondence with the Brit- 
ish forces, and was summoned to appear before the Committee 
with his papers. He died in 1785, at Cambridge, aged sixty- 
four. Mary, his widow, daughter of Benjamin Faneuil, died 
at the same place in 1797, aged sixty-three. 

Betts, Azor. Of New York. Physician. In January, 
1776, he was arraigned before the Committee of Safety, for 
denouncing Congresses and Committees, both Continental and 
Provincial, and for uttering that they were " a set of damned 
rascals, and acted only to feather their own nests, and not to 
serve their country," &c. Ordered to close confinement in 
Ulster County jail. In April the Committee of Safety voted 
his discharge, on condition of acknowledging penitence, pay- 
ing expenses of confinement, and taking an oath to be of 
good behavior ; or, dispensing with the oath, executing a 
l>ond with sureties in £200. He settled in Nova Scotia, and 
died at Digby in that Province in 1809. Hi^ widow, Glori- 
ctnnah, died at St. John, New Brunswick, soon after, aged 
•ixty-nine. 

Bettys, Joseph. A noted Tory. " Joe Bettys " was 



228 BETTYS. — BIDDLE. 

known as a shrewd, intelligent, daring, and bad man. It is 
said, that pity and mercy were emotions which he never felt, 
and that to all the gentler impulses he was thorpughly insen- 
sible. At the breaking out of the Revolution he lived at 
Ballston, New York, and was a Whig. Entering the Whig 
service he pci-formed feats of extraordinary valor in Arnold's 
battle with Carleton on Lake Champlain, where he was taken 
prisoner and carried to Canada. While a captive, he was un- 
fortunately seduced to attach himself to the interests of the 
Crown, and to accept the commission of ensign. Admirably 
fitted to act as a messenger and spy, he undertook to perform 
the duties of one or both as occasion should require, but was 
captured by his former friends, tried, and condemned to the 
gallows. Washington, however, spared his life on liis promise 
of reformation, on the entreaties of his aged parents and the 
solicitations of influential Whigs. But Bettys returned di- 
rectly to the ranks of the enemy, and his subsequent career 
was marked by almost every enormity that can disgrace a 
human being. His very name struck terror, and a record of 
his enterprises and crimes would fill a book. He burned the 
dwellings of persons whom he hated, or took them off by 
murder. Fatigue, distance, or danger, were no obstacles in 
the accom])lishment of his designs. He knew that he carried 
his life in his hand. He scorned disguise or concealment 
He fell upon his victims at noon as well as at midnight. 
Many plans were laid, many efforts made to seize him. At 
last, in 1782, the Whigs were successful, and detected him 
with a despatch to the commander of the British forces in 
New York. He was taken to Albany and executed as a spy 
and traitor. His death was deemed an event of no small 
consequence, both because it put an end to his own misdeeds, 
and because his fate was calculated to awe others who were 
engaged in the same perilous employments. 

BiDDLE, John. Of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Was 
collector of excise, and a deputy-quartennaster of the Whig 
Army. He changed sides, and in 1779 his estate was confis- 
cated. His office of collector, of excise was worth, in 1775, 



BIGG.— BILLOPP. 229 

but £15. In a Loyalist tract published at London in 1784^ 
lie is called ^^ a creature of John Potts, and once a rebel com- 
missary." 

Bioo, John. He died in New Brunswick in 1836, aged 
seventy-eight. 

BiLLOPP, Chbistopher. Of Staten Island, New York. 
Prior to the Revolution, ^^ the eldest son of Thomas Farmar 
married the daughter of Captain Christopher Billopp, an officer 
in the British Nary, who had succeeded in obtaining a patent 
for a large tract of land on Staten Island, containing one or 
two thousand acres. Young Farmar, upon his wife's inher- 
iting this estate, adopted her father's name, and became a very 
not^ character." He commanded a corps of Loyalists, or 
of loyal militia, raised in the vicinity of New York city, and 
^was actively employed in miUtary duty. He was taken pris- 
oner by the Whigs, and confined in the jail at Burlington, 
^e^r Jersey. Mr. Boudinot, the commissary of prisoners, 
in the warrant of conunitment, directed that irons should be 
pat on his hands and feet, that he should be chained to the 
of a close room, and that he should be fed on bread and 
ater, in retaliation for the cruel treatment of Leshier and 
JKandal, two Whig officers who had fallen into the hands of 
he Royal troops. In 1782 Colonel Billopp was Superintend- 
t of Police of Staten Island. His property, which was large, 
as confiscated under the Act of New York. At the old 
illopp House, which he erected. Lord Howe, as a commis- 
sioner of the mother-country, met Franklin, John Adams, 
nd Edward Rutledge, a Committee of Congress, in the hope 
adjusting difficulties, and of inducing the Colonies to return 
their allegiance. During the war, Lord Howe, General 
niphausen. Colonel Simcoe, and other officers of rank in 
e Royal service, were frequent guests of Colonel Billopp, 
% this house. In 1783 he was one of the fifty-five petitioners 
r lands in Nova Scotia. [See Ahijah WiUard.'] He went to 
^S^ew Brunswick soon after, and for many years bore a prom- 
^^xnent part in the administration of its afiairs. He was a 

ember of the House of Assembly, and of the Council, and 
VOL. I. 20 




280 BIRDSILL. — BISSETT. 

on the death of Governor Smythe, in 1823, he claimed the 
Presidency of the Government, and issued his proclamation 
accordingly ; but the Honorable Ward Chipman was a com- 
petitor for the station, and was sworn into office. Colonel 
Billopp died at St. John in 1827, aged ninety. His wife Jane 
died at that city in 1802, aged forty-eight His daughter 
Louisa married John Wallace, Esq., Surveyor of the Cus- 
toms. His daughter Mary, the wife of the Reverend Arch- 
deacon Willis, of Nova Scotia, died at Halifax in 1834, at 
the age of forty-three. His daughter Jane, wife of the Hon- 
orable William Black, of St. John, died in 1836. His two 
sons settled in the city of New York, and were merchants. 
They were partners, and in business at the time of the yel- 
low fever ; — the one married, the other single. The unmai> 
ried brother said to the other, " It is unnecessary that both 
should stay here. You have a family, and your life is of 
more consequence than mine ; go into the country until the 
sickness subsides." The married brother retired from the 
city accordingly, while the other remained and was a victim 
of the fever. The survivor, whose name was Thomas, failed 
in business some time after ; joined the expedition of the cel- 
ebrated Miranda, and was appointed a captain ; was taken 
prisoner by the Spaniards and executed. 

BiRDsiLL, Benjamin. Of New York. Went to New 
Brunswick in 1783, and settled in Queen's County. He 
died at Gagetown in that county in 1834, at the age of 
ninety-one. Descendants to the number of two hundred 
and two survived him. Rachel, his widow, died at Gage- 
town in 1843, aged ninety-seven. 

BissETT, Rev. George. Of Newport, Rhode Island. 
Episcopal minister. Employed as assistant and school-mas* 
ter in 1767 ; he succeeded Mr. Browne, as Rector of Trinity 
Church, four years later, and continued in office until the 
evacuation of the town by the Royal Army, in 1779. Leav- 
ing his wife and child ^^ in the most destitute circumstances," 
he followed the British troops to New York. His furniture 
was seized ; but, on petition of Mrs. Bissett, the General 



BLAIB. — BL ANCHARD. 2S1 

Assembly restored it, and gave her permission to join her 
hnsband. Soon after his departure, the church was entered, 
and the altar-piece — ornameated with emblems of royalty — 
was torn down and spoiled. I lose sight of him until 1T86, 
when he was in England, about to embark for America. 
He resumed his professional duties in St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, and died there in 1788. His wife was Penelope, daugh- 
ter of Jamea Honyman, Judge of the Court of Vice-Admi- 
ralty, Rhode Island. 

The Rev. Dr. Peters said of Mr. Bissett, — » He is a very 
sensible man, a good scholar and compiler of sermons, although 
too bashful to appear in company, or in the pulpit." 

Blair, Jaues. Died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, where he 
was Barrack-master, in 1883, aged seventy-five. 

Blair, John. Was tried as a spy in 1778, and executed 
at Hartford, Connecticut. A large amount of counterfeit 
money was found in his possession. 

Blair, Captain . Of Virginia. Joined Lord 

Dunmore. Taken prisoner and perished, as supposed, on 
the passage to France. 

Blake, Wiluam. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his 
estate was amerced twelve per cent. In an English work, I 
find that there " died in Great Cumberland Place, in 1803, 
in his sixty-fifth year, William Blake, Esq., of South Car- 
olina." His remains were interred at Hanway with great 
funeral pomp : twelve outriders, four mourn ing-coaclies, and 
nearly fif^y other coaches, forming the procession. He left 
property valued at half a million of dollars. 

Blakslee, Ahraham. Of Connecticut. Commanded a 
company in the second regiment of the militia, and the House 
of Assembly appointed a Committee, in 1775, to inquire 
into charges against him of disafiection and contemptuous 
speaking. 

BLAKaLEE, Asa. Removed to St John, New Brunswick, 
in 1783, and died in tliat city in 1843, aged eighty-seven. 

Blanchard, Jotuam. Of Dunstable, New Hampshire. 
Served in a Loyalist corps. At the peace he settled in Nova 



232 BL ANVELT. — BLISS. 

Scotia ; received a grant of lands ; carried on an extensive 
business in lumber ; was active in exploring the country and 
in obtaining grants for fellow-exiles, and was a colonel in the 
militia. He died about the year 1800. 

Blanvelt, Tunis. Of New Jersey. In the war an active 
" bush-ranger." Lost considerable property in consequence 
of his loyalty. At the peace, went to Shelbume, Nova Scotia, 
with a family of six and three servants. Settled finally in 
Tusket, Nova Scotia, where he kept a boarding-house. Died 
in 1830, leaving several sons, of whom two are now (1861) 
shipmasters. His second wife was Hannah, daughter of 
Grabriel Van Nordan. 

Bleau, Waldron. Of New York. In 1776 an Ad- 
dresser of Lord and Sir William Howe ; in 1782 a Captain 
in the third battalion New Jersey Volunteers. Went to 
St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783, and died five days after 
landing there. His house and land in the city of New York 
confiscated, but restored to his widow and daughter. 

Bleau, Uriah. Was an Ensign in the third battalion of 
New Jersey Volunteers in 1782. Taken prisoner in the 
battle of Eutaw Springs. 

Bliss, Daniel. Of Concord, Massachusetts. Was a son 
of Rev. Samuel Bliss, of that town. He was born in 1740, 
graduated at Harvard University in 1760, and died at Lin- 
coln, near Fredericton, in the Province of New Brunswick, 
in 1806, aged sixty-six years. He was one of the barristers 
and attorneys who were Addressers of Hutchinson in 1774 ; 
and was proscribed under the Act of 1778 ; and joining the 
British Army, was appointed Commissary. After the Revo- 
lution, he settled in New Brunswick, and became a member 
of the Council, and Chief Justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas. His widow died in 1807, at the age of sixty. 

Bliss, John Murray. Son of Daniel Bliss. He was 
a native of Massachusetts, whence he removed at the begin- 
ning of hostilities. He did not settle in New Brunswick until 
1786. Having practised law for several years, and filled 
several offices connected with his profession, and having 



BLISS. — BLOWERS. 233 

represented the County of York in the House of Assembly, 
he was^ in 1816, elevated to the bench and to a seat in his 
Majesty's Council. In 1824, on the decease of the Honorable 
Ward Chipman, who was President and Commander-in-Chief 
of the Colony, Judge Bliss succeeded to the administration 
of the government, and continued in ofBce until the arrival of 
Sir Howard Douglas, — a period of nearly a year. At his 
death, he was senior Justice of the Supreme Court. He 
commanded universal confidence and esteem. His manners 
were dignified, and his conduct open, frank, and independent. 
He died at St John, August, 1834, aged sixty-three years. 
His daughter Jane died at Halifax in 1826, and his daughter 
Sophia Isabella died at St. John the same year. 

Bliss, Jonathan. Of Springfield, Massachusetts. Gradu- 
ated at Harvard University in 1763, and died at Fredericton, 
New Brunswick, in 1822, at the age of eighty years. His 
wife and the wife of Fisher Ames were sisters. He was a 
member of the General Court of Massachusetts in 1768, and 
one of the seventeen Rescinders ; and was proscribed under 
the Act of 1778. In New Brunswick, he was a personage of 
distinguished consideration, and attained, finally, to the rank 
of Chief Justice, and to the Presidency of the Council. 

Bliss, Samuel. Of Massachusetts. Was a brother of 
'the Honorable Daniel Bliss. He died at St. George, New 
IBninswick, in 1803. 

Bloomer, Joshua. Episcopal clergyman of Jamaica, 
New York. He graduated at King's College, New York, in 
1761, and went to England for ordination in 1765. In 1769 
he settled at Jamaica, where he continued until his death, in 
1790. Before taking orders, he was an officer in the Pro- 
vincial service, and a merchant in New York. While at 
Jamaica, he officiated, occasionally, at Newtown and Flush- 
ing, and Domine Rubell, an itinerant Dutch minister, whose 
loyalty induced him to pray heartily for the royal family, 
occupied his pulpit. 

Blowers, Sampson Salter. Of Boston. Proscribed and 
banished. He graduated at Harvard University in 1763. 

20* 



234 BLOWERS. 

The class of that year is celebrated for the nambers of Loy- 
alists and Judges of Courts. Mr. Blowers entered upon the 
study of law with Hutchinson, then Jadge of Probate and 
Lieutenant-Governor. In 1770 he was associated with Messrs. 
Adams and Quincy in behalf of the British soldiers who 
were tried for their agency in the Boston Massacre, so 
termed, in that year. In 1774 he went to England, and 
returning, in 1778, found his name in the Proscription Act. 
He was imprisoned, but being soon released, went to Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, and in that Colony was long a distinguished 
character. I find the following in a Halifax newspi^r of 
January 26, 1784 : — 

" Extract from General Orders^ ffead-quarteri. 

^^ That the outstanding Accounts against Gt)vemment, for 
contingent Expenses incurred within this District, may be 
properly considered and liquidated ; all Applications for Mo- 
nies due on such Accounts are to be presented before the Ist 
May next ; after which no Memorial for Payment will be 
received. 

" PtMished by Order of Major- General Campbell. 

" S. S. Blowers, Secretary." 

In 1785 he was appointed Attorney-General, and Speaker 
of the House of Assembly, and in 1797 was created Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court ; having had for some years 
previous to his judicial elevation a seat in his Majesty's 
Council. He retired from public life in 1833. When ex- 
President Adams was in Nova Scotia, in 1840, he paid Judge 
Blowers a visit. The Judge himself, it is believed, never 
set foot on the land of his nativity, after he was driven from 
it. Sarah, his widow, died at Halifax, July, 1845, in the 
eighty-eighth year of her age. She, I think, was a daughter 
of Benjamin Kent, of Massachusetts, who, at first a Whig, 
became a Loyalist and a refugee. Judge Blowers died in 
1842. He "never wore an overcoat in his life," says the 
Hon. Joseph Howe, in a speech which is pobUshed. 



BOABDMAN. - BOND. 285 

BoABDMAN, Rev. Richard. Minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. He was bom in England in 1738, fuid 
in 1763 was received by Wesley as an itinerant preacher. 
In 1769, he arrived at Philadelphia and began his labors as 
a missionary, confining his services principally to that city, to 
New York, and the adjacent country. In the spring of 1772, 
however, he made a visit to the North, and preached at va- 
rious places on his way. At Boston he formed a society. 
Thus, as it appears, he introduced " Methodism in New Eng- 
land one year before the first Conference was held in Amer- 
ica, and eleven years before Jesse Lee, who has been styled 
' the Apostle of Methodism in New England,' entered the 
travelling connection." At the approach of the Revolution, 
Mr. Boai-dman, unwilling to renounce his alle^ance to the 
Crown, returned to his native land. He died at Cork, Ire- 
land, in 1783. 

BoQGs, James. Of Pennsylvania. He entered the service 
of the Crown, and was attached to the medical staff of the 
Royal Army. In 1783 he went to Nova Scotia, and for many 
years was surgeon of the forces at Hali&x. He died in that 
city in 1832, at the age of ninety-one. His daughter Eliza- 
beth, widow of John Stuart, died at Hali&x in 1852, in her 
eighty-fifth year. 

Bond, Phineas. Of Philadelphia. Physician. He re- 
ceived the principal part of his medical education in Europe, 
and enjoyed a high professional reputation. He was one of 
the founders of the University of Pennsylvania, and a profe»- 
sor in that institution. In 1777 he signed a parole, but noti- 
fied the Council that he did not consider himself bound hy it, 
because his liberty was ivstrained contrary to the promise 
made to him when the paper was presented. In 1786 he 
was appointed British Consul for the Middle States, and the 
question of recogniang him as such, was discussed in Con- 
gress the following year. Mr. Jay reported in iavor. Mr. 
Madison was opposed on public grounds. Mr. Vamum ob- 
jected because of Mr. Bond's *' obnoxious character." Mr. 
Bond was also Commissary for Commercial Affitirs, which 



236 BOND. - BONNETT. 

Mr. Jay thought was designed to confer some of the powers 
of a Minister to the United States, and recommended that in 
that capacity he should not be recognized. He was finally 
received as Consul, and continued in o£Bce many years. A 
correspondent remarks, that when a little boy he heard the 
" Rogue's March " played before Dr. Bond's door, on the oc- 
casion of the attack on the Chesapeake. He died in England 
in 1816. 

Bond, Thomas. Physician. Of Philadelphia. About 
1754, he published medical memoirs on professional topics, 
which were reprinted in London. He always rode in a 
small phaeton. 

Ciiief Justice Shippen wrote to his father, at Lancaster, 
from Philadelphia, January 8, 1758 : — " Our Assembly 
have taken up William Moore and the Provost, and put 
them into custody for writing a hbel against the former 
Assembly. Thomas Bond and Phineas (Bond), were on 
the point of being committed on the same account. The 
latter was actually in the custody of the Sergeant-at-Arms, 
but afterwards discharged. How the matter will end is yet 
uncertain." Dr. Bond died in 178-4. 

BoNNELL, Isaac. Of New Jersey. Sheriff of Middlesex 
County under Governor Williapfi Fi*anklin, of whom he was 
an intimate friend and corresix>ndent. In 1776 he was ap- 
prehended by order of Washington, and directed by the Pro- 
vincial Cougi*ess to remain at Trenton on parole ; but leave 
was given, finally, to live elsewhere. Subsequently, he re- 
tired to the British lines, and became Barrack-master on 
Staten Island. At the peace, he went to Digby, Nova Scotia, 
where, for fifty guineas, he bought a log-hut, with windows 
of greased paper, and a lot of land. His property in New 
Jersey was confiscated. In Nova Scotia he was a merchant, 
and a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. He died in 
1806, aged sixty-nine. His only son bore the name of Wil- 
liam Franklin, as does a grandson, who is now (1861} Post- 
master of Gagetown, New Bnmswick. 

BoNNETT, Isaac. He was born in New Rochelle, New 



\ 



B0N8ALL.— BQRLA.ND. 237 

York. He abandoned his property at the close of the war, 
and removed to Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, where he 
passed the remainder of his life. He died in 1838, aged 
eighty>six, leaving a widow and five children. 

BoNSALL, Richard. He was a native of Wales, and a 
brother of Sir Thomas Bonsall. He commenced the study 
of medicine, bnt abandoned it. In consequence of a dift- 
agreement with Sir Thomas, he emigrated to New York some 
years prior to the Revolution, where he remained until the 
close of hostilities. In 1783 he went to St. John, and was 
a grantee of that city. He died at that city in 1814, aged 
seventy-two. His wife was a lady of the name of Smith, of 
Long Island, New York. Six children survived him ; only 
one is now (1846) living. 

Borland, John. Of Boston. Son of Francis and Jane 
Borland. He owned and occupied the mansion in Cambridge 
built by Rev. Dr. Apthorp, first Rector of Christ Church in 
that town. In 1774 he was an Addresser of Hutchinson. 
He died in 1775, aged forty-six, in consequence of " injuries 
received by a misstep in descending stairs, after his removal 
to Boston," and his remains were deposited in the family tomb, 
in Granary burying-ground. His widow, Anna Vassall, mar- 
ried William Knight of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and died 
a widow at Boston, in 1823. Mr. Borland was the &ther of 
twelve children, namely : Pliebe, who married George Spooner, 
of Boston ; John Llndall, of whom presently ; Francis, who 
graduated at Harvard University in 1774, became a physician, 
and died in 1826 ; Jane, who was the wife of Jonathan Simp- 
son ; Leonard Vassall, who died on shipboard on a voyage 
from Batavia, in 1801 ; James, who entered the University 
just mentioned, but did not graduate, and who deceased soon 
after the year 1783 ; Samuel, who graduated at Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1786, and died at Hudson, New York ; and five 
others, who did not survive childhood. 

Borland, John Lindall. Of Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Son of John Borland. Graduated at Harvard University in 
1772, entered the British Army and became lieutenant>colonel. 
He died in £ngland, November, 1825. 



238 BOSTWICK. — BOTSFORD. 

BosTWicK, Rev. Gideon. Of Massachusetts. Episcopal 
minister. He was bom at New Milford in 1742, and was 
bred a Congregationalist. He graduated at Yale College in 
1762. Went to England for ordination; and in 1770 be- 
came Rector of St. James' Church, Great Barrington. He 
had charge also of St. Luke's Church, Lanesborough ; and 
late in life officiated a part of the time at Hudson, New York. 
He died in his native town in 1793, while on a visit, aged 
fifty. His remains, after a temporary burial, were removed 
to Great Barrington, " which had so long been the place of his 
residence and the scene of his labors." His wife, who died in 
1787, was Gessie, daughter of John Burghardt. One of his 
daughters married Dr. Benajah Tucker, surgeon in the United 
States Navy. Two sons, John and Henry, settled in Canada, 
and, in the war of 1812, were colonels in the militia. 

BoTSFORD, Amos. Of Newtown, Connecticut. He grad- 
uated at Yale College in 1763. In 1775, in a document re- 
markable for its guarded form of expression, though drawn up 
in opi>osition to a paper which disapproved of the proceedings 
of the Continental Congress, he made known his determina- 
tion to be compliant with the measures of that body. But, 
subsequently, adhering to the side of the Crown, he removed 
to New Brunswick after the conclusion of hostilities, and de- 
voted himself to the profession of the law. In 1784 he was 
elected a member of the House of Assembly, and was uniform- 
ly returned from the County of Westmoreland at every elec- 
tion during his life. He was Speaker of the House of Assem- 
bly as early as 1792. He died at St. John in 1812, at the age 
of sixty-nine ; and was the senior barrister at law in the Col- 
ony. His wife was Sarah, daughter of Joshua Chandler. His 
two daughtei*s married brothers : Sarah, Stephen Milledge, 
Sheriff' of Westmoreland County ; and Ann, the Rev. John 
Milledge of the Episcopal Church. His son, the Honorable 
William Botsford, was appointed Judge of Vice- Admiralty of 
New Bnmswick in 1803, and for a long period subsequently 
was a member of the Council, and a Judge of the Supreme 
Court. I record the following despatch to show the liberal 



\ 



BOTSFORD. 289 

coarse of the British Government to aged functionaries on 
retiring from office : — 

" DowNtHO STREn', leth JaniiHry, 1847. 
" Sir, — I Iiave read with very lively concern the letter to 
myself from Mr, Botsford, of the 11th December, 1846, ao- 
companying your despatch of the 23d of that month, (No. 
117.) Lord Stanley obviously accepted Mr. Botsford's resig- 
nation under the conviction that the claims of that gentleman 
to a retired allowance, at his advanced period of life, and after 
so long a course of honorahle public service in so high and 
eminent a station, would be favorably received by the Legisla- 
ture of New Brunswick ; nor do I doubt that if liis Lordship 
had regarded their concurrence in such a grant as question- 
able, he would have directed that the resignation should not 
be actually made until that question had been set at rest. To 
have taken such a precaution might indeed have appeai-ed to 
imply some unbecoming distrust of tlie justice and lilierality of 
the Assembly ; and for that reason, as I presume. Lord Stan- 
ley omitted to take it. The omission is now irreparable, ex- 
cept by a reconsideration on the part of the Local Legislature, 
of their refusal of the proposed grant. Her Majesty has, by 
the Civil List arrangement, been entirely divested of all re- 
sources for satisfying any such demands on the justice or 
liberality of the Crown. To the Assembly, therefore, the 
case must be again referred, with as strong a recommenda- 
tion of the claim to their favorable notice, as it may be possi- 
ble to address to thein. 1 am convinced that if the case had 
been understood by that House, as it is now represented by 
Mr. Botsford and by yourself, they would not have declined 
to accede to his request. A repetition of their refusal, would, 
in any luture case, render impossible the voluntary resignation 
of any Judge, however much age or infirmity might have 
disqualified him for his judicial duties. The saving of a 
charge of ^300 per annum to the Local Treasury, or even 
the habitual saving of any such charges, would be a very in- 
adequate compensation for the injury which the public at 
large would sustain from the continuance on the Bench of 



240 BOUCHER. 

men who had survived the power of discharging aright that 
most important and arduous trust. 

" I have, &c., 

" (Signed,) Grey. 

" Lieut.-Govemor Sir William Colebrooke." 

Boucher, Jonathan. Episcopal clergyman of Virginia. 
He was Rector, first of Hanover, and then of St. Mary. Grov- 
ernor Eden gave him also the rectory of St. Anne, Annapolis, 
and of Queen Anne. His home was in Maryland, several 
years, and he owned an estate there which was confiscated. 
He was an unshaken and uncompromising Loyalist. In 
1775, resolving to quit the countiy, he preached a farewell 
sermon, in which he declared that as long as, he lived, he 
would say with Zadok, the priest, and Nathan, the prophet, 
^^ God save the king." Arriving in England, he was ap- 
pointed Vicar of Epsom, and there he spent the remainder of 
his life. He died in 1804, aged sixty-seven. He was re- 
garded as one of the best preachers of his time. While in 
Virginia, the son of Mrs. Washington, by her first marriage, 
was his pupil. During the last fourteen years of his life, 
Boucher was employed in making a glossary of provincial 
and archaeological words, and in 1831 his manuscripts were 
purchased of his family by the proprietors of " Webster's Dic- 
tionary." In 1799 were published fifteen discourses preached 
in America, between the years 1768 and 1775, on the causes 
and consequences of the American Revolution, which were 
dedicated to his old friend, Washington. 

His wife, Eleanor, of the name and family of Addison, died 
at Paddington, in 1784. She bore without a murmur, the 
loss of country, friends, fortune, and preferment, consequent 
upon her husband's loyalty ; and " was a woman of great 
merit, possessing the esteem and friendship of all who knew 
her." His third daughter, Jane, died in London, in 1810, 
of inflammation of the lungs, after a few days^ illness, in the 
sixteentli year of her age. In the ^^ Gentleman's Magazine " 
it is said : ^^ An elegant form, and a countenance of engaging 



i 



BOURA. — BOUTINEAU. 241 

sweetness, were among the least attractions of this amiable 
pri, wlioae mild and placid temper, whose affectionate dis- 
position, whose solid understanding beyond her years, whose 
compassionate feeling for the distresses of others, had justly 
endeared her to her family, and rendered her a child of un- 
common promise." 

BouRA, Petek. An early settler at St. John, New Bruns- 
wick. In 1795 lie was a member of the Loyal Artilleiy of 
that city. He die<l in 1804, while on a homeward passage 
from Jamaica, at the age of forty-nine. He was a ship- 
master. 

BouRK, William. Of North Carolina. In March, 1776, 
he was charged with being inimical to the hberties of Amer- 
ica ; and on a hearing before the Council, John Strange, a 
witness against him, swore, in the course of his testimony, 
that Bourk said " General Gage deserved to be d d, be- 
cause he had net let the guards out at Bunker Hill ; and it 
would have settled the dispute at that time." This, and other 
particulars, Bourk acknowledged; when it was resolved to 
commit him to dose jail until further orders. 

Bourn, Edward, Elisha, Lkmtjel, and William. Of 
Sandwich, Massachusetts. Were proscribed and banished. 
Lemuel joined the Royal forces at Rhode Island. Citizen- 
ship restored to Edward and Elisha, by Act of the Legisla- 
ture, 1788. 

Bourne, Shearjashub. Of Scituate, Massachusetts. He 
graduated at Harvard University in 1743. In 1774 he was 
among the barristers and attornies-at-law who were Address- 
ers of Governor Hutchinson on his departure. He died at 
Bristol, Rhode Island, in 1781. 

BouTiNEAC, James. Of Boston. Attorney-at-law. Was 
appointed Mandamus Counsellor in 1774, and was one of the 
ten who took the oath of office. He was included in the 
Conspiracy Act of" 1779, and his estate was confiscated under 
its provisions. In 1772 his son-in-law, John Robinson, a 
commissioner of the customs, was found guilty ' of a most 
violent assault on James Otis, for which the jaiy assessed 
VOL. r. 31 



242 BOUTINEAU. 

two tliousand pounds sterling damages. Boutineau appeared 
as attorney for Robinson, and in his name signed a submis- 
sion, asking the pardon of Otis, who, thereupon, executed a 
free release for the two thousand pounds. Otis never recov- 
ered from the effect of this assault, and, shattered in health 
and reason, soon retired from public life. 

Mr. Boutineau went to England, and died there. I have 
been allowed to copy three letters, from which I make such 
extracts as serve to show the course of aflairs among the Loy- 
alists in exile. The first is dated at Bristol, England, April 
6, 1778, and is addressed to Mrs. Mary Ann, wife of Edward 
Jones, merchant, Boston, and sister of Mrs. Boutineau. Both 
ladies, it may be remarked, were sisters of Peter Faneuil ; and 
Mrs. Jones was then at Halifax, Nova Scotia. Mr. Boutineau 
speaks of an attack of the gout which had compelled him to 
keep house for some time, and then discourses upon matters 
which are not without interest at the present time. Thus, he 
says, that ^' Mr. and Mrs. Faneuil, who lodge in the same 
house with us, make it agreeable ; " and that " there are one 
or two other genteel gentlemen and ladies, so that during the 
winter we drank tea with each other four days in the week." 
Of other fellow-Loyalists, he writas, that " Lodgings have 
been taken for Mr. Sewell, of Cambridge, and family, — they 
are expected here this day. Colonel Murray's family are gone 
to Wales, as well as Judge Brown and Apthorp's. All the New 
England people here, are Barnes and family. Captain Fenton 
and daughter, besides those in the house." In a postcript, he 
adds : " I desire you to inform me (if you can) who lives 
in my house in Boston." 

The first letter of Mre. Boutineau is addressed to her 
nephew, Edward Jones, merchant, Boston, and is dated at 
Bristol, February 20, 1784. It relates principally to afikirs 
of business. " I had determined," she says, " to send a 
power-of-attomey to you and another gentleman to settles? 
with [Mr. Bethune] and likewise to dispose of all my prop- 
erty in America ; but upon reflection I have defeiTed it, un-^ 
til the acts of your Assembly's that are inimical to persons 



BODTINEAU. -30WDEN. 243 

of my description are repealed, for which reason I have asked 
the favor of Judge Lee to let my brother Faneuil's bond re- 
main in his hands. This, I say, is my present idea ; perhaps 
some occurrence may take place which may alter it ; in the 
meantime, I beg the favor of you to send me a blank power- 
of-attomey drawn in as full and ample a manner as possible, 
to sell real estates, &c. My addition must be, Susanna Bou- 
tineau, widow, and sole executor of James Boutineau, Esq. 
If you have no objection, I should be glad it might be got 
from Mr. James Hughes, to whom you will please to present 
my compliments, and thank him in my name for the letter I 
received from him. I should be glad to be informed at the 
same time, if it is necessary to send an authenticated copy of 
my late husband's will from Doctor's Commons, whicli will 
he expensive, but if necessary, it must be done. About two 
jrears since, Mr. Bethune made me (through Mr. Prince) an 
cflfer of <£500 sterling for my third of sister Phillips's estate, 
'vhich you may be sure I refused. Mr. Prince is to pay me 
in a few days, by Mr. Bethune's order, <£100 sterling, I sup- 
on account of rents," &c. &c. 
The second letter of Mrs. Boutineau is also addressed to 
sister, Mrs. Mary Ann Jones, who, at its date, April 1, 
T1785, had returned to Boston. Like the first, it is devoted 
"•o matters of unsettled business, and especially to her share 
^>f her sister Phillips's estate. It would seem that this letter 
delivered by Mr. James Hughes, to whom, with Mr. Na- 
:haniel Bethune, she had sent a power-of-attorney to effect 
I final adjustment of her interest in the estate just mentioned, 
he concludes with the remark, that her health is " very in- 
^iifferent," that " Mr. Fanueil had a letter lately from Mr. 
^Monesy who is going soon to be very well married," &c. &c. 

BowDEN, Thomas. Of New York. Entered the military 
^^rvice, and in 1782 was Major in De Lancey's Second Bat- 
tolion. At the peace he went to England. 

BowDEN, Rev. John, D. D. Of New York. Was born 
in Ireland in 1751. Graduated at King's (Columbia) Col- 
*^e in 1772. Was ordained in 1774, and the same year was 



244 BOWES. — BOWIE. 

settled as Assistant Rector of Trinity Church, New York. 
Soon after the beginning of hostilities he retired to Norwalk, 
Connecticut, but returned to New York when the British 
obtained possession of the city. Informed that harm was 
intended him, he fled to Long Island at night, where he 
occasionally assisted the Rector of the Episcopal Church of 
Jamaica. In 1784 he accepted the Rectorship of the Church 
at Norwalk. In 1789 he took charge of a small parish in the 
West Indies. In 1801 he was elected Professor of Moral 
Philosophy, Belles-lettres and Logic in Columbia College. 
He died at Ballston Spa in 1817, aged sixty-five. Hb wife 
— whose maiden name was Mary Jervis — bore him three 
sons, one of whom, James J., graduated at Columbia College 
in 1813, was Rector of St. Mary's Paiish, St Mary's County, 
Maryland, and died at the age of twenty-six, 

Bowes, William. Merchant of Boston. An Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. He went to 
Halifax in 1776, accompanied by his family of four persons. 
In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. He died in Eng- 
land in 1805. 

Bowers, Jerathmiel. Of Swansey, Massachusetts. In 
1777, by a resolve of the General Court, he was disqualified 
from holding any post of honor or profit in Massachusetts 
In 1783 he was elected a member of that body, and petitions 
for his exclusion therefrom, setting out that " he had not 
shown himself friendly in the late struggle with Great Brit- 
ain," were sent by the Selectmen of Rehoboth, and sundry 
inhabitants of his own town. The House held that the re- 
solve above mentioned, was still in force, and that therefore 
Mr. Bowers was not entitled to membership. He vacated 
his seat accordingly. 

Bowie, Rev. John, D. D. Of Maryland. Episcopal 
minister. He was a native of Prince George's County, 
Maryland, and was admitted to Holy Orders in England. 
About the year 1771 he became a Curate in Montgomery 
County. In 1774 he was Rector of a parish in Worcester 
County. He was a violent Loyalist, and, in consequence, 




BOWLES. 245 

was imprisoned at Annapolis two years. On being released 
he settled in Talbot County, where he taught school, and was 
Rector of the parish in which he lived. In 1785 he was in 
charge of another parish ; and in 1790 of still another. He 
died in 1801, leaving three sons and a daughter. He was a 
man of great talents, " a complete classical scholar, and of 
anblenoished morals." 

Bowles, William Aouaxua. Of MaryUnd. In 1791 he 
was among the Creeks, with whom he possessed great influ- 
ence, and styled himself General William Augustus Bowles. 
On the I8th of May, 1792, James Seagrove, Esquire, our 
Commissioner of Indian Aifeirs, in " a talk " with the kings, 
chiefs, headmen and warriors of the Creek nation, said of 
him : " This Bowles is an American of low, meaH extraction, 
bom in Maryland ; he was obliged, on account of Ins villany, 
to fly from home and follow the British Army, where he was 
despised and treated as a bad man and a coward. Finding 
he could not live there, he relumed to America; but being 
too lazy to work at his trade for a living, he renewed his bad 
acts, for which he was compelled to fly from his native coun- 
try, or be hanged." Bowles had assumed to act among the 
Indians under authority of the British Government ; but on 
inquiry by the President, the ministry promptly and explicitly 
denied that they had afforded him countenance, assistance, or 
protection. At the time of Seagrove's " talk," it would ap- 
pear that Bowles had absented himself from the Creek coun- 
tiy ; but in 1801 he was again in mischief there, or in it« 
vicinity, and means were taken by our Government to coun- 
teract his plans and plots. A gentleman connected with 
Indian Affaii's, saw a portrait of this creatui'e suspended in 
the house of a chief, under which was written, " General 
Bowles, Commander-in-Chief of the Creek and Cherokee na- 
tions." He saw also a number of engraved dinner-cards, 
which Bowles had received while in England, styling him 
" Commander-in-Chief of the Creek nation." 

He was undoubtedly a bold and wicked man. At one 
time the Spanish Government offered a reward of six thou- 



2i6 BOWLES. — BOYD. 

sand dollars for his apprehension, on account of his pernicioos 
influence over the Florida Indians. He was accordingly 
seized, and sent prisoner to Madrid, and thence to Manilla. 
Obtaining leave to go to Europe, he repaired to the Creek 
country, where he commenced his mischievous course anew. 
In 1804 he fell into Spanish hands a second time, and was 
sent to the Moro Castle, Havana. Deprived of light and air, 
fed on bread and water, and losing, finally, all hope of release, 
he refused sustenance, and died in December, 1805, of star- 
vation. His wife was a Creek woman. 

Boyd, . Of Carolina. Colonel, and in command of 

a corps of Tories, who were robbers rather than soldiers. 
What they could not consume or carry off, they burned. 
Boyd himself was bold, enterprising, and famed for his dis- 
honesty. He had a conference with Sir Henry Clinton at 
New York, and planned an insurrection in the back part of 
Soutli Carolina, to be executed as soon as the Royal Army 
should obtain possession of Savannah. 

In 1779, at the head of eight hundred men, he passed 
through the district of Ninety-Six on his way to Georgia, 
and destroyed life and property by sword and fire, along his 
whole route. In a skirmish with a party of Whigs, under 
Anderson, of Pickens's corps, he acknowledged a loss of one 
eighth of his command in killed, wounded, and missing. He 
endeavored to avoid Pickens himself, but, overtaken by that 
ofKcer, when unapprehensive of danger, was surprised and 
defeated. He received three wounds, which proved mortal. 
After tlie battle he was visited by Pickens, who recommended 
preparation for death, and tendered services suited to the oc- 
casion. Boyd expressed thanks ; said the Whigs owed their 
success to his fall ; desired that two men might remain with 
him to give him water, and to bury his body afler he died ; 
and asked that his wife should be informed of his fate by 
letter, and that some articles about his person should be sent 
to her. Neighbor had fought against neighbor ; and in the 
exasperation of tlie moment, the Whigs doomed seventy of 
their prisoners to death ; but they executed only five. About 




BOYD. — BOYLSTON. 247 

three handred escaped, and formed the intended junction 
with the British troops in Georgia. 

Boyd, George. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. A 
member of the Council imder the Royal Government of that 
Province. On approach of the troubles of the Revolution, he 
abandoned the country, and was included in the Proscrip- 
tion Act of New Hampshire of 1778. While abroad he 
acquired wealth. In 1787, he adjusted his affairs, and em- 
barked for his native land, full of hope. Riding was among 
his enjoyments ; and he procured a handsome coach and an 
English coachman. He died at sea, two days before the 
ship ari'ived at Portsmouth, and his remains were interred 
from his elegant mansion. 

His wife was Jane, daughter of Joseph Brewster. She 
bore him five sons and five daughters. Submit^ the youngest 
of the latter, bom in 1T74, was thus named, as is said, to 
indicate his opinion of the duty of the Colonies in the exist- 
ing controversy with the mother country. 

Boyle, Robert. Went to New Brunswick in 1783, and 
died at Portland, in that Province, in 1848. 

BoYLSTON, Ward Nicholas. Of Boston. He was born 
in that town in 1749. His father was Benjamin Hallowell, 
one of the Commissioners of the Customs. I have before 
me the original license, bearing the signature of George the 
Third, by which he was authorized to change his name ; it 
jecites — that ** Nicholas Boylston, his uncle by his motlier's 
side, has conceived a very great affection for him, the peti- 
tioner, and has promised to leave him, at his death, certain 
estates, which are very considerable," &c., &c. In 1773 Mr. 
Boylston went to Newfoundland, thence to Italy, Turkey, 
Syria, Palestine, Egj'pt, and along the coast of Barbary ; and 
^arrived in England in 1775, through France and Flanders. 
He dined at Governor Hutchinson's, London, with some 
fsUow-Loyalists, July 29, 1775, and entertained the company 
with an account of his travels ; and, at subsequent periods, 
le exhibited the curiosities which he brought from the Holy 
Land, Egypt, and other countries, to the unhappy exiles from 



i 



248 BOYLSTON. 

his native State. In the autumn of the next year, he was 
in lodgings at Shepton Mallet. He was a member of the 
Loyalist Association, formed in London in 1779. He returned 
to Boston in the year 1800. In 1810 he presented Harvard 
University with a valuable collection of medical and ana- 
tomical works and engravings. He died at his seat, Roxbuiy, 
in 1828, aged seventy-eight. His son, John Lane Boylston, 
died at Princeton in 1847, aged fifty-eight. 

Boylston, Thomas. Of Boston. John Adams said of 
him in 1766, — "Tom is a firebrand. Tom is a perfect 
viper, a Jew, a devil, but is orthodox in politics, however." 
He was among the citizens of Boston who were detained by 
General Gage, in consequence of the imprisonment of Jones 
and Hicks in the jail at Concord ; and was released by ex- 
change, August, 1775. He fell off. In 1777 he was — as 
is said — the hero of the following incident, which is related 
by Mrs. Adams : — 

*' It was rumored," she wrote her husband, " that an em- 
inent, wealthy, stingy merchant, (who is a bachelor,) had a 
a hogshead of coffee in his store, which he refused to sell to 
the Committee under six shillings per pound. A number of 
females, some say a hundred, some say more, assembled with 
a cart and trucks, mai'ched down to the warehouse, and 
demanded the keys, which he refused to deliver. Upon 
which one of them seized him by the neck and tossed him 
into the cart. Upon his finding no quarter he delivered the 
keys, when they tipped up the cart and discharged him ; then 
opened the warehouse, hoisted out the coffee themselves, put 
it into the truck, and drove off. ... A large concourse of 
men stood amazed, silent spectators of the whole transaction." 

He went to England, invested his fortune in commerce, 
and was utterly ruined. Said Aspden, a fellow-Loyalist, in 
1793, " I called to sec, in Newgate, Mr. Thomas Boylston, 
of Boston, whom they want to bring in as a sleeping partner 
in the house of Lane, Son & Frazef , lately failed ; or, if this 
won't do, to milk him for lending them money at usurious 
interest. So much for being a stranger and friendless." He 



BOYLSTON.— BRATEN. 249 

died in London in 1798, of a broken heart. The simple 
record is — " Aged 77, Thomas Boylston, late a very eminent 
merchant of Boston, and relative of the President of the 
United States." 

Boylston, John. Of Boston. Merchant. Went to 
England in 1776, and was at Bristol in August of that 
year. Remained abroad, and died at Bath, England, in 1795, 
aged eighty-six. 

Bradford, William^ Of Massachusetts. Graduated at 
Harvard University in 1760. He removed from the country, 
and held an office under the Crown at the Bahamas. He 
died in 1801. 

Bradish, Ebenezer. a lawyer of Worcester, Massachu- 
setts. He graduated at Harvard University in 1769. In 
1774 he was one of the barristers and attorneys who were 
Addressers of Hutchinson. He died in 1818. 

Bradshaw, Eleaker. Of Waltham, Massachusetts. Said \^ 
le would sell " tea," and do as he thought fit, in spite of Whig 
committees, and that he would be the death of any person 
'who should molest him. The committees of Waltham, New- 
ton, Watertown, Weston, and Sudbury, examined the case, 
and resolved that he had proved himself inimical to his coun- 
try, and cautioned all persons against dealing with him until 
he should repent 

Brannan, Charles. He was in the King's service during 
the war, and at its close went to St. John, New Brunswick. 
He removed from that city to Fredericton in 1785, and con- 
tinued there until his decease in 1828, at the age of eighty-one. 

Brantley, . Of Georgia. Captain of a Tory 

T)and. The captor of three Wliigs, who, doomed to die, 
'were stripped to the shirt, and placed in a position to be shot. 
T^wo were killed, the other escaped. The survivor, David 
Emanuel, lived to become President of the Senate, and to fill 
^e Executive-chair of Georgia. 

Braten, Thomas. Of Charlotte County, New York. He 

'was a constable ; and in 1775 some Whigs declared that 

" they would have him, if he could be found above ground." 



250 BRATTLE. 

Brattle, Thomas. Of Massachusetts. He was bom at 
Cambridge in 1742, and graduated at Harvard! University in 
1760, and received the degree of A. M. at Yale and at Nas- 
sau. His family connections were among the most respect- 
able of New England. In 1775 he went to England, and 
was included in the Proscription and Banishment Act of 1778. 
While abroad, he travelled over various parts of Great Britain, 
and made a tour through Holland and France ; and was no- 
ticed by personages of distinction. Returning to London, he 
zealously and successfully labored to ameliorate the condition 
of his countrymen, who had been captured, and were in 
prison. In 1779 he came to America, and landed at Rhode 
Island. In 1784 the enactments against him in Massachusetts 
were repealed, and he took possession of his patrimony. He 
was a gentleman of liberality, humanity, and science ; of pub- 
lic spirit, and of large and noble views of men and things. 
He died in February, 1801. 

The late Governor James Sullivan, who knew him well, 
thus wrote : " Major Brattle exercised a deep reverence to 
the principles of Government, and was a cheerful subject of 
the laws. He respected men of science as the richest orna- 
ment of their country. If he had ambition, it was to excel in 
acts of hospitality, benevolence, and charity. The dazzling 
splendor of heroes, and the achievements of political intrigues, 
passed unnoticed before him ; but the character of the man 
of benevolence filled his heart with emotions of sympathy.*' 
.... ^^ In his death, the sick, the poor, and the distressed, 
have lost a liberal benefactor ; politeness an ornament ; and 
philanthropy one of its most discreet and generous supporters." 

Brattle, William. Of Massachusetts. A man of more 
eminent talents and of greater eccentricities has seldom lived. 
He graduated at Harvard University in 1722 ; and, subse- 
quently, was representative from Cambridge, and for many 
years a member of the Council. He seems to have been of 
every profession, and to have been eminent in all. As a 
clergyman, his preaching was acceptable ; as a physician, he 
was celebrated, and had an extensive practice ; as a lawyer, 



BRATTLE.-BRENTON. 251 

he had an abundance of clients ; while his military aptitudes 
secured the rank of major-general of the militia, an office in 
his time of very considerable importance and high honor. 
He loved good living. He possessed the happy faculty of 
pleasing the officers of Government and the people. An Ad- 
dresser of Gage, and approving of his plans, he at length 
forfeited the good will of the Whigs, and went into exile. 
Accompanying the British troops at the evacuation of Bos- 
ton, he went to Halifax, and died there in 1776, a few months 
after his arrival. His father was Reverend William Brattle 
of Cambridge. His first wife was a daughter of Governor 
Saltonstall. His son, Thomas Brattle of Cambridge, died in 
1801. 

Brattle, James. Servant to Governor Tryon, and sub- 
sequently to James Duane, a member of Congress. He was 
in the habit of stealing the papers of the latter, and of trans- 
mitting tbem, with other information, to the former. He was 
detected, and sent to England by Tryon. 

Bremner, John. Of Queen's County, New York. In 
1776 he signed a profession of loyalty and allegiance. A 
person of this name died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1807, 
aged fifty-four. 

Brenton, Jahleel. Of Rhode Island. Rear-Admiral 
in the Royal Navy. The Brentons emigrated to Massachu- 
setts in the reign of Charles the First. The first Jahleel was 
a civil officer of some note in Boston, and, removing to Rhode 
Island, died Governor of that Colony near the end of the 
i^ign of Charles the Second. The second Jahleel, who was 
8on of the first, was Collector of the Customs in New Eng- 
'<aiid, in the reign of William and Mary. The third Jalilecl 
'^'^as a large land-owner, and married a daughter of Samuel 
Cranston, Governor of Rhode Island ; this Jahleel was the 
fi^ther of five sons, of whom notices follow ; of three other 
^ons, and of seven daughters. 

The fourth Jahleel is the subject of this notice. He was 

>m in 1729, entered the navy in his youth ; and, a lieutenant 

the beginning of the Revolution, was living quietly on his 



252 BRENTON. 

patrimonial estate. It is stated that he was a gentleman of 
high character and respectable talents, that he had many 
warm friends among the Whig leaders who endeavored to 
enlist his sympathies on the popular side, and who offered him 
the highest rank in the naval service of Congress. Unyield- 
ing in his loyalty, a system of annoyance and persecution was 
commenced against him, which compelled him to leave his 
wife and younger children, and to seek shelter on board of an 
armed ship of the Crown on the coast. Two of his elder sons 
accompanied him. He went to England, and was put on 
active duty. Before the peace he was a post-captain. His 
estate in Rhode Island was confiscated. During the latter 
years of his life, he received " the comfortable appointment 
of Regulating Captain at Edinburgh," which situation he held 
until his death in 1802. His wife was Henrietta Crowley, 
and was the mother of a large family. She joined him in 
England in 1780, with the children, who remained with her 
at his flight. Of Jahleel, the oldest, presently. Edward 
Pelham, the second son, who died a post-captain, in London, 
in 1839, and whose widow, Margaretta Diana, died in the 
same city in 1843, wrote the " Naval History of Great Brit- 
ain from 1783 to 1822," and a Biography of Admiral Elarl 
St. Vincent, and was the founder of the Children's Friend 
Society. James, the third, son, lost his life in 1799, while 
perfonning a daring exploit in the Mediterranean, under Nel- 
son. His widow, Henrietta, died in 1820, in her seventy- 
seventh year. Mary, his second daughter, died at Bath, 
England, in 1845, aged seventy-six. 

Brenton, Sir Jahleel, Baronet. Of Rhode Island. 
Rear- Admiral of the Blue, K. C. B. and K. S. F. The fifth 
Jahleel, and son of the fourth. He was bom in Rhode Island 
in 1770 ; entered the navy as a midshipman in 1781, and 
served first in the Qxieen^ commanded by his father. At the 
peace he was placed in the Naval School, Chelsea, where he 
remained two years. From 1787 to 1789, he was an officer 
of the Dido^ Captain Sandys, employed in surveying the coast 
of Nova Scotia. Until the peace of Ameins, in 1802, he was 



BRENTON. 258 

constantly afloat, and performed much hard duty. The cap- 
tains under whom he served during this, period, uniformly 
commended his conduct. Among the distinguished naval 
officers who were his warm friends in after life, were Sauma- 
rez, St. Vincent, CoUingwood, and Nelson. After several 
years* service in the renewed warfare against Napoleon, and 
in 1812, he was appointed to the command of the Stirliyig 
Castle 74, but resigned that ship the same year ; was created 
a Baronet, and commissioned Resident-Commissioner of the 
Balearic Islands. In 1815 he was transferred to the Cape 
of Good Hope, as Commissioner of the Dock-yard, and re- 
mained in office until 1821. He returned to England in 
1822, and the year after was appointed a Colonel of Marines. 
In 1829 he was in command of the ship Donegal^ at Sheer- 
ness. Subsequently, he was created Vice- Admiral and Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Greenwich Hospital. He retired from 
dnty in 1840, and received the pension " dropped " by the 
decease of his old companion, Sir Sidney Smith. He estab- 
lished his residence in Westmoreland, thence removed to a 
oottage in Staffordshire. He died at Elford, April, 1844, 
in his seventy-fourth year. 

His first wife, who died at the Cape of Good Hjpe in 1817, 
^as Isabella, daughter of Anthony Stewart, a Loyalist of 
[arjdand. Sir Jahleel met her at Halifax, (to which place 
.er father had fled during the Revolution) in 1787, when a 
Visoidshipman on the Nova Scotia station ; and though a mutual 
s^ttachment arose, they were separated eleven years without 
each other once. They met in England, and were 
larried in the year 1802. His second wife (whom he mar- 
Led in 1822) was his cousin Harriet, daughter of James 
•renton, of Halifax. 
Brewton, Benjamin. Of Rhode Island. Brother of the 
lurth Jahleel. In the Revolution, a " contractor " for the 
)yal forces. Estate confiscated. Died in 1830. His wife 
as Rachel, daughter of Silas Cooke. 
Brenton, Samuel. Of Rhode Island. Brother of the 
'^V>urth Jahleel. I glean simply, that he died in 1797 ; and 
VOL. 1. 22 





254 BRENTON. — BREWERTON. 

that his wife was Susan Cooke, sister of the wife of his 
brotlier Benjamin. 

Brenton, James. Of Rhode Island. Brother of the 
fourth Jalileel. He went to Nova Scotia, and was a notary- 
public as early as September, 1775, at Halifax. He was 
afterward a Judge of the Supreme Court, and a member of 
the Council. In the year 1800 he was appointed Judge of 
Vice-Admiralty. He died at Halifax in 1806, or early the 
year following. 

His first wife was Rebecca Scott ; his second, a Miss Rus- 
sell, of Halifax. Edward, the only son of the first marriage, 
was bred to the law, and in 1835 was a Judge in Newfound- 
land. Another son, John, was secretary to Admiral Provost 
on the East India station, and a captain in the British Navy. 
Harriet, a daughter, married her cousin, (the fifth Jahleel), 
Admiral Sir Jahleel Brenton. 

Brenton, William. Of Rhode Island. Brother of the 
fourth Jahleel. Born in 1749. In exile during the Revolu- 
tion, he was allowed, by a law of 1783-, to visit and remain 
with his friends one week ; then required to depart and not 
to return. His wife was Frances Wickham. In 1835 two 
of his sons were in the British Navy. 

Brewerton, George. Of New York. In the French 
war he was in command of a regiment of that Colony. In 
June, 1776, he was charged with dangerous designs and trea- 
sonable conspiracies against the Whig cause ; and, at the in- 
stance of Livingston, Morris, and Jay, a warrant was issued 
by General Greene for his apprehension and the seizure of 
his papers. Brewerton surrendered himself to the General, 
who sent him to his accusers. In his examination he stated 
that '* instead of aiding the Ministerial armies, he had advised 
and persuaded men to enlist in the Continental service." 
But he was held to good behavior to the Whigs in a bond 
for £500, with Jacob Brewerton as surety. Subsequently, 
he entered the service of the Crown, and commanded the 
second battalion of De Lancey's brigade. He died in 1779. 
His widow, three sons, and two daughters, arrived at New 
York, fi-om London, September, 1786. 



BRICE. — BRINLET. 255 

Brice, Rigden. Of Georgia. In the effort to reestablish 
tlie Royal Govern men t, in 1779, lie was appointed Mai-slial of 
the Court of Admiralty. In 1782 he was Muster-master- 
General of the Loyalist forces in the South. He went to 
England and died there in 1796. 

Brig DEN, Edward. Of North Carolina. An estate, con- 
fiscated during the war, was restored to him by Act of Novem- 
ber, 1785 ; I find it said, at the express recommendation of 
Dr. Franklin. 

Bbigg, Stephen. In December, 1783, warrant issued on 
petition of the Selectmen of Stanford, Connecticut, ordering 
him to depart that town forthwith, and never return. 

Bridgham, Ebenezer. Merchant of Boston. Was pro- 
scribed and banished in 1778. He went to Halifax in 1776, 
with his family of four persons. In 1782 he was Deputy 
Inspector- General of the Loyalist forces. In 1783 he went 
to St. John, New Brimswick, and was a grantee of that city. 

Bridgman, . An "American Loyalist," whose 

daughter married Sir John Hatten, Baronet, of Long Stan- 
ton, Cambridgeshire, in 1798. Sir John died in 1811, and 
was succeeded by his brother, Thomas Dingley Hatten, 
the present Baronet. 

Bridgewatek, John, In 1782 he was a captain in the 
Prince of Wales American Volunteers. He went to Eng- 
land, and died there in 1803, in Ins seventieth year. 

Brill, David. Went to New Brunswick in 1783. Died 
in Queen's County in 1848, aged eighty-seven. 

Bhinley, Thomas. Merchant of Boston. Graduated at 
Harvard University in 1744. His name appears among the 
one hundred and twenty-four merchants and others, who adr 
dressed Hutchinson at Boston, in 1774 ; and among the ninety- 
seven gentlemen and principal inhabitants of that town, who 
addressed Gage in October of the following year. He went 
to Halifax in 1776, and to Etigknd the same year. In 1778 
he was proscribed and banished. He died in 1784. Eliza- 
beth, his widow, died in England in 1793. 

Brini^y, George. Merchant of Boston. An Addresser 



266 BRINLEY. 

of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1776 ; was proscribed 
and banished in 1778. He was in England in 1783, at which 
time he was Deputy Commissary- General. In 1799 he was 
appointed Commissary-General of his Majesty's forces in Brit- 
ish America. He died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1809 ; and 
Mary, his widow, died at the same place in 1819. His son 
Thomas, Lieutenant-Colonel in the army, and Quartermaster* 
General of die British troops in the West Indies, died in 1805 
on one of the islands of his station. I find the death of Wil- 
liam Birch Brinley, at Halifax, 1812, aged forty, 

Brinley, Nathaniel. Of Framingham, Massachusetts, 
and son of Colonel Francis Brinley. About the year 1760, 
he leased the " Brinley Farm " of Oliver DeLancey, agent of 
the owner. Admiral Sir Peter Warren of the Royal Navy, 
and, as is said, employed fifteen or twenty-negroes, (slaves, 
probably,) in its cultivation. It is related, too, that Daniel 
Shays, the leader of the insurrection in 1786, was in the ser- 
vice of Mr. Brinley on this farm. In 1775, our Loyalist was 
an Addresser of Gage, and was ordered, in consequence, to 
confine himself to his own leasehold. He soon fled to the 
Royal Army in Boston. After the evacuation of that town, he 
was sent to Framingham by sentence of a Court of Inquiry, 
ordered to give bond in <£600, with two sureties, to remain 
there four months and to be of good behavior. In September, 
1776, Ebenezer Marshall, in behalf of the Committee of 
Correspondence, Inspection and Safety, represented that the 
" people take him for a very villian," as he had declared that 
*' Parliament had an undoubted right to make void the char- 
ter in part or in whole ; " that " ten thousand troo|)s, with 
an artillery, would go through the Continent, and subdue it 
at pleasure ; " that he had conveyed " his best furniture to 
Roxbury, and moved his family and goods into Boston," 
and Iiad himself remained there "as long as he could have 
the protection of the British troops ; '' that " he approved of 
General Gage's conduct in the highest terms ; " that " his 
most intimate connections were some of our worst enemies 
and traitors;'' and that, while he had been under their in- 



BIJINLET. — BRITTAIN. 257 

spcction, they had seen notliing "either in his conduct or dis- 
position, that discoveiij tlic It'ast contrition, but otlierwise." 

To some of tliese allt'gations, Mrs. lirinley rei)Iie<l in two 
memorials to the General Court. She averred that, by the 
conditions of the recognizance, lier hnsbaud was entitled to 
the freedom of the whole of the town of Framingham ; that 
he was in custody on the sole charge of addressing Gage; and 
that, instead of being a refugee in Boston, he was slmt up in 
tliat town while accidentally there, &c. She complained that 
at one time, he had been compelled to work on John Fisk's 
farm, witliout liberty to go more than twenty rods from tlie 
house, unless in Fisk's pivscnce ; and that he was denied tlie 
free use of jwn, ink and paiKT, Again, she said that Mr. 
Brinley, after )iis transfer to the care of Benjamin Eaton, was 
restricted to the house, and Wiis tearful that iiis departure from 
it would occasion the loss of his life ; and that no person, even 
herself, was allowed to converse with him, unless in the hear- 
ing of some member of Eaton's family. And she prayed that 
he might be removed to some other inland town, and be treated 
in accordance with his sentence. Mr, Brinley's defence of him- 
self seems to have been the simple remark : " I am a gentle- 
man, and have done nothing to forfeit that character." 

I am able to trace this unhappy " Government-man " only 
a step farther. On the 17tb September, 1776, the Genei-al 
Court, by resolve, committed him to the care of his father, on 
security in X600 for bis appearance ; and, in October of the 
same year, the Committee of Framingham reported to the 
Council that tliey bad disposed of his farm-stock, farm-uten- 
sils, and household furniture. Possibly, Nathaniel Brinley, 
who die<l at Tyngsborough in 1814, aged eighty-one, was the 
subject of this notice. 

BBiTfAiN, Jamks. Of New Jersey. He wished to take 
no part in the Revolutionary controversy, but having become 
obnoxiou!!, his house was surrounde<l by a party of about thir- 
ty, who robbed and iilundered him at pleasure. He escajwd 
to the woods, where liia wili; fed him for nearly a mouth. 
Emerging from his hiding place, lie joined Skinner with 



258 BRITTAIN. - BROKENBOROUGH. 

seventy men, whom he had engaged to bear arms against 
the rebels. He was in a number of battles. In one, he 
was taken prisoner, and doomed to suffer death. The day 
before that appointed for his execution, he broke from prison, 
swam the Delaware, and joined his corps. In 1782 he was an 
ensicrn in the first battalion of New Jereev Volunteers, and at 
the peace, a lieutenant. In 1783 he went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, in the ship I^iike of Richmond^ and was the gran- 
tee of a city lot.* He received half-pay. He was a colonel of 
New Brunswick militia, and, at his decease, the oldest magis- 
trate in King's County. He died at Greenwich in that county 
in 1838, at the age of eighty-seven. Ten children survived 
him. His widow, Eleanor, died at Greenwich in 1846, aged 
ninety-four. His daughter Eleanor married Walker Tisdale, 
Esquire, of St. John. 

Brittain, Joseph. Of New Jersey. Brother of James. 
He was an ensign in the New Jersey Volunteers, and was 
taken prisoner with James, doomed to the same fate, and 
made his escape at the same time. He went to St. John in 
the ship Duke of Richmond in 1780, and died in 1880, at the 
age of seventy-two, in King's County. He received half-pay. 

Brittain, William. Of New Jersey. Brother of James 
and Joseph. He was in the King's service, but not in com- 
mission. He shared in the captivity, and in the escape of 
James and Joseph. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. He died in New 
Brunswick about the year 1811. 

Brittenny, John. In 1783 he removed to New Bruns- 
wick, and settled in King's County, where he continued to 
reside until his decease, a period of upwards of sixty-three 
years. He died at Greenwich in 1846, in the ninety-fifth j 
year of his age. 

Brokenborough, Austin. Of Virginia. He was son of^ 
Colonel William Brokenborough, and served with Washing — ■ 
ton under Braddock. " Like some of the old clergy, he^ 
thought he was perpetually bound by his oath of allegiances 
to the king." He wished to remain here, however, on ac — 



BROKENBOROUGH. — BROOKS. 259 

coant of Ills family, friends, and property ; and petitioned the 
Assembly to be allowed the position of a neutral — to obey 
the laws, but to keep clear of tlie " rebellion." His request 
was not only refused, but five companies of men proceeded to 
his house to inflict signal punishment for his contumacy. He 
escaped and went to England. While abroad, he lived prin- 
cipally in London, with several other Loyalists of the South, 
who, by his account, " had a merry time of it, dining and 
supping at various inns," visiting theatres and other places of 
amusement. He " speaks of taking two dinners at different 
taverns . . . the same day, and of two suppers the same 
night, and of being quite drunk, with all the rest of the com- 
pany," on another occasion. Again, he mentions an evening 
at Vauxhall with ladies, and says that all, except the young 
ones, " drank too freely, and were vociferous." But he went 
to church, and was a frequent listener to the debates in Par- 
liament. It was his fortune to hear Chatham's last speech, 
when, as all recollect, his Lordship fainted and was carried 
home. 

Mr. Brokenborough was absent seven years. Time, finally, 
passed heavily. His father and youngest son were dead ; his 
estate was mismanaged, wasting away, and liable to confisca- 
tion. He resolved to return, and arrived in Virginia in 1782, 
but, by advice of his brother, did not venture home. For 
awhile, he wasjn Charleston, S. C. ; but, at last, resumed his 
abode in the Old Dominion. 

Brooks, James. It was reported that letters written by 
him, by Dr. Kearsley, and others, were in possession of a 
woman who concealed them in a pocket sewed to the lower 
part of her inner garment, and who was on ship-board, bound 
to London ; and the letters having been secured, and found 
abusive of the Whigs and of their cause, he was committed to 
prison in Philadelphia, thence transferred to the jail of Lan- 
caster. The Committee of Safety of Pennsylvania resolved 
that he was an enemy to the liberties of America. 

He was kept in confinement two years, lacking a single 
day. His own account is, that the windows next to the street 



260 BROOKS. — BROWNE. 

were blocked up ; tliat thirty-five barrels of gunpowder were 
stored on the floor above his head, — and tons more in the 
next room, defended from the common misfortune of fire by 
a shingled roof merely ; that a guard of fourteen men beat 
their drums for the sake of persecution ; that he was denied 
the sight and speech of mankind, and the use of pen, ink and 
paper ; and that he " had the use of his legs taken from him 
by day, and was brought to by warm water at night." 

Brooks, Captain . Commanded a party of plun- 
derers. On one occasion, early in 1783, while on an expedi- 
tion in the Delaware, a Methodist preacher fell into his hands, 
and was required to preach or to be whipped to death. The 
minister declining to give a sermon to such hearers, was tied 
up and received nearly one hundred lashes. On his promise 
never to serve the rebels more, he was allowed to depart, much 
exhausted and lacerated. 

Browne, Thomas. Of Augusta, Georgia. Was an early 
victim of a mob, and was tarred and feathered, soon after the 
division and array of parties in the Southern Colonies. He 
entered the Royal service, and commanded, as lieutenant- 
colonel, a corps called the King's Rangers, Carolina. At the 
peace, he retired, it is believed, to Florida, and thence to the 
Bahamas. He was known during hostilities as a sanguinary 
and active officer, and his conduct is open to severe censure. 

Such the text, such the meagre account of this partisan 
leader, in the first edition. The notice of him now is as full 
as the reader can desire, and is the result of more labor than 
I care to state. 

Mr. Simms, in the Advertisement to " Mellichampe^^^ says 
that Barsfield's story, as related in the thirty-seventh chajiter 
of that work, " bears a close resemblance to the recorded 
history of the notorious Colonel Browne, of Augusta, one of 
the most malignant and vindictive among the Southern Loyal- 
* ists, and one who is said to have become so solelv from the 
illegal and unjustifiable means employed by the Patriots to 
make him otherwise." And, adds Mr. Simms, with truth, 
" The whole historv is one of curious interest, and, if studied, 



BROWNE. 261 

of great public value. It shows strikingly the evils to a whole 
nation, and through successive years, of a single act of pop- 
ular injustice.'' 

Whoever would know the nature of the warfare between 
the Whigs and Tories at the South, should carefully read 
" Mellichampe," and the other tales of the distinguished au- 
thor, of the same era. He vouches for their general historical 
accuracy, and no well-informed person will question the faith- 
fulness of his pen. The perusal of the tale in question, exci- 
ted my own curiosity, I confess, and led me to examine every 
book and document within reach, which seemed likely to afford 
me information of the original of " Barsfield." 

I find Browne at Augusta in 1775, expressing his enmity 
to the Whigs, and ridiculing them in toasts at dinner. 
Warned of danger, he fled. By order of the " Committee," 
he was pursued to New Richmond, South Carolina, brought 
back, tried, and sentenced to be tarred and feathered ; to be 
publicly exposed in a cart ; to be drawn three miles, or until 
he should confess his error, and swear fealty to the popular 
cause. He refused to make any concession, was punished as 
doomed, and published as " no gentleman." To conceal his 
disgrace as well as he could, he kept his hair short, and wore 
a handkerchief around his head. He soon retreated to 
Florida. In 1776 he was in command of a corps, and made 
fearful incursions on the banks of the Savannah ; but his force 
"w^as small. In 1778, when he was joined by about three hun- 
dred Tories from the interior of Georgia and South Carolina, 
-ijis regiment was completed, and put in uniform. A year 
-^Ater, at the head of four hundred mounted men, he made 
^ forced march to Augusta ; and, after being wounded, and 
^•'^'V'ice defeated by Whigs under Twiggs and Few, he reached 
^"^.t place, and established a military post. Reinforced by 
^cstachments from other corps, of undoubted skill and bravery, 
^^act in discipline, among the very people who had treated 
"irn with the greatest indignity, and relentless in his mode 
^^ warfare, the " Rebels " had everything to fear from his 
^^sposition and his operations. As soon as the condition of 



262 BROWNE. 

the Wliigs would allow, and in 1780, Colonel Clarke appeared 
with a force, sufficient, as was thought, to compel him to 
submit to terms of capitulation. Browne's conduct during 
the siege illustrates the best and the worst qualities of his 
character. The accounts are conflicting. But it seems certain 
that, as the town did not afford an eligible position for defence, 
Browne marched out with his troops and some Indians, 
assailed Clarke on an eminence, and dislodged him, after a 
sanguinary fight. It appears, also, that the Loyalist leader 
was subsequently driven, with the men under his personal 
command, into a sort of garrison house, from which he main- 
tained a desperate resistance ; that he himself was shot 
through both thighs ; that while tortured with the pain of 
dangerous wounds and swollen legs, he still directed every 
movement ; that the besiegers cut off the supply of water, 
for which, in the fertility of his resources, he found a remedy, 
in saving and dealing out urine, of which he was the first to 
drink ; that his wounded died for the want of surgical aid 
and hospital stores ; that he was repeatedly summoned to 
surrender ; and that he held out four days, and until relieved 
by Cruger. All this, in a military man, is admirable ; what 
followed is unconditionally infamous. Clarke, in his retreat, 
left a part of his wounded, of whom thirteen were hung in the 
stair-way, and four in other parts of the garrison-house, and 
several others were turned over to the Indians and burned 
alive. The thirteen, it is said, were executed in Browne's 
presence, " that he might have the satisfaction of seeing the 
victims of his vengeance expire." So, too, in 1780, he 
ordered five persons to be hung, and when nearly dead, they 
were cut down and delivered to the Indians, who scalped and 
and otherwise mutilated one of them. One of these was a 
youth of seventeen, and the son of a widow. 

He kept Augusta until June, 1781, when, after a siege of 
nearly three months, in which he displayed his usual courage, 
activity, and patience under sufferings, he surrendered the 
post to Pickens and Lee. The accusation against him at this 
time is, that he placed an aged prisoner in a bastion, where 



BBOWNR 263 

he was exposed to death from the hands of his own son, who 
commanded a Wliig battery. By the terms of capitulation, 
Colonel Browne was allowed to go to Savannah ; and he was 
so generally hated that, had he not been specially and strongly 
guarded, while on the way thither, it is probable he would 
have been torn limb from limb. He passed among the inhab- 
itants whose houses he had burned and whose relatives and 
friends he had executed. The mother of one whom he had put 
to death said to him : " In the late day of your prosperity, I 
visited your camp, and on my knees supplicated for the lite of 
my son, but you were deaf to my entreaties. You hanged him, 
though a beardless youth, before my face. These eyes saw 
him scalped by the savages under your immediate command. 
. . . When you resume the sword, I will go five hundred 
miles to demand satisfaction at the point of it." 

This woman met Browne and his escort, as is said, armed 
with a knife, for the purpose of killing him, but was not allowed 
to speak to him until she promised to forbear ; and she was ac- 
companied by a son who went with the same intention. Though 
he escaped assassination, the adherents of the Crown seem to 
have exjiected that he would be publicly executed. Afier the 
fall of Charleston, tlie firm Whigs who refused to swear alle- 
giance were sent to Florida, and the officer in command at St. 
Augustine threatened to hang six of them if Browne was not 
treated as a prisoner of war. After he was exchanged, he 
served at Savannah. In May, 1782, he marched out of the 
garrison at the head of a considerable force, with the apparent 
intention of attacking tlic Wliigs ; but Wayne, by a bold 
movement, got between him and the town, assailed him at 
midnight, and routed his whole command. 

In October, 1782, the Rangei's were sent from Charleston 
to relieve the troops at St. Augustine. At the peace, when 
they were disbanded, a |)art remained in Florida, and a part 
attempted to settle at a place in Nova Scotia, called St. Mary's. 
Colonel Browne had estates in Georgia and South Carolina, 
which were confiscated ; and, attainted of treason in both 
States, he retreated to the Bahamas. From these islands, and 



264 BROWNE. 

in 1786, he wrote an elaborate reply to Ramsay's comments 
on his conduct during the war, addressed to the historian 
himself. The paper is not without ability. 

He relates the unjustifiable course of the Whigs, and dwells 
with emphasis on special cases ; he insists that in the instances 
which are cited to show his own barbarity, he did but execute 
retributive justice on offenders who were identified, and who 
confessed their crimes. He refers to tlie tarring and feathering 
twelve years previously, in these words : " Could violations 
of humanity be justified by example, the ci-uelties exercised 
on my person by a lawless committee .... might have jus- 
tified the severest vengeance ; but, esteeming it more honor- 
able to forgive than to revenge an injury to those men who 
had treated me with the most merciless cruelty, I granted 
protection and safeguards to such as desired them." He 
avers that all the allegations against him which touch his 
reputation as an officer and as a man, are false ; and thus, — 
" In the discharge of the duties of my profession, I can say 
with truth, I never deviated from the line of conduct the 
laws of war and humanity prescribed.'' And again : " The 
criminal excesses of individuals were never warranted by au- 
thority, nor ever obtained the sanction of my approbation." 
He speaks of Lee, as a gentleman of the most honorable and 
liberal sentiments ; but of Pickens, as permitting murder of 
prisoners under his own eye. 

In 1809, Colonel Browne was in England, and petitioned 
for a grant of Crown lands in the West Indies. The govern- 
ment gave him six thousand acres in the island of St. Vin- 
cent. I find it stated that, by some mistake, a part of the 
tract had been previously granted to persons who could not 
be dispossessed without great injury ; and that the munificent 
sum of X30,000 was allowed him in money as an equivalent. 
It is said, too, that the Colonel was subsequently implicated 
in matters connected with this very domain ; and that, in 
1812, he was convicted in London of forgery. The story 
seems to me improbable. There was hardly a Loyalist in the 
thirteen Colonies who, for his individual losses, received so 



\ 



BROWNE. 265 

large a sura as — in whole nnmbei's — one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars ; and, at the period in question, a man 
adjudged guilty of forgery, in England, would have heen 
executed, especially if the crime, — as alleged in this case, 
— was a fabrication of the signatures of high officers of the 
Government. 

Colonel Bro\vne died in St. Vincent in 1825. His wife died 
there in 1807. Of his own decease there appeared the fol- 
lowing notice : — "At an advanced age. Colonel Thomas 
Browne. During the American war he distingxiished himself 
as a gallant and enterprising officer, and among other re- 
peated marks of liis Sovereign's approbation, was promoted 
to the rank of Colonel- Commandant of Iiis Majesty's late 
regiment of South Carolina, or Queen's Rangers, and made 
also Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, in the South- 
em districts of North America." 

Browne, Wiluam. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Was a 
grandson of Governor Burnet, a great-grandson of Bishop 
Burnet, and a connection of Wintlirop, the first resident 
Governor of Massachusetts ; and graduated at Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1755. A member of the General Court in 1768, 
he was one of the seventeen Resclnders. He was a Colonel 
of the Essex County militia ; one of the ten Mandamus 
Connsellors who were sworn in, and a Judge of the Supreme 
Court. 

In 1774, John Adams ' said : " I had a real respect for 
the Judges. Trowbridge, Cushing, and Bi-owne, I could call 
my friends." That very- year, the Essex County Convention 
voted, " That a Committee be raised to wait on the Honor- 
able William Browne, Esquire, of Salem, and acquaint him, 
that with grief this County has viewed his exertions for car- 
rying into execution the Acts of Parliament, calculated to 
enslave and ruin his native land," &c., &c. 

This Committee consisted of Jeremiah Lee, Samuel Hol- 
ton, and Elbridge Gerry. They waited upon Mr. Browne in 
Boston, on the 19th of September, who returned a written 
1 A clammale of Judge Browne, at Harvard. 

VOL. I. 23 



266 BROWNE. 

answer, in which he says that lie " cannot consent to defeat 
his Majesty's intentions and disappoint his expectations, by 
abandoning a post to which he has been graciously ])leased to 
appoint him," &c., and that, " as a Judge, and in every other 
capacity," he " intended to act with honor and integrity," 
&c., &c. 

He was an Addresser of Gage, was included in the Ban- 
ishment Act of 1778, and in the Conspiracy Act of the year 
following. He was the owner of immense landed estates, 
which were confiscated. Prior to the Revolutionary troubles, 
he enjoyed great popularity, and strong inducements were 
held out to him to join the Whigs. He was in London as 
early as May 4, 1776, and gave his fellow-exiles some par- 
ticulars relative to the evacuation of Boston. His wife, 
who complained of her treatment at Salem and Boston, 
after his departure, does not appear to have joined him in 
England, until the spring of 1778. In 1781, he was ap- 
pointed Governor of the Bermudas, and administered the 
affairs of these islands in a manner to secure the confidence 
and respect of the people. He died in England, February, 
1802, aged sixty-five. 

Browne, Arthur. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 
An Episcopal clergyman. Was educated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin. He was ordained by the Bishop of London, 
and assumed the charge of a society at Providence, Rhode 
Island. In 1736 he removed to Portsmouth, and became 
the first minister of the Episcopal Church of that town, and 
continued his connection until his decease. He died at Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, in 1773, aged seventy-three. His re- 
mains wore carried to Portsniouth and deposited in the Went- 
worth tomb. 

In the Episcopal Church, he was considered a man of most 
noble and benevolent disposition, of sound doctrines, and a 
good preacher. He married Governor Beiming Wentworth 
to his servant girl. The story, as told by Brewster is, that 
" the Governor invited a dinner party, and with many other 
guests, in his cocked hat, comes the beloved Rev. Ar- 



> 



BROWNE. 267 

thur Browne. The dinner is served up in a style becom- 
ing the Governor's table, the wine is of good quality, &c. 
In due time, as previously arranged, Martha Hilton, the 
Governor's maid-servant, ' a damsel of twenty summers,' 
appears before the company. The Governor, bleached by 
the frosts of sixty winters, rises : ' Mr. Browne, I wish you 
to marry me.' ' To whom,' asked the Rector, in wondering 
surprise. ' To this lady,' was the reply. The Rector stood 
confounded. The Governor became imperative. ' As the 
Governor of New Hainpshire I command you to marry msJ* 
The ceremony was performed, and Martha Hilton became 
Lady Went worth." 

On the day Mr. Browne married Governor John Went- 
worth to Atkinson's widow, and soon after he had performed 
the ceremony, he fell over a number of stone steps and broke 
his arm. 

He was missionary of the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts. His salary in 1754 was £60, 
and <£15 additional for officiating at Kittery. Until the ap- 
pointment of his son as assistant missionary, he was the only 
Episcopal clergyman in New Hampshire. 

In honor of the consort of George the Second, his church 
was called *' Queen's Chapel." Dr. Frankhn was one of the 
benefactors and a proprietor. There was a pew which, prior 
to the Revolution, was fitted up in state, and known as the 
" Governor's." It contained two chairs, which were the gift 
of the Queen, for the use of the Governor and his secretary. 
The decomtions were taken down after the war ; but the pew 
and the chairs remained, and were occupied by Washington 
and his secretary in 1789, when they attended service in Ports- 
mouth. 

Mr. Browne's children were four sons and five daughters, 
namely : Thomas, who died young ; Marmaduke, of whom 
presently ; Arthur, who, after a long service in the British 
Army, sold his commission and was Governor of Kinsale ; and 
Peter, who entered the army at the age of fourteen, and rose 
to the rank of major. The daughter were all married : 



268 BROWNE. - BROWN. 

Lucv, to Colonel Smith, of the British Army ; Jane, to Samud 
Livermore, Chief Justice of New Hampshire and Senator in 
Congress from that State ; Mary, to the Rev. Win wood Ser- 
jeant ; Anne, to Captain George St. Loe, of the British Navy, 
from whom she was divorced, and, the widow of a second hus- 
band, a third time to one Kelly, who, " of reckless character, 
treated her with the utmost neglect ; " and, last, Elizabeth, 
who was the wife of the noted Major Robert Rogers, and, 
after his decease, of Captain John Roche, of Concord, New 
Hampshire. 

Browne, Rev. Marmaduke. Son of Arthur. He was 
born in Providence, Rhode Island, in 1731, and graduated at 
Trinity College, Dublin, in 1754. On taking orders, he was 
first employed as an itinerant missionary in New Hampshire. 
In 1760, he became Rector of Trinity Church, Newport, R. L, 
and died there in 1771. His wife deceased in 1767, and his 
own death was *^ doubtless hastened by the severity of that 
affliction." His son Arthur, who was Doctor of Laws, and 
King's Professor of Greek in Trinity College, Dublin, who 
erected a marble tablet to his memory on the wall of Trinity 
Church, Newport, in 1795, and who was a very eminent man, 
died in 1805. 

Browne, William. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Son of 
Judge William Browne. An officer in the British Army, 
and at the siege of Gibraltar. He was in England in 
1784. 

Brown, Thomas. Of Boston. Embarked with his family 
of five persons for Halifax, in 1776. Went into business, and 
failed soon after the year 1779, and established a school. 
Rev. Jacob Bailey wrote in 1781 : " This poor gentleman is 
still detained under complaint of his unmerciful creditors." 
Mr. Brown was in Halifax as late as 1792. I find the death 
of a Thomas Brown, at Salem, Massachusetts, in 1809, at the 
age of eighty-six. 

Brown, Rev. Thomas. Episcopal minister. He came to 
America in the French war, as supposed, with the 27th Regi- 
ment, of which he was chaplain, and which he accompanied 



BROWN. — BRUCE. 269 

on the expedition to Martinico, in 1762. He returned to 
England ; and, in 1764, was appointed a missionary to Amer* 
ica. He was in charge of St. Peter's Church, Albany, for 
three or four years ; and in 1772, was appointed Rector of 
Dorchester, Maryland. He died in 1784, aged forty-nine. 
His wife, whose maiden name was Martina Hogan, and who 
belonged to Albany, and seven children, survived him. 

Brown, Elisha. Of Northampton, New York. *' Cow- 
boy." Killed by a fellow " cow-boy " named Norton, in an 
affray, in 1783. 

Brown, Daniel. Of Maine. Emigrated in early youth 
from Scotland to Castine, and in the Revolution took an active 
part in the Royal cause. At the peace he removed to New 
Brunswick, where he passed the remainder of his days. He 
died at St. Stephen, March, 1835, aged ninety-one, and left 
upwards of two hundred descendants. His memory was good, 
and the events of his life were impressed upon its tablets to 
the last. His daughter Catharine died a few days after him, 
aged fifty-five. 

Brown, Zachariah. Residence unknown. A lieutenant 
in De Lancey's Third Battalion, retired to New Brunswick, 
received half-pay, and died in the county of Suubury, in 1817, 
aged seventy-eight. 

Brown, Henry B. Settled in New Brunswick. Was 
Registrar of Deeds and Wills for the county of Charlotte, 
axid died there. 

Brownell, Joshua, and Jeremiah. Went to St. John, 
€w Brunswick, at the peace. The first was a grantee of 
■ at city; the other died in Westmoreland County, in that 
province, in 1835, aged eighty-eight. 

Brothers, Joseph. He died at Carleton, New Bruns- 
ick, in 1836, aged seventy-two. 

Bruce, James. Of Boston. Was proscribed and banished. 
Jiis gentleman, 1 conclude, commanded the ship Eleanor ; 

(1 if so, he, like Hall, of the Dartmouth^ and Coffin, of the 

^^ver^ is connected with the celebrated tea controvei*sy. The 

nor, Captain James Bruce, arrived in Boston, December 

23* 




270 BRUNSKILL. — BRUSH. 

1, 1773, with a part of the tea sent over by the East India 
Company, which, after several days of fruitless negotiation, 
was thrown into the harbor, at Griffin's Wharf. There was 
a Loyalist of this name at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, about the 
year 1805. 

Brunskill, Rev. John. Of Virginia. Episcopal minis- 
ter. About the beginning of the Revolution, on an occasion 
when his church was full, two or three Whigs entered in regi- 
mentals. He rose and rebuked them, said they were rebels, 
and that he should immediately inform the King of their mis- 
deeds. Nearly every person left the house ; some, as they 
departed, warning him that on a repetition of such language, 
he would be insulted and treated harshly. He never preached 
again ; but lived uncomfortable and secluded at the glebe un- 
til his death. He never married ; and for years, ** it is be- 
lieved, he was a dead weight upon the church." 

Brush, Creak. Of Cumberland County, "New Hamp- 
shire Grants." Born in Dublin, Ireland, about the year 1725, 
and bred to the law ; he emigrated to America, probably in 
1762. In New York, he was admitted to practice, and had 
employment in the office of the Provincial Secretarj'. In 
1771, he removed to the "6rrrt?i^«," and was soon appointed 
Clerk and Surrogate of Cumberland County. In the troubles 
which existed on the " Grmits^'^ as Vermont was then called, 
he took the side of New York ; and, elected to the Assembly 
of that Colony, he became a man of considerable note and in- 
fluence. In 1775, he delivered a set-speech against electing-: 
delegates to the second Continental Congress, which the Whig-; 
leaders, Clinton, Schuyler, and Woodhull, answered. Trum-- 
bull, in McFingal, refers to him thus : — 

" Had I the poet's brazen lungs, 
As sound-board to his hundred tongues, 
I eould not half the scribblers muster 
That swarmed round Rivington in cluster; 
Assemblies, councilmcn, forsooth : 
Brush, Cooper, Wilkins, Chandler, Booth: 
Yet all their arguments and sap*ence 
You did not value at three half-pence." 



BRUSH. 271 

At Boston, January, 1776, he proposed to Sir William 
Howe to raise a body of volunteers, not less than three hun- 
dred, on the same terms, as to pay and gratuity, as the Royal 
Fencible Americans, a corps just organized. The result is to 
be inferred from the fact, that on the 10th of March, he was 
ordered by Sir William to take possession of the goods of cer- 
tain described persons, and put them on board of the ship Mi- 
nervaj or the brigantine Elizabeth. Under this commission, 
Brush, at the head of parties of Tories, broke open stores 
and dwelling-houses, stripped them, and conveyed his plun- 
der to the ships. Lawless bands of men from the fleet and 
army, followed his example ; and Boston, for the last few days 
of the siege, was given to violence and pillage. As for Brush, 
he was captured after the evacuation, on board of the brigan- 
tine above mentioned. 

The property on board the Elizabeth was worth quite one 
hundred thousand dollars ; difficulties arose between the claim- 
smts and the captors, which were expensive and vexatious, but 
"which I have no room to relate. The robber. Brush, was 
^rightly enough put in close jail in Boston, and denied privi- 
leges, which, to an educated man, are invaluable ; but he 
endeavored to lesson his woes by intemperance. Early in 
1777 he was joined by his wife. The term of his imprison- 
'anent was more than nineteen months. Later in the autumn 
-^f the year last mentioned, Mrs. Brush provided him with 
oney and a horse, preparatory to his escape ; and on tlie 
ight of the 5th of November, he passed the turnkey, dis- 
ised in her garments, and fled to New York. We hear 
f the miscreant next in Vermont, where he went to look 
after his lands. But his career was nearly at an end. The 
Whigs sequestered his estate ; and the British Commander- 
m-Chief, to whom he applied to redress his personal wrongs 
nd compensate his losses, not only refused, but told him that 
3ii8 " conduct merited them, and more." His cup was full. 
*' Goaded by the scorpion whip of remorse, too proud to 
strive to redeem the errors of his past life by an honorable 
^ture," in May, 1778, he put a pistol to his head, and was 



272 BRYAN. 

found dead, " his brains besmearing the walls of the apart- 
ment." Such, rapidly traced, was the life of Crean Brush. 
He was ambitious to be a man of consideration, to be pro- 
prietor of a vast domain. He became an outcast ; and, of 
nearly fifty thousand acres of the soil of New York, and the 
" New Hampshire Grants," which he owned, his heirs recovered 
possession of a small part only. His stejMlaughter, Frances, 
was wife of no less a character than Ethan Allen. She was 
a widow, dashing, and imperious; and though fascinating 
and accomplished, sometimes spoke in tones as rough and 
unseemly as the summoner of Ticonderoga himself. His 
only child, Elizabeth Martha, married Thomas Norman, of 
Ireland. Of her it is said that she was a lady of refined 
manners, of dignified deportment, and in every other re- 
spect an ornament to her sex. 

Bryan, Samuel. Of North Carolina. Authorized by 
Governor Martin, January, 1776, to erect the King's stand- 
ard, to enlist and array in arms the loyal subjects of Rowan 
County, and " to oppose all rebels and traitors." In 1780, 
with a coi-ps of eight hundred Loyalists, who abandoned their 
homes to avoid prison and death, after Moore's defeat by 
Rutherford, he marched towards South Carolina, and ar- 
rived unmolested at Cheraw Hill, where he joined the de- 
tachment of British under McArthur. Many had not seen 
their families for months, but had lived in the woods to avoid 
the parties of Whigs that were in constant pursuit at this 
period. Three of his companies were nearly annihilated by 
the Whig Major Davie, near Hanging Rock. Soon after- 
ward, Sumter fell upon the remainder of his troops, and put 
them to flight ; they " dispersed as soon as pressed." But, 
reassembled, Bryan's corps was in the rear division under the 
orders of Lord Rawdon, at the battle of Camden. The estate 
of Colonel Bryan was confiscated in 1779. The excitement 
against him was intense. Our Loyalist was indeed an un- 
fortunate man, since it seems that his conduct gave serious 
offence to his own party, as well as to the Whigs. In a 
letter to Sir James Wright, dated in London, March, 1783, 



BRYMER. — BULL. 273 

Lord Cornwallis states, that " the premature rising at Rams- 
oar's, Colonel Bryan's junction with us in South Carolina, 
both directly contrary to my recommendation," with the de- 
feat of Ferguson on King's Mountain, " occasioned the ruin 
of many families, and furnished pretexts to exercise cruelties 
on individuals, to a degree neither believed nor conceived 
in " England. 

Brymer, Alexander. Merchant of Boston. An Ad- 
dresser of Gage in 1775. Was proscribed and banished in 
1778. In 1782 a gentleman of this name, and supposed to 
be the same, was sworn in as a member of his Majesty's 
Council of Nova Scotia. The Councillor died at Ramsgate, 
England, in 1822, aged seventy-five. 

Buchanan, John. Of Maryland. Went to England, 
and established himself as a merchant in London. His widow 
died at Bromley, Kent, in 1784. 

BUDD, Elisha. Of New York. Ensign in the King's 

American Regiment. He was bom at White plains, and 

settled in Rye. His father, James Budd, was shot at his 

own door by a party of " cow-boys." He was at the siege 

of Savannah, and in several engagements at the South. His 

property was confiscated ; and at the peace he went to Digby, 

Nova Scotia, where he became a merchant and a Justice of 

the Common Pleas. He died at Liverpool, England, in 1813, 

"Aged fifty-one. His widow, a daughter of Isaac Bonnell, died 

in 1850, at the age of eighty-two, leaving five children, of 

lom three now (1861) reside at Digby. 

Bull, William. Lieutenant-Governor of South Carolina. 

is father, who died in 1755, at the age of seventy-two, had 

e same Christian name, and held the same office. He was 

I~»upil of Boerhaave. Returning to this country, after com- 

^tiiig his studies,* he rose to distinction in literature, medical 

*i<?nce, and politics. Li 1751 he was a member of the Coun- 

1 ; in 1763 Speaker of the House of Delegates ; and in 

3" ^ Lieutenant-Governor. In the last office he continued 

s^ny years, and was Commander-in-Chief of the Colony. 

^ accompanied the British troop to England in 1782, and. 



274 BULL. — BULYEA. 

continuing there, died in London, July 4, 1791, aged eighty- 
one. 

Bull, George. He was bom in the city of New York. 
In 1782 he was a lieutenant of cavalry in the American 

« 

Legion under Arnold. He retired on half-pay at the j^eace, 
and settled in New Brunswick. He died at Woodstock, in 
1838, at the age of eighty-six. 

Bull, Captain • Of New York. He was in the 

service of the Crown, and his name appears in the interview 
between the celebrated Mohawk, Brant, and the Whig Gen- 
eral Herkimer, at Unadilla, New York, in 1777. When the 
Indian chief met the Whig, he was accompanied by Bull, a 
son of Sir William Johnson by Brandt's sister, Maiy, or Molly, 
and about forty warriors. During the meeting, Herkimer 
demanded the surrender of several Tories, which Brant per- 
emptorily refused. This was the last conference held with 
the hostile Mohawks. 

Bullman, Rev. John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
Episcopal minister. In 1774 he preached a sennon which 
gave great offence. I extract a single passage : " Every idle 
projector who cannot, perhaps, govern his own household, or 
pay the debts of his own contracting, presumes he is qualified 
to dictate how the State should be governed, and to point out 
the means of paying the debts of a nation." Again : " Every 
silly clown and illiterate mechanic will take upon him to 
censure the conduct of his Prince or Governor, and contri- 
bute, as much as in him lies, to create and foment those mis- 
understandings .... which come at last to ... . sedition 
and rebellion," &c. 

A meeting of his parishioners was called, when it was found 
that, exclusive of the vestry and church- wardens, forty-two 
disapproved, and thirty-three approved, of his conduct in the 
pulpit. Attempts at reconciliation followed, but without suc- 
cess ; and in March, 1775, Mr. Bullman sailed for England. 

Bulyea, John, and Abraham. The first, in 1795, was 
a member of the Loyal Artillery of St. John, New Bruns- 
wick. Sarah, his widow, died in King's County, in that 



BUNHILL. — BURNET. 275 

Province, in 1843, aged ninety-nine, leaving six cliildren, 
fifty-6ve grandchildren, and fifty-seven great-grandcliildren. 
Abraham settled in New Brunswick in 1783, and died in 
King's County in that Colony, in 1833, aged seventy-seven. 

BuNHiLL, Solomon. OF Lanesborough, Massachusetts. In 
the battle of Bennington he shot two of his neighbors through 
the head, as was alleged, and was sent to Nortliampton jail. 
An agent was appointed to procure the evidence against him, 
and to attend his trial. His property was confiscated, and in 
1784 advertised for sale by a Committee of the Common- 
wealth. 

Bunting, Roland. He died at Loch Lomond, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1839, at the great age of one bimdred years. 

BuKCH, William. Commissioner of the Customs, Boston. 
Was proscribed and banished in 1778, and included in the 
Conspiracy Act of 1779. He went to England, where, I con- 
clude, lie took no part in affairs. Charles Paston, one of his 
fellow-commissioners, died at his seat; and this is the only 
instance that t find Iiis name so much as mentioned. 

Burnet, John. Of Georgia. To cover his dark deeds, 
he pretended to be a Whig. When, in 1781, Browne surren- 
dered Augusta, the goods and stores which were found in Fort 
Cornwallis, and which were allotted to the Georgia troops, 
were placed in his possession for safe keeping until a division 
could be safely made of them. His party had previously se- 
creted about sixty negroes, who, he averred, bad been taken 
from the enemy, and who he promised to add to the other 
property at the time of distribution. The officers, not sus- 
pecting him, were dupod. Ho proceeded towards the moun- 
tains on pretence of seeking a place of safety, passed through 
Kentucky to the Ohio River, procured boats and descended 
to Natchez, where he and liis companions appropriated tlie 
fruits of their knavery. 

Burnet, Mathias. Of Jamaica, New York. He was 
bom in New Jersey, and graduated at Princeton College in 
1769. He was settled at Jamaica in 1775, and continued 
with his people during the war. AAer the peace, and in 



276 BURNS.— BURTON. 

1785, lie was compelled, by the force of party spirit, to dis- 
solve the connection. It is said that he was the only Presby- 
terian minister of Queen's County who was reputed to be a 
friend to Government. His wife was an Episcopalian, and, 
removing to Norwalk, Connecticut, he took charge of a church 
of that communion. He died at Norwalk in 1806. 

Burns, William and Michael. Of Connecticut. Broth- 
ers. The first was a forage-master in the Royal Army, who 
settled on Digby Neck, Nova Scotia, at the peace, and died 
in 1797. Michael settled at the same place, and died in 1817. 
Phebe, daughter of William, married Edmund Fanning, and 
has two daughters now (1861) living in England. 

BuRRis, Samuel. A Whig soldier. In 1778 he was tried 
on a charge of attempting to desert to the Royal side. He 
confessed his guilt, and was sentenced to receive one hundred 
lashes. 

BuRTis, William. Of West Chester County, New York. 
In 1779 he was sent prisoner from White Plains by Burr, 
who wrote Malcolm that Burtis wished to secure the favor of 
the Whigs by giving them information. In 1780 he was con- 
fined at West Point, under sentence of death, for communica- 
tion with the British General Mathews. At the peace he 
went to New Brunswick, and died at St. John in 1835, 
aged seventy-five. 

Burton, Napier Christie. General in the British Army. 
" An American by birth," who entered the military service in 
August, 1775, as an ensign. He was in several actions in 
New Jersey, and accompanied his regiment to Virginia, and 
to South Carolina. He was engaged in the affairs of the Ca- 
tawba and Yadkin, in the battles of Guilford and Cross 
Creek, and was taken prisoner in the siege of Yorktown. In 
1789 he attained the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, and subse- 
quently served in Flanders. In 1799 he was appointed Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Upper Canada. His commission of Lieu-' 
tenant-General, bears date January 1, 1805, and of General, 
June 4, 1814. From 17913 to 1806, he was a member of 
Parliament for Beverley. For several years previous to his 



BURWELL. — BUSKIRK. 277 

decease, he was an invalid. He died in England, in January, 
1835, in his seventy-seventh year. 

BuBWELL, James. Of New Jersey. Bom at Rockaway, 
January 18, 1754. His father, Samuel Burwell, was eldest 
son of John Burwell, who removed from Jamestown, Vir- 
ginia, in the year 1721, a relative of the extensive family of 
Barwells, in this country, formerly from Bedford and North- 
ampton, England, the first of whom was buried at York River, 
Gloucester County, 1652. One of his ancestors was of the 
Virginia deputation in the year 1646, to invite the fallen mon- 
arch, Charles the First, to come to America for protection 
against the rebellious Puritan subjects. Our Loyalist enlisted 
in his Majesty's service in the year 1776, at the age of twenty- 
two, and served seven years, and was present at the battle of 
Yorktown, when Lord Comwallis surrendered, and was there 
•lightly wounded. After the war he moved to Nova Scotia, 
where he remained four vears ; he then returned to New Jer- 
»ey, to take care of his aged mother ; married, and removed 
to Pennsylvania, and from thence came to Upper Canada in 
the year 1796, too late to obtain the king's bounty of family 
land, but was placed on the Upper Canada list, and received 
two hundred acres for himself and each of his children. He 
removed to the Talbot settlement in the year 1810. He 
died in the county of Elgin, Canada, July, 1853, aged ninety- 
line years and five months. 

BusKiRK, . Lieutenant-Colonel of a Loyalist corps. 

Jwr 1777, he attempted to cut off a party of Whig militia sta- 

^ic^nedat Paramus ; but the commander had notice of the de- 

gn, and escaped by moving to another post. In 1779, with 

'Cronsiderable part of the garrison of Powle's Hook, and some 

er troops, he proceeded up the North River for the purpose 

falling in with a detachment of Whigs, supposed to be out 

ging upon the Tories. He met a larger force than he 

pected, and retreated. The illustrious John Marshall states 

« facts in detail, from his personal observation. 

In 1780, with one hundred dragoons and upwards of three 

*^ v^ndred in&ntry, he crossed from Staten Island to Elizabeth- 
^OL. I. 24 



278 ^ BUSKIRK. — BUTLEB. 

town, at midnight, took several prisoners, burnt the church 
and town-house, phindered some of the inhabitants, and re- 
tired without loss. He was with Arnold in the expedition to 
New London, and in command of a regiment or battalion. 

BuBKiRK, . Son of Lieutenant-Colonel Buskirk, 

and lieutenant in the New Jersey Volunteers, or, " Skinner^s 
Greens." In the attack by General Dickinson, November, 
1777, he was made prisoner. I suppose the Captain Buskirk 
wounded in the battle of Eutaw Springs, 1781, was the same. 

Buskirk, Henry. Of New York. He removed to Nova 
Scotia in 1783, and was many years a magistrate of King^s 
County. He died at Aylesford, Nova Scotia, in 1841. 

BusTiN, Thomas. Of Virginia. He joined the Royal Ar- 
my at New York after the commencement of hostilities ; and 
at the peace removed to St. John, New Brunswick, where he 
lived until his decease, at the age of ninety. Seven children 
survived him. Mary, his widow, died in the same city, in 
1848, at the age of ninety-two. 

Butler, John. Of Tryon, now Montgomery, County, 
New York. Before the war. Colonel Butler was in close 
official connection with Sir William, Sir John, and Colonel 
Guy Johnson, and followed their political fortunes. At the 
breaking out of hostilities, he commanded a regiment of New 
York militia, and entered at once into the military service of 
the Crown. During the war his wife was taken prisoner, and 
exchanged for the wife of the Whig Colonel Campbell. The 
deeds of rapine, of murder, of hellish hue, which were peiv 
petrated by Butler's corps, cannot be related here. It is 
sufficient, for the purpose of these Notes, to say, that he 
commanded the sixteen hundred incarnate fiends who deso- 
lated Wyoming. I feel quite willing to allow, that history 
has recorded barbarities which were not committed. But 
though Butler did not permit or directly authorize women to 
be driven into the forest, where they became mothers, and 
where their infants were eaten by wild beasts, and though cap- 
tive officers may not have been held upon fires with pitch- 
forks until they were burned to death, sufficient remains 



BUTLER. 279 

nndonbted, to stamp his conduct with the deepest, darkest, 
most damning gailt The human mind can hardly frame an 
argament which shall clear the fame of Butler from obloquy 
and reproach. To admit even as a solved question, that the 
XfOyalists were in the right, and that they were bound by the 
clearest rules of duty to bear arms in defence of lawful and 
existing institutions, and to put down the rebellion, will do 
Sailer no good. For, whatever the force of such a plea in 
the minds of those who urge it, he was still bound to observe 
the laws of civilized watfare. 

That he, and he alone, will be regarded by posterity as the 
real and responsible actor in the business and slaughter at 
l^yoraing, may be considered, perhaps, as certain. The 
chieftain Brant was, for a time, held accountable, but the 
l>etter information of later years transfers the guilt from the 
savage to the tiian of Saxon blood. There was nothing for 
'vrhich the Mohawk's family labored more earnestly than to 
show that their renowned head was not implicated in this 
Uoody tragedy, and that the accounts of historians, and the 
enormities recounted in Campbell's verse, as far as they relate 
^te him, are untrue. It has been said very commonly, that 
"the Colonel Butler who was of the Whig force at Wyoming, 
snd Colonel John, were kinsmen ; but this, too, has been con- 
^tradicted. The late Edward D. Griffin, — a youth, a writer, 
^nd a poet of rare promise, — and a grandson of the former, 
denied the relationship. 

Colonel John Butler was richly rewarded for his services. 
Succeeding, in part, to the agency of Indian Affairs — long 
lield by the Johnsons — he enjoyed, about the year 1796, a 
salary of j£500 sterling per annum, and a pension as a military 
officer of £200 more. Previously, he had received a grant of 
live hundred acres of land, and a similar provision for his chil- 
dren. His home, after the war, was in Upper Canada. He 
'vas attainted during the contest, by the Act of New York, 
^nd his property confiscated. He lived before the Revolution 
in the present town of Mohawk. His dwelling was of one 
Btory, with two windows in front, and a door in the centre. 



280 BUTLER. 

It was standing in 1842, and was then owned and occupied 
by Mr. Wilson. The site is pleasant and commanding, and 
overlooks the valley of the Mohawk. 

Butler, Walter N. Son of Colonel John Butler. En- 
tered the British service, and became a major. His name is 
connected with some of the most infamous transactions of the 
Revolution. While a lieutenant under St. Leger, he was 
taken prisoner at the house of a Loyalist who lived near 
Fort Dayton, and was put upon his trial as a spy, convicted, 
and received sentence of death. But at the intercession of 
several American officers who had known him while a student 
at law in Albany, his life was spared by a reprieve. The 
friends of the Butler family, in consequence of his alleged ill 
health, induced his removal from rigorous confinement to a 
private house under guard, and he soon escaped, and joined 
his father. It is believed that he took mortal offence at his 
treatment while a prisoner of the Whigs, and that he reen- 
tered the service of the Crown, burning with resentment and 
thirsting for revenge. His subsequent career was short, bold, 
cruel, and bloody. He was killed in battle in 1781, and his 
remains were left to decay without even the rudest rites of 
sepulture. It is represented that his disposition was so vin- 
dictive and his passions so strong, that British officers of rank 
and humanity viewed him with horror. The late Doctor 
Dwight — a careful writer — relates, that at Cherry Valley 
he ordered a woman and child to be slain in bed, and that 
the more merciful Brant interposed and said : " What ! kill 
a woman and child ! No ! That child is not an enemy to 
the King, nor a friend to the Congress. Long before he will 
be big enough to do any mischief, the dispute will be settled." 

Butler, James. Of Georgia. Went to England, and 
died there in 1817, aged seventv-nine. " An American 
Loyalist," says the record. 

Butler, Benjamin. Of Norwich, Connecticut. He 
was a gentleman of respectability and talents, and continued 
loyal throughout the contest. Arrested and imprisoned, in 
1776, for defaming the Continental Congress, he was tried 



BUTLER, - BYLES. 28 1 

by the Superior Court, and sentenced to be deprived of the 
liberty of wearing arms, and of being incapable of holding 
office. He died of a lingering disease in 1787. While in 
health, he selected a small tree to be used at his decease to 
enclose his remains ; but the sapling grew slowly, and his 
eoffin was constructed of other wood, and kept in his chamber 
ibr years, to remind him of his end. The expressive motto 
on his gravestone — "Alas, poor Human Nature!" — 
irrss placed there by his own direction. "His wife, Diadema, 
mnd his daughters, Rosamond and Minerva, repose by his side " 
in the Norwich burial-ground. The survivors of his family 
Temoved to Oxford, New York. The wife of Commodore 
JTohn Rogers, United States Navy, was a granddaughter. 

Butler, Josiah. He died at St. John, New Brunswick, 
TO 1812, aged fifty. 

Butler, Captain . He was a Tory leader, whose 

<!rimes and ferocity were well known in the region of the 
IPedee. During a period of Whig ascendency in that part of 
£outh Carolina, he went into General Marion's camp at Birch's 
Idills, and submitting himself, claimed the protection which 
"the Whig officer had granted to some other Loyalists who had 
preceded him. Against this some of Marion's officers, whose 
friends had suffered at Butler's hands, protested. But Ma- 
rion took the humbled Butler to his own tent, and declared 
that he would protect him at the hazard of his own life. The 
officers, still determined to gratify their hate, sent their com- 
mander an offensive message, to the effect that " Butler should 
be dragged to death from his tent," and that, " to defend such 
a wretch was an insult to humanity." Marion was not to be 
intimidated ; and though the meeting among his followers 
threatened to be formidable, he succeeded in conveying Butler 
under a strong guard to a place of safety. 

Butler, Eleazer. Of Pennsylvania. On the Royal side 
in the slaughter at Wyoming. Went to Nova S(!Otia, and is 
now (1854) living at Yarmouth. 

Byles, Mather, D. D. Of Boston. He was born in 
Boston in 1706, graduated at Harvard University in 1725, 

24* 



282 BYLES. 

and was ordained the first pastor of the Hollis Street Church 
in 1733. On liis mother's side, he was descended from Rich- 
ard Mather and John Cotton. He continued to live happily 
with his parish until 1776, when the connection was dissolved, 
and never renewed. In 1777 he was denounced in town-meet- 
ing, and having been by a subsequent trial pronounced guilty 
of attachment to the Royal cause, was sentenced to confine- 
ment, and to be sent with his family to England. This doom 
of banishment was never enforced, and he was permitted to 
remain in Boston. He died in 1788, aged eighty-two years. 
He was a scholar ; and Pope, Lansdowne, and Watts were 
his correspondents. His witticisms would fill many pages ; 
some of his finest sayings having been preserved. In his 
pulpit he avoided politics, and on being asked the reason, 
replied : " I have thrown uj) four breastworks, behind which 
I have entrenched myself, neither of which can be enforced. 
In the first place, I do not understand politics ; in the second 
place, you all do, every man and mother's son of you ; in the 
third place, you have politics all the week, pray let one day 
in seven be devoted to religion ; in the fourth place, I am 
engaged in work of infinitely greater importance ; give me 
any subject to preach on of more consequence than the truth 
I bring to you, and I will preach on it the next Sabbath." 
On another occasion, when under sentence of the Whicrs to 
remain in his own house, under guard, he pereuaded the sen- 
tinel to go on an errand for him, promising to perform senti- 
nel's duty himself; and to the great amusement of all gravely 
marched before his own door with a musket on his shoulder, 
until his keeper returned. This was after his trial ; and allud- 
ing to the circumstances that he had been kept prisoner, that 
his guard had been removed, and replaced again, he said, 
that ^^lie had been guarded^ re-ffiiarded^ and disregarded."** 
Near his house, in wet weather, was a very bad slough. 
It happened that two of the selectmen who had the care 
of the streets, driving in a chaise, stuck fast in this hole, 
and were obliged to get out in the mud to extricate their 
vehicle. Doctor Byles came out, and making them a re- 



BYLES. 283 

spectfiil bow, said : " Gentlemen, I have often complained to 
you of this nuisance, without any attention being paid to it, 
and I am veiy glad to see you stirring in this matter now," 
On the celebrated Dark-day in 1780, a lady who lived near 
the Doctor, sent her young son with her compliments, to 
know if he could account for the uncommon appearance. 
His answer was : " My dear, you will give my compliments 
to your mamma, and tell her that I am as much in the dark 
as she is." He paid his addresses unsuccessfully to a lady, 
who afterwards married a gentleman of the name of Quincy ; 
the Doctor, on meeting her, said : " So, madam, it appeal's that 
yea prefer a Quincy to Byles." " Yes, for if there had been 
anything worse than biles^ God would have afflicted Job with 
them." 

Doctor Byles's wit created many a laugh, and many an 

enemy. In person he was tall and commanding. His voice 

'Was strong and harmonious, and his delivery graceful. His 

first wife was a niece of Governor Belcher, the second, a 

ciaughter of Lieutenant-Governor Tailer. His two daughters 

lived and died in the old family house at the corner of Nassau 

^nd Tremont streets. One of them deceased in 1835, the 

other in 1837. They were stout, unchanging Loyalists to 

the last hour of their existence. Their thread of life was 

^puii out more than half a century after the Royal govern- 

liad ceased in these States ; yet they retained their love 

f, and strict adherence to, monarch and monarchies, and re- 

to acknowledge that the Revolution had transferred 

allegiance to new rulers. They were repeatedly of- 

a great price for their dwelling, but would not sell it, 

or would they permit improvements or alterations. They 

old-fashioned silver plate, which they never used, 

nd would not dispose of. They worshipped in Trinity 

urch — under which their bodies now lie — and wore on 

unday dresses almost as old as themselves. Among their 

rnitare was a pair of bellows two centuries old ; a table on 

hich Franklin drank tea on his last visit to Boston ; a chair 

hich more than a hundred years before the Government of 



284 BYLE8. 

England had sent as a present to their griand&ther, Lieuten* 
ant-Governor Tailer. They showed to visiters commissions 
to their grandfather, signed by Queen Anne, and three of the 
Georges ; and the envelope of a letter from Pope to their 
father. They had moss, gathered from the birthplace of the 
unfortunate Lady Jane Grey. They talked of their walks, 
arm-in-arm, on Boston Common, with General Howe and 
Lord Percy, while the British Army occupied Boston. They 
told of his Lordship's ordering his band to play under their 
windows for their gratification. 

In the progress of the improvements in Boston, a part of 
their dwelling was removed. This had a fatal influence upon 
the elder sister; she mourned over the sacrilege, and, it is 
thought, died its victim. " That," said the survivor, " that 
is one of the consequences of living in a Republic. Had we 
been living under a king, he would have cared nothing about 
our little property, and we could have enjoyed it in our own 
way as long as we lived. But," continued she, " there is one • 
comfort, that not a creature in the States will be any better 
for what we shall leave behind us." She was true to her 
promise, for the Byles's estate passed to relatives in the Colo- 
nies. One of these ladies, of a by-gone age, wrote to William 
the Fourth, on his accession to the throne. They had known 
the " sailor-king " during the Revolution, and now assured 
him that the family of Doctor Byles always had been, and 
would continue to be, loyal to their rightful sovereign of 
England. 

Byles, Mather, Jr., D. D. Of Boston. An Episcopal 
clergyman. Son of Mather Byles, D. D. He graduated at 
Harvard University in 1751. In 1757, at about the age of 
twenty-three, he was ordained at New London ; his father 
preached the sermon. Eleven years after, his ministry came 
to an abrupt termination. Without previous intimation, he 
called a meeting of his church, and requested dismission, that 
he might accept an invitation to become Rector of the North 
Episcopal, or Christ Church, Salem street, Boston. 

Among the reasons he gave in the course of the discussions 



BYLES. — BYRNE. 285 

that ensued, were, that "another minister would do much 
better for them than he had done or could do, for his health 
was infinn, and the position of the church very bleak, the 
bill wearisome, .... he was not made for a country minis- 
ter, and his home and friends were all in Boston," &c., &c. 
He also complained bitterly of the persecutions he had suf- 
fered from the Quakers, and the negligence of the authorities 
in executing the laws against them. 

The debate was long and warm, and produced total aliena- 
tion. April 12, 1768, the record is, " The Rev. Mr. Byles 
dismissed himself from the church and congregation." He 
liastened to depart with the rapidity of a criminal escaping 
for crime. His change to Episcopacy was soon a matter of 
discussion all over New England. In New London his con- 
'version was ridiculed. The song — " The Proselyte," set to 
the tune of the '* Thief and Cordelier," which embraced the 
facts of the case, was sung about the country. Before the 
dose of 1768, he was inducted into the desired rectorship ; 
and of Christ Church, was the third in succession. He con- 
tinued to discharge his ministerial duties until 1775, when 
the force of events compelled him to abandon his flock. In 
1776, accompanied by his family of four persons, he went to 
Halifax. In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. He set- 
tled at St. John, New Brunswick, after the war, and was 
Hector of the city, and Chaplain of the Province. He died 
«it St. John in 1814. His daughter Anna married Thomas 
X)eisbrisay, Lieutenant-Colonel of Artillery in the British 
rmy, in 1799. His daughter Elizabeth married William 
covil, Esquire, of St. John, and died in 1808, at the age of 
5>rty-one. His son Belcher died in England in 1815, aged 
birty-five. His daughter Rebecca, born in New London, 
762, married W. J. Almon, M. D., and died at Halifax, 
ova Scotia, 1853. His son Mather died at Grenada, in 
803, aged thirty-nme. 
Byrne, Benedict. Of Maryland or Virginia. He en- 
^^red a Loyalist corps and was taken prisoner, but made his 
^^scape to New York, where he was employed as a pilot. At 



286 CALDWELL. - CALLAHAN. 

the peace, accompanied by Ins family of three persons, and by 
two servants, he removed to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where 
tlic Crown granted him fifty acres of land, one town and one 
water lot. His losses in consequences of his loyalty were 
estimated at £300. He went to England soon afterwards 
to obtain compensation for his services and sufierings, but 
was unsuccessful. He died at Digby, Nova Scotia, in 1830, 
aged eighty-six. His first wife was Hannah Carroll, of Vir- 
ginia, who died in Nova Scotia in 1786 ; his second, Mrs. 
Wilson, a widow, of Shelburne. His daughter Margaret 
married William Whipple, of Boston. 

Caldwell, Captain . Was killed in Pennsylvania 

in 1780, by a Whig captain, McMahon, whom he and an 
Indian had taken prisoner. Possibly William Caldwell, of 
Chester County, Pennsylvania, who was attainted of treason 
by proclamation, and whose property was confiscated. 

Calef, John. Of Ipswich, Massachusetts. Physician. 
Son of Robert Calef, and Margaret, daughter of Deacon John 
Staniford. He was born in Ipswich, 1725, and represented 
that town in the General Court several years. Driven into 
exile by the Revolution, he became surgeon of one of the 
regiments stationed at Castine, Maine, and a part of the time 
officiated as chaplain. At the peace he settled at St. Andrew, 
New Brunswick, and died there in 1812, aged eighty-seven. 
His wife was a daughter of Rev. Jedediah Jewett, of Rowley, 
Massachusetts. 

Calef, Robert. Son of John Calef. Died at Norfolk, 
Virginia, in 1801, at the age of forty-one. 

Callahan, Charles. Mariner, of Pownalborough, now 
Wiscasset, Maine; was proscribed and banished in 1778. 
Though a Loyalist in principle, he was not disposed to be 
active on the side of the Crown, or to abandon the country. 
But, " drafted " repeatedly to serve in the Whig corps, he fled 
to Halifax, Nova Scotia. Made a King's pilot, and subse- 
quently, in command of the Gage^ an armed vessel of twelve 
guns, he became a terror to the " Rebels." Wrecked, finally, 
and failing to obtain another ship, he was still retained in 




CALP. — CAMERON. 287 

service and paid the wages of a pilot. He perished, with one 
hundred and sixty-four others, on board the North ship-of- 
war, near Halifax, in 1779. His widow received a pension 
of £40 annnally ; she returned to Pownalborougli about the 
year 1790, and died there in 1816. The estate of her 
husband was confiscated, but his farm and buildings came 
into her possession. 

Calp, Philip. Of Pennsylvania. In 1778, he was tried 
for attempting to carry flour to a post occupied by the Royal 
forces, and was sentenced to receive fifty lashes, and to be 
employed on the public works during the time the British 
remained in Pennsylvania, unless he would enter the Whig 
aervice for the war. The lashes were disapproved by tiie 
Commander-in-Chief, and were not inflicted. 

Cameron, Alexander. Deputy Indian Agent of the 

Oherokees. Connected with the first settlement of East 

Tennessee. In 1768, a few adventurers from the neigh- 

l>orhood of Raleigh, North Carolina, crossed the mountains 

TO search of a new home. Cameron soon ordered them to 

:aiemove. They refused, received accessions, organized a sort 

■^)f government, and continued prosperous. When it was 

'Sapparent that- the controversy would end in general war, 

Cameron changed his course, and by flattering promises of 

rotection, if they would remain loyal, endeavored to seduce 

em to the side of the Crown. They could send five hun- 

riflemen to the field, at the least, and their adhesion was 

orth the efibrt. They were a lone people, in the midst of 

vages, and yet they declined his offers unanimously and 

remptorily. His Majesty's official then formed a design to 

estroy them with a force of Cherokees, by falling upon them 

ddenly, and in all quarters at the same moment. The plan 

as discovered. Most of the hapless Whigs fled to the sev- 

1 places of their nativity. A few established and maintained 

garrison until succored. In 1775, the Council of Safety 

oposed to him to join the popular side, and offered him a 

equal to that which he received from the British Gov- 

mment, and compensation for any losses he might sustain ; 




288 CAMERON. — CAMPBELL. 

he declined the overture, and, to ensure his personal safety, 
retired to the Cherokees. In 1776, he was in arms at the 
head of Tories and Indians, and was in several skinnishesr; 
but he abandoned them, and fled to St. Augustine, in .the 
belief that the Whigs would subdue them. 

Among the papers taken with Moses Kirkland on his way 
to Boston to confer with Gage, was a " talk " between Cam- 
eron and Indian chiefs, in whicli the latter expressed their 
readiness to aid in the massacre of the people in the back 
settlements of Georgia and South Carolina. Cameron owned 
two large plantations near the Savannah river, on which he 
had placed a number of negroes, horses and cattle, and from 
the produce of which he promised himself a fortune in a few 
years. 

Cameron, Mederich. Of New York. His son Mede- 
rich, who was a Whig, fled from school, and joined the army 
as a drummer. The father followed the youth to camp, and 
succeeded in obtaining his release. At the peace, Mr. 
Cameron went to Shelburne, Nova Scotia. He owned three 
houses in the city of New York, two of which he demolished 
at leaving, and transported the bricks of which they were 
built to Shelburne, to serve in the construction of a new 
dwelling there. He died at Liverpool, Nova Scotia, during 
the war of 1812, at the age of ninety-eight. Two childi'en 
survived him. The son above mentioned went to Nova Scotia 
with his father, but returned to New York. 

Campbell, Lord William. Last Royal Governor of South 
Carolina. He was the youngest son of the fourth Duke of 
Argyle. Entered the navy, and became a captain in 1762. 
The year after, he married Sarah, daughter of Ralph Izard, 
of Charleston, South Carolina, and in 1764 w^as a member of 
the British House of Commons. In 1766, he was appointed 
Governor of Nova Scotia, and remained there until 1773. 
He assumed the Executive Chair of South Carolina in 1776, 
while the first Provincial Congress was in session, and refused 
to acknowledge that body. He was zealous in opposing the 
popular movement, and, distrustful, finally, ^^ of hi$ personal 



CAMPBELL. 289 

safety, retired to the Tamoir sloop-of-war." In the attack on 
Charleston, in 1776, he served on board of one of the British 
ships, and received a wound which in the end was mortal. 
He died September, 1778. 

While Grovemor of Nova Scotia, he granted to Captain 
William Owen, father of Uie late Admiral Owen, the island 
of Gampo Bello, opposite Eastpbrt and Labec, Maine. ^^ Lord 
William and the Captain," remarked the Admiral to the 
^writer, "were both poor at the time of the grant." 

Campbell, Farquard. Of North Carolina. Was a gen- 
tleman of wealth, education, and influence, and regarded as a 
** flaming Whig." Was elected a member of the Provincial 
Congress, took his seat, and evinced much zeal in the popular 
cause. When, however, Governor Martin abandoned his 
palace and retreated, first to Fort Johnston, and fhence to 
aux armed ship of the Crown, it was ascertained that he visited 
Campbell at his residence. And this circumstance gave rise 
to a suspicion of his fidelity. Soon afler, the Governor asked 
Congress to give his coach and horses safe conduct to Camp- 
l>eirs house in the county of Cumberland. The President of 
Congress submitted the request to that body, when Mr. Camp- 
l>ell rose in his place, and expressed his surprise that such a 
proposal should have been made without his knowledge and 
c^onsent, and implored that his Excellency's property might 
xsot thus be disposed of. On this positive disclaimer, a reso- 
Jmition was passed, which not only acquitted him of all im- 
^i^roper connection with the Governor, but asserted his devo- 
fc Aon to the Whig interests. But his character never recovered 
•m the shock, and the belief that he continued a secret 
pondence with the retreating representative of Royalty, 
^as commonly entertained by his associates. Yet his votes, 
\a services on committees, and his course in debate, remained 
michanged. After the Declaration of Independence, his part 
^came too difficult to act, and his double-dealing could no 
«:=wiger be concealed. In the fall of 1776 he was seized at his 
"^Km house, while entertaining a party of Loyalists, and borne 
'ST for trial. His name next appears in the Revolutionary 

VOL. I. 25 





290 CAMPBELL. 

anna)s of North Carolina, in the Banishment and Confisca- 
tion Act. But several years after the Revolution, he was a 
member of the Senate of North Carolina. 

Campbell, Alexander. Of Falmouth, Virginia. Mer- 
chant. Emigrated from Scotland some years before the war, 
adhered to the Crown, and returned, probably, in 1776. 
Thomas Campbell, the poet, was his youngest son. Another 
son married a daughter of Patrick Henry. His brother 
Archibald, an Episcopal minister, was a Whig, and Wash- 
ington and the Lees were among his parishioners. This 
array of great names may be completed by adding, that 
Patrick Henry " was descended on his mother's side from 
the stock of Robertson, the historian, and in that way a re- 
lative of Lord Brougham." 

Campbell, Peter. Of Trenton, New Jersey. He entered 
the military service of the Crown, and at the peace was a 
captain in the New Jersey Volunteers. He had property in 
Pennsylvania, and was directed by the Executive Council of 
that State to surrender himself for trial within a specified time, 
or stand attainted of treason. He settled in New Branswick, 
and received half-pay. He died at Maugerville, in that Col- 
ony, in 1822, and was buried at Fredricton. 

Campbell, Colin. Was an ensign in De Lancey's Second 
Battalion, quartermaster of the corps, and subsequently a 
lieutenant. His son, Colin Campbell, was SheriflF of Char- 
lotte County, New Brunswick. Died at St. Andrew, in that 
Province, in 1843. 

Campbell, William. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. In M^rn 
1775 the Committee of that town appointed to watch and deal M^masH 
with the disaffected, resolved to send him to the Provincial 
Congress at Watertown, to be disposed of as that body, or r 
the Commander-in-Chief at Cambridge, should think proper;^ 
*' it being judged highly improper that he should tarry 
longer " at Worcester. He was at Boston in 1776, and em 
barked w^ith the Royal Army at the Evacuation. In 1788 h 
was at New York, and one of the fifty petitioners for Ian 
in Nova Scotia. [See Abijah TFtHordf.] He went to 



CAMPBELL. — CAMP. 291 

in the last mentioned year, where he remained in 1786, when 
he removed to St. John, New Brunswick. He was Mayor 
of St. John twenty years, and died in that city in 1823, aged 
«ighty-two. ' Elizabeth, his widow, died in 1824, at the age 
of eighty-foor. Agnes, his only daughter, died at St. John 
in 1840, aged seventy-eight. 

Campbell, William. Major in the South Carolina Roy- 
idists. Killed in the affair at Stono Ferry, South Carolina, 
June, 1779. 

Campbell, John. Of North Carolina. Captain in the 
XfOyal Militia. Killed in the battle of Cross Creek, 1776. 

Camp, Abiathar, Abiathar Jr., and Eldad. Loyal- 
ists of Connecticut. Settled at St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1783, and received grants of city lots. Abiathar was one 
of the fifly-five petitioners for lands in Nova Scotia. He died 
in New Brunswick, in 1841, aged eighty-four. He appears 
to have been a Recanter, but, like most of this class, finally 
l>ecame an exile. October 2, 1775, he wrote and subscribed 
the following : — 

**I, Abiathar Camp, of New Haven, in the County of New 
Haven, in the Colony of Connecticut, although I well knew 
that it was the opinion of a number of the inhabitants of said 
town, that vessels ought not to clear out under the Re%trainr 
wg Aetj which opinion they had, for my satisfaction, expressed 
\}y a vote when I was present ; and although I had assured 
ttat I would not clear out my vessel under said Ite%training 
^ct^ did, nevertheless, cause my vessel to be cleared out agree- 
«ible to said Restraining Act ; and did, after I knew that the 
CJommittee of Inspection had given it as their opinion, that it 
"was most advisable that vessels should not clear out under 
iBaid Restraining Act, send my vessel off to sea with such 
c^learance, for which I am heartily sorry ; and now publicly 
^sk the forgiveness of all the friends of America, and hope 
"^hat they will restore me to cliarity. And I do now most 
solemnly assure the public, though I own that I have by my 
said conduct given them too much reason to question my ve- 
racity, that I will strictly comply with the directions, and 



292 CANBY. — C ANEK 

fully lend my utmost assistance to cany into execution all 
such measures as the Continental Congress have or maj 
advise to. Abiathar Camp." 

Canby, Joseph, and Thomas. Of Pennsylvania. Were 
attainted of treason and lost their property by confiscation. 
Joseph went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, and 
was a grantee of that city. He commenced business as a mer- 
chant. In 1796 he was a member of the company of Loyal 
Artillery. He was killed by falling from a wharf in 1814, at 
the age of fifty-seven. 

Cane, Barney. He boasted of having killed upon Dia- 
mond Island, Lake George, a gentleman named Hopkins, 
who was there with a number of others on an excursion ol 
pleasure. " Several were killed by our party," said Cane, 
^^ among whom was one woman who had a suckling child, 
which was not hurt. This we put to the breast of its dead 
mother, and so we left it. Hopkins was only wounded, but, 
with the butt of my gun, and the third blow, I laid him 
dead." 

Caner, Henry, D. D. He graduated at Yale Collie in 
1724, and in 1727 went to England for ordination. For some 
years, subsequently, his ministry was confined to Norwalk 
and Fairfield, Connecticut ; but in 1747 he was inducted into 
office as Rector of the First Episcopal Church, (King's Chapel) 
Boston. The troubles of the Revolution drove him from his 
flock in 1776. He said, the evacuation of Boston was so 
sudden, that he was prevented from saving his books, furni- 
ture, or anything else, except bedding, wearing apparel, and 
a few stores for his small family during the passage. May 
10, 1776, he wrote at Halifax, that he was without means of 
support, and was dependent on the charity of the Rev. Dr. 
Breynton. He took away the King's Chapel church regis- - 
ters and plate, and a part of the vestry records. After the ^ 
lapse of more than twenty-five years, the registers were ob- — 
tained of his heirs. He went from Halifax to England ; but ^ 
returned and officiated at Bristol, Rhode Island. He was ^ 
proscribed and banished, under the statute of Massachusetts, 



CANPIELD. — CAPEN. 298 

in 1778. His talents were good, his manners agreeable, and 
he was highly esteemed by his people. A fellow-Loyalist 
wrote, in 1785: "By letters from London, I am infonned 
that Dr. Caner had retired with his yoang wife to Cardiff, 
in Wales." 

His estate, which was confiscated, was next to the Chapel 
bnrying-ground, and is now owned by the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. He died at Long Ashton, England, in 
1792, aged ninety-three. 

Canfield, . Of Northampton, Massachusetts. He 

was a Whig, and a soldier in the 1st New Hampshire Regi- 
ment, but deserted and joined the Rangers. While on a plun- 
dering excursion in 1782 he was captured, tried for his life, 
and sentenced to be executed at Saratoga on the 6th of June 
of that year. 

Capen, Hopestill. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutch- 
inson in 1774, and a Protestor against the Whigs, the same 
year. He was a Sandemanian. 

In 1776, the Council ordered his arrest, and he was 
committed to the jail in Boston ; and in October of that 
year, his wife petitioned for his release, urging, among other 
reasons, that both herself and children had suffered great 
distress in consequence of his long confinement. More than 
eighty citizens of Boston joined Mrs. Capen, and said in his 
behalf, that he was an honest and peaceable man, and, that 
while the Royal Army occupied the town, he had exerted 
himself to save the property of absentees. In December, Mr. 
Capen himself addressed a paper to Joseph Greenleaf, the 
sheriff, in which he complains of his treatment in severe 
terms, and from which it appears that he had been a close 
prisoner for one hundred and forty-seven days. As the 
sheriff was personally accused, he laid the communication 
before the House, and begged to be protected from Mr. 
Capen's insults. Before me, also, is a long document which 
this unfortunate Loyalist prepared to read to a Court of In- 
quiry, expected by him to take cognizance of his case, and 
which, though of some ability, bears evidence of a mind dis- 

25* 



i 



294 CAPERS. — C AREW. 

ordered by fknaticism. He was in Boston in 1795, and lived 
near the Market. Before the Revolution, he was a merchant, 
and the celebrated Count Rumford was, at one time, his 
clerk. 

Capers, Gabriel. Of South Carolina. An officer under 
the Crown after the surrender of Charleston. Estate confis- 
cated. Probably a Whig at first ; as in 1775 he was a mem- 
ber of the Provincial Congress, and was placed upon an im- 
portant standing committee of that body. His wife,' and his 
daughter Catherine, (wife of Hugh Patterson), died at 
Charleston in 1808. 

Carbery, . A captain in the Whig service, and 

apparently in Colonel Moyland's Regiment. In June, 1783, 
he fled to London with Lieutenant John Sullivan, in whose 
plot he was implicated. Sullivan says of him : " This young 
gentleman served with eclat in the army, and spent a pretty 
fortune in the service of his country." 

Carden, John. Major in the Prince of Wales's Ameri- 
can Regiment. In 1780 he was in command of the post at 
Hanging Rock, when, assaulted by Sumter, he exposed him- 
self to censure and disgrace, by resigning to Captain Rouslet 
of the Infantry of the Legion, in the heat of the battle. He 
died in April, 1783. 

Carew, Sir Benjamin Haltx)well. Of Massachusetts. 
Admiral of the Blue in the British Navy, G. C. B., K. St. 
F. M. He was the son of Benjamin Hallowell, one of the 
Commissioners of the Customs at Boston, and entered the 
service at an early age. His commission as Lieutenant, bears 
date August, 1781 ; as Captain, in 1793 ; as Rear-Admiral, 
in 1811 ; as Vice-Admiral, in 1819. He was made a Knight 
Commander of the Bath in 1819, and was promoted* to the 
rank of Grand Cross in 1831. His employments at sea were 
various and arduous. He was with Rodney in the memorable 
battle with de Grasse ; in the siege of Basti^ ; and in com- 
mand of a ship-of-the-line under Hotham, in the encounter 
with the French off the Hieres Islands. He served as a 
volunteer on board the Victory^ in the battle of Cape St. 



CAREW. 295 

Vincent. In tlie battle of the Nile, he commanded the 
Sunftsure^ of seventy-four guns, and contributed essentially 
to the success of the day. From a part of the mainmast 
of i' Orient^ which was picked up by the Swiftsure^ Hallo- 
well directed his carpenter to make a coffin, which was sent 
to Nelson with the following letter : — 

" Sir, I have taken the liberty of presenting you a coffin 
made from the mainmast of U Orient^ that when you have 
finished your military career in this world, you may be buried 
in one of your trophies. But that that period may be far 
distant is the earnest wish of your sincere friend, 

Benjamin Hallowell." 

Southey, in his " Life of Nelson," remarks : " An offering so 
strange, ami yet so suited to the occasion, was received in the 
spirit in which it was sent. And, as if he felt it good for him, 
now that he was at the summit of his wishes, to have death 
before his eyes, he ordered the coffin to be placed upright in 

his cabin An old favorite servant entreated him so 

earnestly to let it be removed, that at length he consented 
to have the coffin carried below ; but he gave strict orders 
that it should be safely stowed, and reserved for the purpose 
for which its brave and worthy donor had designed it." 

After the battle. Nelson said, that had it not been for Trow- 
bridge, Ball, Hood, and Hallowell, he should have sunk under 
the fatigue of refitting the squadron. " All," he stated, '* had 
done well ; but these officers were his supporters." 

In 1799, Sir Benjamin was engaged in the attacks on the 
castles of St Elmo and Capua, and was honored with the 
Neapolitan Order of St. Ferdinand and Merit. Two years 
later, he fell in with the French squadron, and surrendered 
his ship — the Smft^ure — after a sharp contest During the 
peace of Amiens, he was stationed on the coast of Africa. 
He was with Hood in the reduction of St. Lucia and Tobago ; 
with Nelson in the West Indies ; in command of the convoy 
of the second expedition to Egypt ; with Martin, off the mouth 
of the Rhone, where he assisted in .driving on shore several 
French shipe-of-war ; and in the Mediterranean. His last 



296 CARLETON. - CARLISLE. 

duty seems to have been performed on the Irish station, and 
at the Nore. 

Sir Benjamin succeeded to the estates of the Carews, of 
Beddington, and assumed the name and arms, pursuant to the 
will of his cousin, Mra. Anne Paston Gee, who died in 1828. 
These estates are entailed on his sons in succession, and their 
male issue. He died at Beddington Park, in 1834, at the age 
of seventy-three. His wife was a daughter of Commissioner 
Inglefield, of Gibraltar Dock-yard. His son and heir, Charles 
Hallowell Carew, who, at the time of his decease, had attained 
the mnk of captain in the Royal Navy, and who married 
Mary, daughter of the late Sir Murray Maxwell, C. B., died 
at the Park, in 1848. In 1861, his fifth son, Robert Hallo- 
well Carew, late captain in the 36th Regiment, married Ann 
Rycroft, widow of Walter Tyson Smythes. 

Carleton, John. Of Woolwich, Maine. A man, says 
Rev. Jacob Bailey, " of the highest integrity, the most un- 
daunted fortitude, ami inflexible loyalty." Met in a forest by 
near two hundred men, and required to sign a certain paper, 
or consent to be buried alive, he chose the latter, and assisted 
in digging his own grave. Swearing that he was a brave 
fellow, the Sons of Liberty allowed him to depart. Afterwards 
plundered, he escaped to the British post at the mouth of the 
Penobscot, and was there early in 1781. At that time, he 
had a wife and ten children. 

Carlisle, Abraham. Of Philadelphia. When the Royal 
troops took possession of that city, he received a commission 
from Sir William Howe, to watch and guard its entrances, 
and to grant passports. For this offence he was tried for his 
life in 1778, and having been found guilty of an overt act 
of aiding and assisting the enemy, was executed. Thomas 
McKean, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and 
at that time Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, presided at the 
trial. In 1779, and after his death, the estate of Carlisle was 
confiscated ; but a part was restored to his son Abraham, in 
1792. By some, the execution of Carlisle was denounced as 
judicial murder. Great efibrts were made to save him. 



CARLO. — CAKSON. 297 

Carlo, Johk, and Mabtin. Of Maine. Brothers. Set 
out to travel to Halifax by land, in 1778, and, after enlisting 
with the " Rebels " to avoid detection, and various other ad- 
ventures, they arrived in Nova Scotia. The year following, 
Martin was at Lunenburg, in that Colony, and John at the 
British post at the mouth of the Penobscot. In 1782 Martin 
had ^' gone to live at home in peace." 

Carman, Richard. Of New York. Went to St. John, 
New Brunswick, ,at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 
Sarah, his widow, died in the county of York, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1835, aged seventy-one. Several persons of the 
name of Carman, of Queen's County, New York, acknowl- 
edged allegiance to Lord Richard and Sir William Howe in 
1776. 

Carney, Andrew. Of Georgia. Captain in the first 
battalion of the Continental line raised in that State. He 
lived between the Altamaha and St. Mary's Rivers, and 
owned a large herd of cattle, which he secretly sold to the 
British. AAer his own stock was exhausted, he began to steal 
from his neighbors. Alarmed, finally, for his personal safety, 
he purposely exposed himself to capture, and, with his son, 
became active on the side of the Crown. His name was 
stricken from the rolls of the Whig Anny, not only as a de- 
serter, but a traitor, and his property was confiscated. 

Carpenter, Willet. Settled in New Brunswick in 
1783, and died at &t. John in 1833, aged seventy-seven. 

Carson, Moses. Captain in the Continental Army. He 
deserted to the Royal Army in 1777. In 1779 he was caught, 
and tried by a court-martial, and sentenced to be drummed 
through the army in the vicinity of West Point, with a halter 
ronad his neck, and a label fastened to his back, bearing these 
words : " Moses Carson, late Captain in the American Army : 
— this I suffer for deserting to the enemies of the United 
States of North America." This punishment inflicted, he 
was sentenced, further, to be confined during the remainder 
of the war ; and the Commander-in-Chief approved the find- 
ing of the Court. 



298 CASTILLES—CAZNEAU. 

Castilles, William. Of Albany, New York. In 1780, 
a lieutenant in Cuyler's corps, and stationed on Long Island. 
At the peace, accompanied by his family and by six servants, 
he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where 
the Crown granted him fifty acres of land, one town and one 
water-lot. His losses, in consequence of his loyalty, were esti- 
mated at £500. 

Cayford, Richard. Of New Jersey. Convicted of en- 
mity to his country, of " cursing and ill-treating all Con- 
gresses and Committees," by the Committee of Cumberland 
County; and, January, 1776, ordered by the Committee of 
Safety to be disarmed, to pay the expenses of proceedings 
against him, to be kept in close prison until he should manifest 
contrition for his offences, and give security for his future 
good behavior. He entered the service of the Crown, and 
in 1777 was a captain in the New Jersey Volunteers. 

Cazneau, Andrew. Of Boston. His name is found 
among the Addressers of Hutchinson in 1774, and among 
those of Gage in 1775, and in the Banishment and Proscrip- 
tion Act of 1778. He was educated to the bar ; was a bar- 
rister-of-Iaw and a Judge of Admiralty ; and a gentleman of 
character, talents, and virtue. In 1775 he went to England, 
but not remaining long there, took up his residence in Ber- 
muda, where he held an honorable post under the Crown. 
He returned to Boston in 1788, and died at Roxbury, in 
1792. His wife was Hannah, daughter of John Hammock, 
merchant, of Boston. The only daughter who survived him 
married Thomas Brewer, a merchant of the same town, who, 
as is supposed, perished about the year 1812, on a voyage 
from the Cape of Good Hope to Sumatra. The property of 
Mr. Cazneau escaped the Confiscation Act, and was inherited 
by Mrs. Brewer. That lady, a venerable relic of the " old 
school " of manners, respected and beloved, died at Eastport, 
Maine, September, 1851, aged eighty. 

Cazneau, Edward. Of Boston. He was the foreman 
in the druggist store of Dr. Sylvester Gurdiner, and in 1776 
went to Halifax. At the peace he returned to the United 



CECIL. — CHALMERS. 299 

States, and settled as a physician at Charleston, South Car- 
olina. He died in Boston, unmarried. 

Cecil, Leonard. Of Maryland. Went to England. In 
July, 1779, he was in London, and met with other Loyalists 
at the Crown and Anchor Tavern. 

Chalmers, George. Of Maryland. Was a native of 
Scotland, and was bom in 1742. After receiving an education 
at King's College, Aberdeen, and after studying law at Edin- 
burgh, he emigrated to Maryland, and entered upon the 
practice of his profession. The revolutionary troubles caused 
his return to England, where he was soon appointed to office. 
For many years he filled the station of chief clerk of the 
Committee of the Privy Council. He died in England in 
1825, aged eighty-two. In person, he was tall, stout, and 
manly, and so nearly resembled Lord Melville, that they 
were often taken for each other. 

He possessed rare opportunities for the examination of 
State papers, which he diligently improved. As a writer he 
was able, honest, and labor-loving, but strongly prejudiced. 
He was never so happy, I will venture to say, as when delving 
among State papers. He had official concern with those of 
England, for nearly half a century. His historical works 
were numerous, are highly esteemed, and generally cited by 
annalists. His style is concise and vigorous, but is deficient 
in simplicity, clearness, and finish. He designed to inform 
political men about political events, rather than to amuse and 
please the general reader. He was fond of short and pithy 
expressions ; but what he thus meant for maxims, is not always 
beautiful or sound. His " Political Annals of the United Col- 
onies " appeared in 1780 ; his " Estimate of the Strength of 
Great Britain," in 1782 ; his Opinions on Subjects of Law 
and Policy, arising from American Independence," in 1784 ; 
his " Opinions of Lawyers and English Jurisprudence," in 
1814. His " Life of Mary, Queen of Scots," published in 
1822, shows the ardor and zeal which he could bring to 
bear upon a favorite subject ; it is the plea of an advocate, to 
prove from official documents, that this unfortunate daughter 



$00 CUALM£as. 

of tlie Stuarts vras innocent of tliu murder of her second hns- 
baiiil ; and most manfiilly and earnestly did he perform the 
task. 

In 1845, liis " Introduction to the History of the Revolt of 
the British Colonies" was issued at Boston. Its pubiication 
wa^ cuminonced in Enghuid during the Revolution, but waa 
abandoned, and tlie part printed suppressed. As Mr. Chal- 
mers had access to the highest sources of information, as he 
possi;ssed remarkable industry, tlie " In titid notion" is valuable 
to students of liisiory. It embraces a political view of all 
the C'olonies, and of the whole peiiod between the earl^ 
settleincnts iii Virginia and the close of the reign of Geoi-ge 
tlie Second. But tiie authors dislike to New England was 
Wicunquerable, and is sometimes manifested at the expense i^ 
truth and propriety. It was meant to serve a particular end, 
and implicit faith, therefore, is not due to his statements or 
conclusions ; for, as already remarked, his anti[>athies were 
strong, and somotinies disturbed his judgment. But lie often 
laments and scvei'ely rebukes the inattention, weakness, and 
ignorance which prevailed in the councils of Enj^land with 
regard to her American Col<)nies ; and few who administered 
her affairs during the period of which he speaks, escape his 
censures. Still, the leading principle or doctrine of the work 
is, that British subjects In Ameriea were allowed far too much 
freedom, and that their final independence was the natural 
result of continued and ill-advised indulgence. In other 
words, he thought that carelessness and kindness, and not 
extreme watchfulness and undue severity, were the causes of 
their " Revolt." His opening passage is singuUr, and thus: 
" AVliether the famous acliievenients of Columbus introduced 
the greatest good or evil by discovering a New World to the 
Old, has in every succeeding age oDered a subject for disputa- 
tion." Perhaps, were he now alive, he might so far yield his 
prejudices as to admit that the "good of the achievement " 
greatly jn-edominates over the " evil," He was a stout, and 
it is readily conceded, an honest Loyalist. But since he 
would have kept the New World in a state of vassalage to the 



CHALMERS. —CHAMFNEY. SOI 

Old, and would have had onr country to remain as it was 
when lie wrote of it, there need be no better refutation of his 
political errors than can be found in contrasting his own 
account of our condition as Colonies with our present wealth 
and power. 

Chalmers, James. Of Maryland. He was a gentleman 
of consideration in his neighborhood, and raised and com- 
manded a corps called the Maryland Loyalists, with the 
rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. Though more successful than 
Colonel Clifton, he does not appear to have completed hia 
quota of recruits. His corps was in service in 1782, but waa 
very deficient in numbers. He himself went to England ; 
but, in September, 1783, the Maryland Loyalists embarked 
at New York for St. John, New Brunswick ; were wrecked 
near Cape Sable, and more than half their number perished. 

Chaloner, Niayon. Settled in New Brunswick, and was 
Register of Deeds and Wills for King's County. He died at 
Kingston in 1835. 

Chaloner, Walter. Of Rhode Island, and sheriff of 
the county of Newport. He was at New York in 1782, a 
deputy commissary of prisoners. In 1783 he was one of the 
fifly-five petitioners for lands in Nova Scotia. [See Abijah 
Wlllard.'\ He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
close of the contest, and was a grantee of that city. He died 
at St. John in 1792. Ann, his widow, died in 1803. Eliza- 
beth, his daughter, in 1814, and John, his son, in 1827. 

Chawner, William. Of Newport, Rhode Island. Went 
to Nova Scotia, and died there in 1792. 

Champney, Ebenezer. Of New Ipswich, New Hamp- 
shire, He was bom at Cambridge, Massachusetts, and grad- 
'uatcd at Harvard University in 1762. He designed to enter 
the ministry, and actually officiated for some time ; but, relin- 
quishing theology for the law, entered the office of Samuel 
Livermore, and was admitted to the bar in 1768. He was 
" a moderate Tory," deprecating war, and wishing to pre- 
serve his loyalty. During hostilities, he was very unpop- 
ular. After the war, however, he gave his adhesion to the 

VOL. I. 26 



302 CHANDLER. 

new Government ; and, in 1795, was appointed Judge of 
Probate for Hillsborough County. He died in 1810, aged 
sixty-seven. 

Chandler, Rev. Thomas B., D. D. Of Elizabethtown, 
New Jersey. Episcopal minister. He was bom in Wood- 
stock, Connecticut, and graduated at Yale College in 1745. 
Bred a Congregationalist, he embraced Episcopacy in 1748 ; 
and, three yeare later, went to England for ordination. On his 
return, he became Rector of St. John's Church, and long main- 
tained a high character for erudition and talents. He was an 
early and an uncompromising Loyalist. He had a contest 
with William Livingston on the subject of Episcopacy, before 
the Revolution ; and he is among the persons to whom was 
ascribed the famous pamphlets, "A Friendly Address to all 
Reasonable Americans," and "What think ye of Congress 
now?" He advocated the appointment of Bishops for the 
Colonies, in an Address to the Episcopalians of Virginia. 
In 1776, he, with others, petitioned the King for a grant of 
100,000 acres of land in Canada, in consideration of their 
eminent services to the Crown, &c. His flock diminished 
in consequence of his political views and the manner of ex- 
pressing them ; but he was not molested, or treated with 
personal indignity. He was elected first Bishop of Nova 
Scotia, but declined on account of failing health. He lin- 
gered under a painful disease for ten years, and died in 1790, 
aged sixty-four. Jane, his widow, died in 1801, at the age of ^ 
sixty-eight. General Maxwell, in a communication to the 
Legislature, in 1779, said of this lady : " There is not a 
Tory that passes in or out of New Jersey .... but waits 
on Mrs. Chandler, and mostly all the British officers going 
in or out on parole or exchange, wait on her; in short, the^— 
Governor, the whole of the Tories, and 9iany of the Whigs. 
I think she would be much better off in New York, and to 
take her baggage with her, that she might have nothing Up 
come back for." 

One of his daughters, who died in 1806, was the wife of 
General E. B. Dayton ; another, who died in 1847, of Bbhop 



CHANDLER. 308 

Hobart ; and the youngest, who was living in 1857, of Wil- 
liam Dajton. Dr. Chandler was an able man. He " was 
large and portly, of fine personal appearance, of a countenance 
expressive of high intelligence, though considerably marred by 
the small pox, of an uncommonly fine blue eye^ of a strong, 
commanding voice, and a great lover of music." 
• Chandler, William. Of New Jersey. Son of Rev. Dr. 
Thomas B. Chandler. He graduated at King's (Columbia) 
College, in 1774. He fled in January, 1776, on account of 
his loyalty and parentage, but returned in December, and re- 
mained until the evacuation of Elizabethtown by the Royal 
troops, January, 1777. He states these facts in a memorial 
to Lord George Germain, in 1779, and adds, that General 
Skinner gave him a warrant to be captain in the New Jersey 
Volunteers, April, 1777, but that he had received no pay for 
two years ; and he j)rays his Lordship's recommendation to 
Sir Henry Clinton, for a commission. He died in England 
in 1784, at the age of twenty-eight. 

Chandler, John. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. " The 
honest Refugee." He was born in New London, Connecti- 
dut, in 1720. When at the age of eleven years, his father 
removed to Worcester, where he held the principal county 
offices. To these, the subject of this notice, succeeded. He 
was a Colonel in the militia, and was in service in the French 
war ; and he was Sheriff, Judge of Probate, and County 
Treasurer. In 1774, he was driven from his family, and 
took refuge in Boston. In 1776, he accompanied tlie Royal 
Army to Halifax ; and, two years after, was proscribed and 
banished. His estate, which was appraised at X 36,190 1«., 
was confiscated. I am assured that, while he was at Boston, 
he was supported for a considerable time by the sale of silver 
plate sent him by liis family ; and that, when he left home, 
he had no intention of quitting the country. I am assured, 
also, that when the Whig Commissioners took an inventory of 
his household furniture, the females were plundered of their 
very clothing. His adherence to the Crown, and his depart- 
ure for England, seem to have been his only offences ; yet he 



304 CHANDLER. 

was treated as harshly as though he had borne arms in the 
field. The late President Dwight spoke of Colonel Chandler 
and his family, as distinguished for talents and virtue. He 
represented to the Commissioners of Loyalist Claims, that his 
losses of real and personal estate were <£ 11,067 sterling, and 
of business, offices, «fec., about £6,000 sterling more. His 
statement was so moderate in comparison with many others 
of the same nature, that he was allowed the full amount; 
and was afterwards known in England as *' the honest Refii- 
gee." Here, he is spoken of as having been "cheerful in 
temperament, engaging in manner, hospitable as a citizen, 
friendly and kind as a neighbor, industrious and enterpris- 
ing as a merchant, and successful as a man of business." 
He died in 1800, aged eighty, in London. In 1741, he mar- 
maried Dorothy, daughter of Colonel Nathaniel Paine, who 
bore him four children, and died in 1745. His second wife 
was Mary, daughter of Colonel Church, of Bristol, Rhode Isl- 
and, a descendant of the warrior who fought King Philip 




who was the mother of thirteen children, and who died a 
Worcester in 1783. The notices of her decease speak of he 
as an excellent woman. Colonel Chandler was buried at Isl 
ington ; an iron fence and a slab mark the spot where he rests 
His portrait, in oil, is preserved in the rooms of the America 
Antiquarian Society, Worcester. George Bancroft, the dis 
tinguished historian, and the widow of the late Govemo 
John Davis, of Massachusetts, are Colonel Chandler's grand 
children. 

Chandt.kr, Clark. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. So 
of Colonel John. He was born in that town in 1743. A 
first a clerk in the office of the Register of Probate, h 
became joint Register with Timothy Paine. In 1774 lie en 
tered uj)on the town Records a remonstrance of the Loyalistfr^'r 
to the great anger of the Whigs, who, in town meeting, voted 
that he should then and there " obliterate, erase, or otherwise 
deface, the said recorded protest, and the names thereunto sub- 
scribed, so that it may become illegible and unintelligible.'' 
A vote of admonition followed, which is too long to insert in 







CHANDLER. 805 

this work. Mr. Chandler, as required, in open town meeting, 
blotted out the obnoxious record, and the work of the pen not 
being satisfactory, his fingers were dipped in ink and drawn 
over the page. 

He left home in June, 1775, and went to Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, and thence to Canada. He returned in September 
of the same year, and surrendered himself a prisoner to the 
common jail. Confinement impaired his health, and he was 
removed to his mother's house. Finally, he was allowed to 
go to Lancaster, on giving security that he would not depart 
from that town. He returned to Worcester, subsequently, 
and engaged in trade. His person was small. He wore bright 
red small-clothes, was odd and singular, and often provoked 
the jeers of those with whom he mingled ; but, apt at reply, 
"he paid the jokers in their own coin." He was never mar- 
ried. He died in Worcester in 1804. 

Chandler, Rufus. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. Fifth 
child of Colonel John, by Mary Church, his second wife. He 
was born in that town in 1747, and graduated at Harvard 
University in 1766. He studied law with his uncle, James 
Putnam, and opened an office in Worcester, and continued 
in practice there until September, 1774, when the courts were 
closed by popular tumult. He was one of the barristers and 
attornies who addressed Hutchinson, in the last-mentioned 
year. He went to Halifax in 1776, and in 1778 was pro- 
scribed and banished. His mother used a part of his estate 
for the support of his daughter ; but the remainder, appraised 
at £820 98, was confiscated. He died in London in 1823, 
at the age of seventy-six, and was buried at Islington, by the 
side of his father. His wife was Elizabeth Putnam ; his only 
child, who bore her mother's name, married Solomon Vose, 
of Augusta, Maine. 

Chandler, Gardner. Of Hardwich, Massachusetts. Son 
of Colonel John. He was born in 1749, and was a merchant 
in that town. His projwrty was confiscated. He made ac- 
knowledgments satisfactory to his townsmen, who voted, that, 
as he had said he was sorry for his past conduct, they " would 

26 • 



"X 



S06 CHANDLER. 

treat him as a friend and neighbor as long as he should behave 
well." He removed to Bratt!eboro\ Vermont, and again to 
Hinsdale, New Hampshire. He died in the last-named town, 
^is wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Brigadier Timothy Rug- 
gles. 

Chandler, Nathaniel. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. 
Son of Colonel John. He was born in that town in 1750 ; 
graduated at Harvard University in 1768 ; and commenced 
the practice of the law in Petersham. He was one of the 
eighteen country gentlemen who addressed Gage on his depart- 
ure, in 1775. In 1776 he went to Halifax. In 1778 he was 
proscribed and banished. Entering the British service, he led 
a corps of Volunteei-s. He returned to Petersham in 1784, 
and engaged in trade, but relinquished business on account of 
ill health, and returned to Worcester. Citizenship waa^restored 
in 1789, by Act of the Legislature of Massachusetts^ He was 
a very pleasant companion, and a favorite singer or songs in 
social parties. In early life he was a pupil of John Adams. 
His brother-in-law, the Rev. Dr. Bancroft, wrote that " he 
possessed personal manliness and beauty," that " he was en- 
dowed with a good mind and a lively imagination," that " in 
disposition he was cheerful," but that " his course of life -- 
drew him from those pursuits which might have rendered^ 
him a distinguished character." He never married. Hc5= 
died at Worcester in 1801. 

Chandler, William. Of Worcester, Massachusetts- 
Eighth child of Colonel John. He was born in that town 
in 1752, and graduated at Harvard University in 1772. At 
that time, the students in that institution were ranked accord- 
ing to " dignity of family ; " and William was placed in the 
highest class. He was one of the eighteen country gentle- 
men who were driven from their homes to Boston, and who 
addressed Gage on his departure, in 1776. In 1776 he went 
to Halifax. He was proscribed under the Act of 1778, but 
returned to Massachusetts after the close of the Revolution. 
He died in Worcester in 1793. Seven pairs of silk hose, at 
fourteen shillings ; plated shoe-buckless, six shillings ; and two 



CHANDLER. 307 

pairs of velvet breeches, are among the articles in the inven- 
tory of his estate. 

Chandler, Thomas. Of Cumberland County, " New 
Hampshire Grants." Son of John, of Woodstock, Connecti- 
cut, and uncle of John, " the honest Refugee." He was born 
in Woodstock in 1709. He was a lieutenant-colonel in the 
expedition to Cape Breton, in 1745 ; and about the year 1762, 
went to Walpole, New Hampshire, intending to settle there. 
In 1764, he removed to the *' Grants," and two years after 
obtained for himself and othei's a patent of the township of 
Chester. As the grant was from the Governor of New York, 
he was held to be a " Tory," on that account alone. He, and 
his sons John and Thomas, were allowed their choice of five 
hundred acres each, as the first three settlers. In 1775, when 
the difficulties occurred between the Whigs and Loyalists at 
Westminster, [see W. Patterson^^ he was Chief Justice of the 
County Court, and was induced by Judge Sabin, an associate, 
to favor the New York or Tory side of the controversy. The 
Whigs put him in jail, as being of the " Court party." To- 
wards the close of his life he became poor, and was imprisoned 
for debt. He died in Westminster jail, in 1785. One account 
is, that he was buried within its limits ; another, that his re- 
mains were disposed of " without the ceremony of a funeral." 
His wife was Elizabeth Eliot, of the lineage of John, the 
** Apostle of the Indians." * 

Chandler, Gardiner. Of Worcester, Massachusetts.^ 
Brother of Colonel John. He was born in Woodstock, ^ 
Connecticut, in 1723. In the French war he was a major, 
and was in service at the surrender of Fort William Henry. 
He was Treasurer of Worcester County eight years, and suc- 
ceeded his brother John, as sheriff, in 1762. He presented 
Gage an Address in behalf of the Judges of the Court of Com- 
luon Pleas, in 1774 ; and was compelled by a Convention of 
the Committees of Correspondence to sign a " Recantation." 
In time, he regained the confidence of the community, and 
'Was suffered to live undisturbed. He died in Worcester, in 
17827] His first wife was Hannah Greene, of Providence, 



308 CHANDLER. 

Rhode Island ; his second, Ann Leonard, of Norton, Massa- 
chusetts. 

Chandler, Joshua. Of New Haven, Connecticut. Bar- 
rister-at-law. He was born in Woodstock, in that State, in 
1728, and graduated at Yale College in 1747. He was a 
member of the General Assembly in 1775. In an Address 
to Governor Franklin, August 10, 1782, he said : " After 
placing the most imlimited confidence in the Royal assurances 
we have at different times received, and after our sacrifice and 
loss of property, we should feel ourselves but ill requited, were 
we to be abandoned and dismembered from the empire ; but 
our misery and distress must be complete should we become 
subjected finally to a Republican system." 

His property in and near New Haven, which he valued at 
£30,000, was confiscated. In 1783 he went to Annapolis, 
Nova Scotia, and thence to England, to obtain compensation 
for his losses. In March, 1787, he crossed the Bay of Fundy, 
to meet the Commissioners on Loyalist Claims at St. John, 
New Brunswick, and, in a violent snow-storm, missing the 
entrance of the harbor, was wrecked on Musquash Point, 
about nine miles from the city. He himself perished by a 
fall from a precipice ; his daughter Elizabeth, and the widow 
of Major Alexander Grant, died of cold and exhaustion. The 
Hon. Charles W. Upham, of Salem, Massachusetts, is a grand- 
son. Mr. Chandler's son Samuel died in Nova Scotia about 
the year 1840, aged eighty ; and his son Charles died in the 
same Province in 1853, at the age of eighty-five. His daugh- 
ter Sarah married Hon. Amos Botsford. 

Chandler, William. Of New Haven, Connecticut. Son 
of Joshua. He graduated at Yale College in 1773. He con- 
ducted the Royal forces to that town, in 1779, and was a cap 
tain in a Loyalist corps. At the peace he retii-ed to Nova 
Scotia. He was with his father [see Joshua CTiandler] in 
the fatal voyage across the Bay of Fundy, in 1787, and was 
crushed to death between the vessel and the rocks. Tlie ill- 
fated Nathan Hale was a class-mate. 

Chandler, Thomas. Of Connecticut Son of Joshua. 



CHANDLER — CH AUNCEY. 809 

An officer in a Loyalist corps. Assisted liis brother William 
in guiding the Royal forces to New Haven in 1779. Went 
with others of the family to Nova Scotia, in 1783. Married 
a daughter of Major Alexander Grant, whose widow perished 
with the father of the subject of this notice, in 1787. 

Chandler, John. Of Connecticut. Son of Joshua. 
Went to Nova Scotia in 1783 ; but returned to his native 
State, and died at New Haven. 

Chapman, Samuel. Of Pennsylvania. He joined the 
British Army, as was averred, in 1776, and accepted a com- 
mission. He was capture<l by a vessel-of-war, and carried 
to Massachusetts. In 1780, the President of the Council wrote 
to ask that, having been attainted of treason in Pennsylvania, 
and particularly obnoxious as an officer of a corps employed 
to harass the inhabitants, in stealing horses and similar of- 
fences, he might not be exchanged in the ordinary way, but 
be kept in custody until an opportunity occurred to send him 
home to " be dealt with according to his demerits," He was 
tried in 1781, and much to the disappointment of the "vio- 
lent Whigs," acquitted. 

Chapman, John. Was a magistrate in New Brunswick, 
and died at Dorchester, in that Colony, in 1833, aged seventy- 
two. 

Chase, Shadrach. Of Massachusetts. Was proscribed 
and banished in 1778. In 1782 he was an ensign in De 
Lancev's Third Battalion. He went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that 
city. He received half-pay. His death occurred in New 
Brunswick about the year 1829. 

Chauxcey, Josiah, and Isaac. Of Amherst, Massachu- 
setts. Tlie first was charged with disaffection to the popular 
cause, examined in 1775, and required to surrender his fire- 
arms, and to burn all the commissions he had ever held under 
the Crown. He gave up the arms, which, however, the 
Whigs soon voted to return to him. He was a great-grand- 
son of Charles Chauncey, President of Harvard University. 
Isaac was advertised by the Committee of that town, August, 



310 CHESNEY. — CHEW. 

1776, as convicted of being notoriously inimical to the Amer- 
ican States, and as having disregarded the limits which they 
had assigned to him. 

Chesney, Alexander. Of South Carolina. A gentle- 
man of family and fortune, who settled in that Colony about 
the year 1758. In the Revolution he bore arms on the side 
of the Crown. He left several children, of whom were Major- 
General Chesney, the Oriental explorer, and Captain Charles 
Chesney, who died of his wounds in India. Four sons of the 
latter have been distinguished in the military schools of Eng- 
land ; and a daughter, Mrs. Pullan, lives (1859) in New York. 

Chew, Benjamin. Of Pennsylvania. Was Recorder of 
Philadelphia, Register of Wills, and Attorney-General, and, 
finally, Chief Justice. His course was doubtful in the early 
part of the- controversy, and he was claimed by both parties. 
In 1774, Washington dined with him. The same year, John 
Adams records : " Dined with Mr. Chew, Chief Justice of 

the Province We were shown into a grand entry and 

staircase, and into an elegant and magnificent chamber, until 

dinner. About four o'clock we were called down 

The furniture was all rich. Turtle, flummery, jellies, sweet- 
meats of twentv sorts, trifles, .... and then a desert of 
raisins, almonds, pears, peaches. Wines most excellent and 
admirable. I drank Madeira at a gi*eat rate, and found no 
inconvenience in it." 

In 1776 his opposition to the Whigs was fixed, and he 
retired to private life. After the Revolution, and in 1790, 
he was appointed President of the High Court of Errors and 
Appeals, and held the office until the tribunal was abolished 
in 1800. lie died in 1810, aged eighty-seven. His father, 
the Hon. Samuel Chew, was of the religion of the Friends, 
and a judge and physician. William Tilghman, who be- 
came Chief Justice of Pennsvlvania, read law in his office, 
as did Francis Ho])kins()n, a signer of the Declaration of In- 
dependence. Judge Chew's daughter Sophia married Henrv' 
Philips, of the family of Philips of Bank Hall, county of 
Lancaster, England ; his daughter Henrietta died at Phil- 



CHEW. — CHIPMAN. 811 

adelphia in 1848, aged eighty-one. The wife of James M. 
Mason, late Senator in Congress from Virginia, is a grand- 
daughter. 

Chew, William. He was a lieutenant in a corps of Loy- 
alists. He settled in New Brunswick at the close of the war, 
and received half-pay. He died at Fredericton in 1812, aged 
sixty-four. 

Child, Joseph. Of the New York Artillery. In 1776 
he was tried by a court-martial for defrauding Christopher 
Stetson of a dollar ; for drinking damnation to all Whigs and 
Sons of Liberty ; and for profane cursing and swearing. He 
was found guilty, and sentenced to be drummed out of the 
army. 

Chipman, Ward. Of Massachusetts. He was born in 
1754, and graduated at Harvard University in 1770. In 
1776 he was driven from his habitation to Boston, and was 
one of the eighteen country gentlemen who that year were 
Addressers of Gage. He left Boston at the evacuation in 
1776, and went to Halifax, and thence to England, where 
he was allowed a pension. Relinquishing his stipend in less 
than a year, he returned to his native country, and joined the 
King's troops at New York. During the remainder of the 
war he was employed in the military department and Court 
of Admiralty. In 1782 he held the office of Deputy Muster- 
master-General of the Loyalist forces. In 1783 he was one 
of the fifty-five who petitioned for extensive grants of lands 
in Nova Scotia. [See Abijah WilUird,'] Removing to New 
Brunswick, he attained the highest honors. He was a mem- 
ber of the House of Assembly, Advocate-General, Solicitor- 
General, Justice of the Supreme Court, Member of the Coun- 
cil, and President and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony. 
He died at Fredericton, the capital, in 1824. His remains 
Were taken to St. John, where a tablet recites his public 
services. The wife of the Hon. William Gray, of Boston, 
Was his sister. Elizabeth, his widow, died at St. John in 
1852, in her eighty-sixth year. Ward, his only child, grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1805, held many places of 



312 CHRISTIE. 

trust, was finally Chief Justice of New Brunswick, and died 
at St. John in 1851, in his sixty-fifth year. While the Princje 
of Wales was in that city, August, 1860, he occupied the 
Chipinan mansion. 

Christie, James, Jr. Merchant, of Baltimore. In July, 
1775, the Committee of that city published him " as an enemy 
to his country," for sentiments contained in a letter written 
by him to Lieutenant-Colonel Gabriel Christie of the British 
Army, which letter had been intercepted and laid before 
them. Regarding '' his crime of a dangerous and atrocious 
nature," the Committee determined to consult their delegates 
at the Continental Congress, and meantime to keep a guard 
at his house to prevent his escape ; he to pay the expense 
thereof, '* each man five shillings for each twenty-four hours, 
and the officers seven shillings and sixpence." This Com- 
mittee was large, and on this occasion thirty-four members 
were present ; the vote against Christie was unanimous. He 
had recently lost his wife, and was at this time sick and con- 
fined to his bed. Near the close of July, however, the guard 
was dismissed by a vote of twenty-one to fourteen, on his 
parole not to quit the Province without leave of the Whig 
authorities, and to abide whatever sentence should be pro- 
nounced against him, with six gentlemen as sureties, to be 
bound to submit, in case of his escape, " to the same punish- 
ment as would have been inflicted on him if he had not de- 
parted." 

In August, his case was taken up in the Maryland Con- 
vention, when, after reading his memorial, it was resolved 
that " he ought to be considered as an enemy to America ; " 
and that he make a deposit of <£500 sterling on account 
of his proportion of the expense incurred for the defence 
of the country ; " the overplus, if any, to be returned, 
after a reconciliation shall happily be effected with Great 
Britain." 

Christie, Cn, Of Maryland. He adhered to the Royal 
Army, and his estate was confiscated. But the Act did not 
apply to his debts ; since, after the Revolution, he recovered 



CHUBB.— CLARK. 818 

of Colonel Richard Graves of that State, upwards of £1200 
sterling, for a debt due him before the war. 

Chubb, John. Of Philadelphia. Went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. In 
1795 he was a member of the Loyal Artillery Company. He 
died in 1822, aged sixty-nine. His son, the late Henry Chubb, 
was proprietor of the " St. John Courier " many years. 

Chubch, Doctor Benjamin. Of Massacliusetts. Pro- 
scribed and banished. He was equally distinguished as a 
scholar, physician, poet, and politician, and among the Whigs 
he stood as prominent, and was as active and as popular, as 
either Warren, Hancock, or Samuel Adams. He graduated 
at Harvard University in 1754. About 1768 he built an 
elegant house at Raynham, which occasioned pecuniary em- 
barrassments, and it has been conjectured that his difficulties 
from this source caused his defection to the Whig cause. 
However this may be, he was regarded as a traitor, having 
been suspected of communicating intelligence to Governor 
Gage, and of receiving a reward in money therefor. His 
crime was subsequently proved, Washington presiding, when 
he was convicted of holding a criminal correspondence with 
the enemy. After his trial by a court-martial, he was exam- 
ined before the Provincial Congress, of which body he was a 
member, and though he made an ingenious and able defence, 
was expelled. Allowed to leave the country, finally, he em- 
barked for the West Indies, and was never heard of after- 
ward. Sarah, his widow, died in England in 1788. 

Chypher, Jacob. See [f/acob Sypher.] 
Clark, James. Of Rhode Island. Went to St. John, 
New Brunswick, at the peace, and was one of the grantees 
of that city. He died at St. John in 1820, aged ninety. 
His son James died at the same place in 1803, at the age of 
fi>rty-one. 

Clark, John. Of Rhode Island. At the peace he set- 
tled at St. John, New Brunswick. He arrived at that city 
on the 29th of June, 1783, at which time only two log 
^nts had been erected on its site. He received, the same 

VOL. I. 27 



814 CLARK. 

year, the grant of land. The Government gave him, and 
every other grantee, five hundred feet of very ordinary 
boards towards covering their buildings. City lots sold in 
1783 from two to twenty dollars. He bought one for the 
price of executing the deed of conveyance, and "a treat*' 
Mr. Clark was clerk of Trinity Church nearly fifty years. 
He died at St. John, in 1853, in his ninety-fourth year, leav- 
ing numerous descendants. 

Clark, Joseph, A physician, of Stratford, Connecticut. 
In 1776 he fled to the British Army. His wife and children, 
whom he left at home, were sent to New York, where he 
joined them. He went to New Bninswick, accompanied by 
his family, consisting of nine persons, in 1783, and resumed 
the practice of medicine. Ht settled at Maugerville, on the 
river St. John, and was a Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas for the county of Sunbury. In 1799 he visited his 
friends in the United States. He was a physician, in busi- 
ness, for quite half a century. He died at Maugerville in 
1813, aged seventy-nine ; and his widow, Isabella Elizabeth^ 
died the same year, at the age of seventy-one. 

Clark, Joseph. Of Stratford, Connecticut. Son of Dr- 
Joseph Clark. He accompanied the family to New Bruns- 
wick, and became a resident of the Colony. He died in New 
York, while on a visit to some ftiends, in 1828, at the age of 
sixty-five. 

Clark, John. Of New Jersey. Went to New Bruns- 
wick in 1783. Died in Wickham, in that Province, in 
1848. 

Clark, Neiiemiah. During the Revolution he was a sur- 
geon in the King's service. He went to St. John, New Bnins- 
wick, at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 
He received half-pay. He died at Douglas, in that Province, 
in 1825, aged eighty-six, 

Clark, Samuel. Of New Jersey. In 1780 he was de- 
tected in conducting an illicit trade with the Royal forces, and 
committed to prison. A Loyalist of this name was the 
grantee of a lot in the city of St. John, in 1783, and died 
in 1804. 



CLARKE. 315 

Clabkb, Sev. William. Of Dedham, Massachusetts. 
Episcopal minister. He was son of Rev. Peter Clarke of 
Danvers, Massachusetts, and graduated at Harvard Univer- 
sity in 1759. After ordination in England, he became Rec- 
tor of St. PauPs Church. He lived in peace in Dedham 
until the spring of 1777, when he was sentenced to be con- 
fined on board a ship, because he refused " to acknowledge 
the Independency of America," which, he adds, " was con- 
trary to the sentiments I had of my duty to my king, my 
country, and my God." Released, and permitted to depart, 
he went to Rhode Island, thence to New York, thence to 
Ireland, thence to England. In 1786, he was at Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, and soon after removed to Digby. He re- 
turned to the United States, finally, and died in Quincy, 
Massachusetts, in 1815. His wife was Mrs. Dunbar, a widow. 
The Rev. Mr. Bailey wrote, at the time of the marriage, 
she is *^ a little, pretty, delicate, chattering woman, about 
twenty-eight, as unable to rough it as himself." 

Clarke, James. Of Rhode Island. Secretary of the As- 
sociation of Loyal Refugees, formed at Newport, March, 1779. 
The object appears in a paper signed by himself, namely, to 
*' retaliate upon and make reprisal against the inhabitants of 
the several Provinces in America, in actual rebellion against 
their Sovereign." The Association was formed under the 
sanction of the British Commander-in-Chief in Rhode Island, 
who gave commissions to the oificei*s. 

To execute the purpose above indicated, they conceived 
*' themselves warranted, by the laws of God and man, to 
Wage war upon their inhuman persecutors," the Rebels, " and 
to use every means in their power, to obtain redress and com- 
pensation for the indignities and losses they had suffered." 
X*he document concludes with an invitation to all who had 
I>i:^e8erved their loyalty, as well as those who had grown 
'^^eary of Congressional tyranny and paper money, and who 
"«ted French frippery, French politics, French religion 
^¥id alliances, to join with them in their endeavors to re- 
cover for their country its ancient form of government. He 



k 



316 CLARKE. 

wrote Governor Franklin twice the same year, giving an ac- 
count of the proceedings and success of the Association. In 
1783, Mr. Clarke was a petitioner for lands in Nova Scotia. 
[See Ahijah Willard,'] He was at Halifax in 1797, and his 
wife, Mary, died there that year. 

Clarke, Richard. Of Boston. Merchant. Graduated 
at Harvard University in 1729. He and his sons were con- 
signees of a part of the tea destroyed in Boston by the cele- 
brated " Tca-Party," December, 1773. A great number of 
rioters assembled in front of his house, attempted to force an 
entrance, broke the windows', and otherwise damaged it. His 
family removed. One of the consignees, however, fired upon 
the mob, soon after, when they dispei'sed. His name is found 
among the Addressei*s of Gage. The Whigs treated him 
with much severity, and his son Isaac, while at Plymouth for 
the collection of some debts, was assaulted, and fled at mid- 
night. He arrived in London, December 24, 1775, after vl 
passage of " only " twenty-one days from Boston. The Loy- 
alist Club, for a weekly dinner, was formed early in the next 
year, and he was one of the original members. He lived with 
his son-in-law, Copley, the painter, Leicester Square. He 
died in England in 1795. The late Lord Lyndhurst was a 
grandson. 

Clarke, Richard Samuel. The tablet, which covers his 
remains, records that he was ^minister of New Milford, Con- 
necticut, nineteen years ; of Gagetown, New Brunswick, 
twenty-five years ; and of St. Stephen, New Brunswick, 
thirteen years : in all, an Episcopal clergyman for fifty- 
seven vears. He was the first Rector of the Church at St. 
Stephen, and the oldast missionary in the present British 
Colonies. He was much beloved by the people of his chaise, 
and his memory is still cherished. He died at St. Stephen, 
October 6, 1824, aged eighty-seven. His wife Rebecca died 
at the same place. May 7, 1816, aged sixty-nine. His only 
surviving daughter, Mary Ann, who was born in Connecticut 
before his removal, and who was never married, died at Gage- 
town, New Brunswick, February, 1844, at the age of seventy- 
three, highly and deservedly lamented. 



CLARKE. 317 

Clarke, William. He was born at North Kingston, 
Rliode Island. He entered tlie service of the Crown, and 
was a captain in Colonel Whiteman's Regiment of Loyal 
New Englanders. He settled in New Brunswick in 1783, 
and was an alderman of St. John. He died in that city in 
1804. 

Clarke, Rev. Richard. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
Rector of St. Philip's Church. Went to England, and was 
Rector of Hartley, Kent. Died suddenly in England, in 
1802, in his eighty-third year. 

Clarke, Isaac Winsi/)w. Of Boston. He became Com- 
missary-General of Lower Canada, and died in that Colony 
m 1822, after he had embarked for England. His daughter 
Susan married Charles Richard Ogden, Esq., Solicitor-General 
of Lower Canada, in 1829. 

Clarke, Jonathan. Of Boston. Son of Richard Clarke. 
Went to England ; was a member of the Loyalist Club, Lon- 
don, 1776 ; had lodgings in Brompton Row the next year. 
In 1778, proscribed and banished. After the Revolution he 
Was in Canada. 

Clarke, George. Secretary of the Colony of New York. 
W^ent to England and died there in 1777. He was of the 
family of Clarke of Hyde Hall, Cheshire, England. 

Clarke, Alexander. Died at Waterborough, New Bruns- 
^ck, in 1825, aged eighty-two. For several years he was 
Itf aster Armorer in the Ordnance Department at St. John. 

Clarke, William. Of New Jersey. A noted horse- 
tbief. It was computed that, between 1776 and June, 1782, 
ixe stole upwards of one hundred valuable horses from New 
Jersey, which he sold to the Royal Army. It was known 
^faat he came veiy frequently within the American lines, but 
i^o effort of scouts and sentries to seize him proved successful. 
He was finally written to as by accomplices, as is said, to the 
effect that two fine horses were at a certain place, which he 
eould carry off'. He came, as suggested, in June, 1782, and 
^as shot down dead in the vicinity of Woodbridge, New Jer- 
sey, by the party who devised the stratagem. 

27* 



318 CLARKE. - CLEMENTS. 

Clarke, John. Died at Windsor, Nova Seotia, in 1825, 
aged eighty-four. 

Claus, Daniel. He married a daughter of Sir William 
Johnson, and served for a considerable time in the Indian De- 
partment of Canada, under his brother-in-law. Colonel Guy 
Johnson. Brant, the celebrated Mohawk chief, entertained 
towards him sentiments of decided personal hostility. His 
wife died in Canada in 1801. William Claus, Deputy Super- 
intendent-General of Indian Affairs, was his son ; and Brant, 
in the name of the Five Nations, made a speech of condolence 
on the death of Mrs. Claus, on the 24th of February of that 
year. William, deeply affected at the loss of his mother, was 
not able to reply, although he met the chiefs in council ; 
but he afterwards transmitted a written answer. 

Clayton, Francis. Of Wilmington, North Carolina. At 
first a Whig, he was a member of the Committee of Safety in 
1774, and a Representative in the House of Assembly ; but, 
in the course of the war, he adhered to the Crown, and aban- 
doned the State. He returned to Wilmington in a flag of" 
truce, in 1782, and determined to hazard a trial for his polit- 
ical offences. He was owner of Clayton Hall, a very fertile 
plantation. 

Cleghorn, Robert. Of New York. At the peace, ac- 
companied by his family of three persons, he went from New 
York to Shelbume, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted 
him one town lot. 

Clementson, Samuel. Of Boston. Merchant. Died at 
Windsor, England, in 1782, aged forty-nine. 

Clement, Captain Joseph. Of Boston. He held a com- 
mission in the Royal service during the war, and at the peace 
settled in New Brunswick. His wife, Mary, died at St. John 
in 1812. 

Clements, Peter. He entered the service of the Crown, 
and at the close of the war was a captain in the King's Amer- 
ican Regiment. In 1783 he went to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, and was a grantee of that city. He received half-pay. 
He removed to the county of York, and was a magistrate. 



CLINCH. — CLOWES. 319 

He died at his residence on the river St. John, near Frederic- 
ton, in 1833, at the age of ninety-four. His daughter Cla- 
rissa died in 1814, aged tliirty-two. His daughter Abigail 
Julia married Charles R. Hatlieway, Esq., of St, Andrew, 
New Brunswick. 

CuNCH, Peter. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the Roval 
Fensible Americans, and adjutant of the corps. He settled 
in New Brunswick, and received half-pay. He died in the 
county of Charlotte, in that Province. 

Clopper, James. He was a lieutenant in a corps of Loy- 
alists, and at the close of the contest settled in New Bruns- 
wick, enjoyed half-pay, and was a magistrate of the county 
of York. He died at Fredericton, in 1823, aged sixty-seven. 
Clopper, Garrett. In 1782 he was an ensign in the 
New York Volunteers, and quartermaster of the corps. He 
vrent to St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783, and was the 
grantee of a city lot. He received half-pay, was sergeant-at- 
«rms of the House of Assembly, and a magistrate of York 
County. He died in that Province. 

Clossey, Samuel. Of New York. Physician. He was 
« native of Ireland. Previous to his emigration to America 
he had attained eminence in his profession, not only by suc- 
C€;ssful practice but by the publication of a work entitled 
** Observations on some of the Diseases of the Human Body, 
chiefly taken from the Dissections of Morbid Bodies." While 
at New York, he was chosen to the Anatomical Chair, and to 
the Professorship of Natural Philosophy in King's (Columbia) 
College ; and, upon the organization of a Medical School, was 
placed at the head of the Department of Anatomy. He re- 
sumed to his native country in consequence of the Revolu- 
tion, and died there soon after his arrival. 

Clowes. There were several Loyalists of this name in 
New York. Gerardus Clowes was a captain, and Samuel 
«tnd John were lieutenants in De Lancey's Third Battalion, 
ii.nd, with Timothy, went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and were grantees of that city. The three who 
were officers received half-pay. Samuel, John, and Timothy 



S20 COCHRAN. 

livt'd for some time in Kow Brunswick, but their fate has n 
been ascertained. Gerardus, who was a major of niililia 
a niaj;istrate, and resided in tlio county of Sunbury, was I 
in ITHS by a fall from liis horse. In 1781 a person of the 
name of Samuel Clowes, who had been an Addresser of Gov- 
ernor Robertson, was appointed Clerk and Sun-ogate of Queen's 
County, New York, and died at Hempstead in the year 1800, 
aged seventy-six. This Samuel, says my informant, " was la 1 
offit'c a large part of his life." 

CocnRAN, Captain John. Of Portsmouth, New Hamp- 
flliire. Son of James Cochran, and a native of LtjndondeiTy. 
Was proscribed and banished. The "Portsmouth Journal," 
from which paper I derive the following, states that the account j 
is published on the authority of his daughter, who (November, 
184.')), is still living in that town. Captain Cochran led a 
seufiiring life in bis younger days, and sailed out of Ports- 
mouth a number of years, as a ship-master, with brilliant suc- 
cess. A short period before the war of the Revolution broke 
out, he was appointed lo the command of the i'vrt in Ports- 
moutii harbor. The day after the battle of Lexington, bo and 
his ianiily were made prisonei-s of war by a company of volnn- ' 
feers under the command of John Sullivan, afterwards the 
dislinguisbcd Major-General Sullivan of the Revolution, Pres- 
ident of New Hampshire, Ac. Captain Cochran and his fam- 
ily were generously liburiitcd on panile of honor. 

Not fUr from this lime, Governor Wentworth took refuge 
in the fort, and Captain Cochran attended him to Boston. In 
his absence, the only occujiants of the fort weix; Mrs, Cochran, 
a man and a maid-servant, and four ehihircn. At this time 
all vessels passing out of the harbor had to show their pass at 
the fort. An English man-of-war one day came down the 
river, bound out. Mrs. Cochi-dii dii-ected the man to hail the 
ship. No respect was paid to him, Mrs. Cochran then di- 
rected him to discharge one of the cannon. The terrified 
man said: "Ma'am, I have but one eye, and can't see the 
touch-hole." Taking the match, the heroic lady applied it 
hei-self ; the frigate immediately hove to, and showing that all 



COCHRAN. 821 

was right, was permitted to proceed. For this discharge of 
duty to his Majesty's Government, she received a handsome 
reward. 

It was thought by some of the enemies of Governor Went- 

worth that he was still secreted at the fort, after he had left 

for Boston. A party one day entered the house in the fort, 

(the same house recently occupied by Captain Dimmick), and 

asked permission of Mrs. Cochran to search the rooms for the 

Governor. After looking up stairs in vain, they asked for a 

light to examine the cellar. " O yes," said a little daughter 

of Mrs. Cochran, " I will light you." She held the candle 

until they were in a part of the cellar from which she well 

fenew they could not retreat without striking their heads 

cigainst low beams, when the roguish girl blew the light out. 

^s she anticipated, they began to bruise themselves, and they 

swore pretty roundly. The miss from the stairs, in an elevated 

'tone, cried out, '* Have you got him ? " This arch inquiry 

only served to divide their curses between the impediments 

to their progress and the "little Tory." 

Captain John Cochran, (who was a cousin, and not the 
father, as has been stated, of Lord Admiral Cochran) imme- 
diately joined the British in Boston, and, as it was believed, 
1>eing influenced by the double motive of gratitude towards a 
government that had generously noticed and promoted him to 
offices of honor, trust, and emolument, and for the sake of re- 
taining a valuable stipend from the Crown, remained with the 
£ritish Army during the war. At the peace, he returned to 
St. John, New Brunswick, lived in the style of a gentleman 
the remainder of his days, and died at the age of fifty-five. 

Among the papers of the Cochran family, we find the fol- 
lowing letter, written from England, by Governor Went worth, 
At the close of the war, to Captain John Cochran. It held 
out no very strong inducements for Loyalists to take refuge 
in England: — 

'' HAMMKitSMiTiif May 6, 1783. 

" My Dear Sir,-^I received your kind letter by Captain 
Dawson, and render you many thanks ; be assured there is 



322 COCHRAN. 

scarce any object so near to me as your welfare, which I should 
rejoice to promote. As to my advice, at this distance from the 
scene of action, it can only be conjectural. However, as you 
ask it, I can only say, that you will find it expedient to re- 
move to and settle in Nova Scotia. The Commander-in- 
Chief will most certainly cause your pay to be issued there ; 
nor do I conceive there is any probability of its being reduced, 
especially as Captain Fenton's is suppressed here, among other 
reasons, as it is said, because you were paid in America and 
resident there. As to your coming here, or any other Loyal- 
ist, that can get clams and potatoes in America, they most cer- 
tainly would regret making bad worse. It would be needless 
for me to enter into reasons ; the fact is so, and you will do 
well to avoid it. It is the advice all our friends will be wise 
to follow ; hard as it is, they that are fools enough to try, will 
find it harder here. I hope this will find you and your family 
in good health. We are all well. Charles is grown a stout 
boy ; we are obliged for your kind inquiries about him. My 
destination is quite uncertain ; like an old flapped hat, thrown 
oflF the top of an house, I am tumbling over and over in the 
air, and God only knows where I shall finally alight and set- 
tle to rest. It would give me great pleasure if it so happens 
as to afford me any means to add to the comfort of those I 
esteem and regard. Be assured, my dear Sir, in that descrip- 
tion you would have my early attention. Pray present Mrs. 
W.'s and my compliments to your family ; old Mrs. \V. also 
begs to joins us. Benning has been nearly four years a cap- 
tain, and not being able to establish his rank as he expected, 
has sold out, and is now in the country ; so that we are all 
seeking something to do. 

" Adieu, my dear friend, and always believe me to be, with 
great regard, your faithful and obedient servant, 

" J. Wentworth." 

Cochran, James. Of New Hampshire. His father in his 
youth, and about the year 1730, lived in the vicinity of the 
present town of Belfast, Maine. His family subsequently re- 
moved to Londonderry, New Hampshire. He went to St. 



COCK. - COFFIN. 328 

John, New Bmnswick, where he closed his life in 1794, aged 
eighty-four years. 

Cock, Clark. Of Long Island, New York. Professed 

himself a loyal subject in 1776. Subsequently, his house 

was robbed of a considerable amount in money, and of goods 

to the value of X400, in 1779. Others of the name were 

quite as unfortunate. Thus, a party of Rebels from Connec- 

ticmt plundered the dwelling of William Cock of goods to 

the amount of j£140, in 1778 ; and Abraham Cock, master 

of the schooner Five Brothers^ was captured early in 1779. 

CoDDiNGTON, AsHER. Of New Jersey. Went to St. John, 

New Brunswick, at the evacuation of New York. Was a 

grantee of the former city, and of a lot at Long Beach, near 

Oeneral CoflSn's land. Removed to Maugerville, New Bruns- 

^ck, and died there, well in years, about 1828. ' A son was 

living on the island of Grand Menan in 1848. 

CoDNER, James. In 1782 he was an ensign in the Second 
American Regiment. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1783, and was a grantee of that city, and a magistrate of 
the county. He died at St. John in 1821, aged sixty-seven. 
CoFFiELD, Thomas. At the termination of the war he was 
9L lieutenant in the North Carolina Regiment. As he was 
preparing to leave New York, the following advertisement 
appeared in Rivington's paper of September 10, 1783 : — 
** Whereas Martha, wife of Thomas Coffield, lieutenant in 
^he North Carolina Regiment, is concealed from him, (sup- 
posed by her mother, Melissa Carman of Hempstead,) to keep 
her firom going with her loving husband to Nova Scotia, or 
St. Augustine, the public are cautioned," &c. 

The " loving " and bereaved lieutenant arrived at St. John, 
^ew Brunswick, before the close of 1783, and received the 
^rant of a city lot. 

Coffin, Nathaniel. Of Boston. Last Receiver-General 
^nd Cashier of his Majesty's Customs at that port. An Ad- 
dresser of Hutchinson, 1774, and of Gage, 1775. With his 
liiniily of three persons he accompanied the Royal Army to 
Halifax in 1776, and in July of that year embarked for £ng- 



324 COFFIN. 

land in the ship Aston HalL He died at New York in 1780. 
His wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Barnes, merchant 
of Boston. Notices of several of his sons follow. I do not 
include Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, Baronet, who died at Chetr 
tenham, England, in 1840, at the age of eighty ; because he 
entered the British Navy, May, 1773, or before the Revolu- 
tion. 

Coffin, John. Of Boston. He was a son of the preced- 
ing. A warm and decided Loyalist, he volunteered to accom- 
pany the Royal Army in the battle of Breed's or Bunker's 
Hill, and soon after obtained a commission. He rose to the 
rank of captain in the Orange Rangers in a short time, and 
effecting an exchange into the New York Volunteers, went 
with that corps to Georgia, in 1778. At the battle of Sa- 
vannah, at that of Hobkerk's Hill, and in the action of Cross 
Creek, near Charleston, and on various other occasions, his 
conduct won the admiration of his superiors. At the battle 
of Eutaw Springs, which he opened on the part of the King's 
troops, he was a brevet major, and his gallantry and good 
judgment attracted the notice and remark of General Greene, 
who commanded the Whig forces. He retired to New Bruns- 
wick at the close of the contest, with the rank of major, and 
received half-pay. He was appointed a Colonel in the British 
Army in 1797 ; a Major-General in 1803 ; Lieutenant-General, 
in 1809 ; and General in 1819. 

In the war of 1812, he raised and commanded a regiment^ 
which was disbanded in 1815. He served in several civi^ 
offices ; was a member of the House of Assembly, chief "mag- 
istrate of King's County, and a member of the Council. Of* 
the latter dignity he was deprived, in 1828, in consequence of 
his not having attended the sessions of the Council for several 
previous years. Had his place not been thus vacated, the 
government of the Colony would have devolved upon him as 
senior Councillor, during the absence of Sir Howard Douglas. 
Though sensitive, the personal controversies of General Coffin 
were not numerous. But he fought a duel with Colonel Camp- 
bell in 1783, and was wounded in his groin ; and after he went 



COFFIN. 826 

to New Brunswick, he liad a public controversy with a high 
functionary of that Province, which was long and bitter. 

His estate was large and valuable, as will be seen by his 
own description of it in 1811, when he offered it for sale: 
"The Manor of Alwington, in the Parish of Westfield, 
King's County, situated twelve miles from the City of St. 
John ; containing 6000 acres, well covered with Pine and 
Spruce Spars, great quantities of the finest Ship Timber and 
other Hard- Wood as yet uncuUed, possessing several conven- 
ient places for Ship-Building ; an excellent Salmon and Her- 
ring Fishery ; a large Grist and Saw-Mill, that are doing 
extensive business ; four well settled Farms, each having ex- 
tensive meadows, with high and low intervale sufficient to 
maintain a large stock, together with the Farming Utensils 
of each. The greater part of the enclosures are under Cedar 
fence, with a navigable River running through the centre of 
the estate. The well known local advantage of this property 
and its commanding prospects render any further description 
unnecessary. — Terms of Payment will be made easy to the 
purchaser." 

In his dealings he was exact ; yet to the poor he dispensed 
liberally in charity, and for persons in his neighborhood de- 
vised useful and profitable employment. His own habits were 
extremely active and industrious. He was fond of talking 
with citizens of the United States of the Revolution, and of 
the prominent Whigs of his native State. ^^ Samuel Adams 
used to tell me," said he, " * Coffin, you must not leave us ; 
we shall have warm work, and want you.' " The battle of 
Breed's Hill was regarded by General Coffin as the event 
which controlled everything that followed. *' You could not 
have succeeded without it," he frequently said to his Amer- 
ican friends, ^*for Bomething was indispensable in the then 
state of parties, to fix men 807netvhere^ and to show the plant- 
ers at the South, that Northern people were really in earnest, 
and could and would — fight. That, that did the business for 
you." While the British claimed and held Eastport, General 
GofRn seldom visited it. He would sail round Moose Island 

VOL. I. 28 



326 COFFIN. 

— as he ever continued to call that town — in his sloop lAlh 
erty^ examine the movements on shore through his spy-glass, 
and, after gratifying his curiosity, return to St. John. After 
the surrender to the United States, in 1818, he came to Moose 
Island fi-equently. Notwithstanding his choice of sides in the 
Revolution, he never lost his interest in the " Old Thirteen," 
and he remembered that he was " Boston-born," from first to 
last. " I would give more for one pork-barrel made in Mas- 
sachusetts," was one of his many sayings, " than for all that 
have been made in New Brunswick since its settlement. 
Why, sir, I have now some of tfie former which are thirty 
years old, but I can hardly make the Province barrels last 
through one season." In his person, General Coffin was tall 
and spare. Until well advanced in years, he was remarkably 
erect. His countenance indicated a quick and sensitive na- 
ture. His manners were easy, social, and polite. His con- 
versation was animated and interesting, frank, and without 
reserve. He died at his seat. King's County, in 1838, aged 
eighty-seven. Anne, his widow, and daughter of William 
Mathews, of South Carolina, died at Bath, England, in 1839, 
aged seventy-four. His children were seven, namely : Guy 
Carleton, who (1838) is a major in the Royal Artillery 
Nathaniel, who died young ; John Townsend, (1850) a post 
captain ; and William Henry, an officer in the Royal Navy ^ 
Caroline; Elizabeth, who married Captain Kirkland; 9XiS 
Anne, who married Captain Pearson. 

Coffin, Nathaniel, Jr. Of Boston. Son of Nathaniel 
the Cashier. Was an Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and 
a Protester against the Whigs the same year. He was at 
New York in 1783, and one of the fifty-five petitioners for 
lands in Nova Scotia. [See Ahijah Willard,'] At a subse- 
quent period he was appointed Collector of the Customs at 
the island of St. Kittys, and filled that station for thirty-four 
years. Ho died in London in 1831, aged eighty-three. 

Coffin, Wilijam. Of Boston. Son of Nathaniel, the 
Cashier. An Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774 ; went to 
Halifax, 1776 ; proscribed and banished, 1778. The last- 




COFFIN. — COIL. 327 

mentioned year, the Rev. Jacob Bailey, in recording a visit 
at Mr. Inman^s, remarks : " We were joined at supper by 
Mrs. Co£Bn and her daughter Polley. Both the mother and 
daghter appeared very modest, sensible, and engaging. . . . 
I quickly perceived that Mrs. Coffin had her husband (Mr. 
WQIiam Coffin) and two or three sons in the British service," 
ftc. After the peace, he was at St. John, New Brunswick, 
and a merchant. 

Coffin, William. Of Boston. Died in that town in 
1775. Sir Thomas Aston Coffin was a grandson. 

Coffin, William, Jr. Of Boston. Son of William. He 
was an Addresser of Gage in 1775, and accompanied the 
Royal Army to Halifax the next year. 

Coffin, Sir Thomas Aston, Baronet. Of Boston. Son 
of William, Jr. He graduated at Harvard University in 
1772. At one period of the Revolution he was Private Secre- 
tary to Sir Guy Carleton. In 1804 he was Secretary and 
Comptroller of Accounts of Lower Canada. At another 
part of his life, he was Commissary-General in the British 
Army. He died in London in 1810, at the age of fifty-six. 

Coffin, Ebenezer. Of Boston. Son of William, Jr. He 
settled in South Carolina, and was a merchant. He was liv- 
ing in 1804, mairied, and a father. 

Coffin, Nathaniei.. Of Boston. After the Revolution 
he settled in Upper Canada. In the war of 1812 he served 
against the United States. For a number of years he was 
Adjutant-General of the Militia of Upper Canada. He died 
at Toronto in 1846, aged eighty. 

Coffin, John. Of Boston. Was Assistant Commissary- 
(xeneral in the British Army, and died at Quebec in 1837, 
aged seventy-eight. 

CoooESWELL, James. Of Rhode Island. In 1782 he was 
an officer in the Superintendent Department established at 
New York. Went to St. John, New Brunswick ; was an 
officer of the Customs ; died there in 1786. 

Coil, . Of North Carolina. Notorious miscreant 

Taken and hung. 



328 COKE. — GOLDEN. 

Coke, Wiujam. Of New Jereey. Stamp-master of the 
Colony. He applied for the oflBee ; but, alarmed by the pop- 
ular manifestations, refused to execute his duties, and even to 
take charge of the stamps. After his resignation, Governor 
Franklin asked General Gage if he could have the aid of 
military force, and was answered in the afBiinative. 

CoLDEN, Cadwaixader. Of Now York. He was bom 
in Scotland, and came to America in 1708, and was a success- 
ful practitioner of medicine for some years. In 1718, Gov- 
ernor Hunter having become his friend, he settled in the city 
of New York, and was the first Surveyor-General of tlie 
Colony. Besides this office, he filled that of Master in Chan- 
cery ; and, on the arrival of Governor Burnet, in 1720, he 
was made a member of the King's Council. Succeeding to 
the Presidency of the Council, he administered the govern- 
ment in 1760. Having previous to the last-mentioned time 
purchased a tract of land in the vicinity of Newburgh, on 
the Hudson, he retired there with his family about the year 
1755. In 1761 he was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of 
New York, and held the commission during the remainder of 
his life, and was repeatedly at the head of affairs in conse- 
quence of the death or absence of several of the Governors. 
While administering the government, the stamped paper came 
out, and was placed under his care. A multitude of several 
thousand persons, under leaders, assembled, and determined 
that he should give up the paper to be destroyed. Unless he 
complied with their wishes, the massacre of himself and adhe- 
rents was threatened ; but he exhibited great firmness, and 
prevented them from accomplishing their design. Yet the 
mob burned his effigy, and destroyed his carriages in his sight. 
Governor Tryon relieved him from active political duty in 
1775, and he retired to Long Island, where he had a seat, 
and where he died the following year, at the age of eighty- 
eight. He was hospitable and social, and gave his friends a 
cordial welcome. The political troubles of his countiy caused 
him pain and anguish. These troubles he long predicted. In 
science Mr. Colden was highly distinguished. Botany and 



GOLDEN. 329 

astronomy were favorite pursuits. As his death occurred 
previous to the passage of the Confiscation Act, his estate was 
inherited by his children. 

CoLDEN, David. Of New York. Son of the Lieutenant- 
Governor. The farm at Spring Hill, Flushing, Long Isl- 
and, which was devised to him by his father, is now (1847) 
the property of the Hon. Benjamin W. Strong. Mr. Col- 
den went to England at the close of the war, and died there 
July 10, 1784. His estate, of two hundred and forty acres, 
was sold by the Commissioners of Confiscation, the year of 
his decease. He was fond of retirement, was much devoted 
to scientific pursuits, and maintained a correspondence with 
the learned of his time, both in Europe and in America. 
Ann, his widow, daughter of John Willet, of Flushing, died 
in August, 1786. Four daughters and one son survived him. 
The son, Cadwallader D. Colden, of New York, (a lad in the 
Revolution,) was a lawyer of great eminence, and one of the 
earliest and most efficient promoters, in connection with De 
Witt Clinton, of the Erie Canal, and other works of exten- 
sive improvement. He died at Jersey City, February 7tli, 
1834, universally lamented. 

Colden, Alexander. Of New York. Son of Lieutenant- 
Governor Colden. He was Postmaster, and successor of his 
father in the office of Surveyor-General. He died in 1774, 
aged fifty-eight. His eldest daughter, Alice, mamed Colonel 
Archibald Hamilton ; the second, Major John Antill, of Skin- 
ner's Brigade of New Jersey Volunteers ; his third, Captain 
Anthony Farrington, of London. 

Colden, Richard Nicholls. Of New York. Son of 
Alexander Colden. He was an ensign in the Royal High- 
landers, in 1766 ; but left the army prior to the Revolution, 
and was appointed Surveyor and Searcher of the Customs in 
tlie city of New York. He died in 1777. His sons were 
Alexander and Cadwallader. 

Colden, Cadwallader. Of New York. When, in June, 
1776, he was examined and committed to jail in Ulster County, 
the Committee reported that he said, *' he should ever oppose 

28* 



i 



380 COLE. - CONNEL. 

independency with all his might, and wished to the Lord that 
his name might be entered on record as opposed to that mat* 
ter, and be handed down to latest posterity." I find, next, 
that on petition of Whigs, in 1784, he was permitted by law 
to return to the State. 

Cole, Euward. Of Rhode Island. He commanded a 
regiment under Wolfe, at the seige of Quebec, in 1769 ; and 
at Havanna, subsequently. Adhering to the Crown in the 
Revolution, he was insulted, and his furniture and pictures 
were much mutilated. He fled to the British lines, and was 
commissioned as Colonel. He settled in Nova Scotia. His 
pension was £150 per annum. He died well in years. His 
brother John was a Whig, dnd was appointed Advocate- 
General of the Court of Vice-Admiralty when the govern- 
ment of Rhode Island passed to the popular party. 

Collins, Davis. An early settler of St. David, New 
Brunswick. Died at Tower Hill, August, 1837. His death 
was caused by tlie falling of a tree. 

Combs, Captain . Probably of Maine. At Hali- 
fax, Nova Scotia, December, 1779. The Rev. Jacob Bailey 
wrote to Thomas Brown : " You may regard him as a person 
of real worth and unshaken integrity, who has resisted all the 
efforts of his countrymen to seduce and subdue him, with 
amazing fortitude, and his honest attachment to the British 
Government is nearly without example." 

Comely, Robert. Of Pennsylvania. Arrived at St. John. 
New Brunswick, hi the spring of 1783, in the ship Unian^ 
He died at Lancaster, in that Province, in 1838, aged eighty- 
three. 

CoMPTON, WiLiJAM. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
and was a grantee of that city. He died at St. Martinis in 
that Province, in 1804. 

CoNKLiN, . Captain in DeLancey's First Battal- 
ion. Killed in Georgia, in 1780, on an enterprise to disperse 
the Whigs in the vicinity of the Ogechee. 

CoNNEL, John. Of Chester County, Pennsylvania. 
Schoolmaster. Joined the Royal Army in Philadelphia, 



CONNER. — CONOLLY. 331 

and accomimnied it to New York. In 1779, he was cap- 
tured on board of the British privateer Intrepid^ and put 
in prison. 

CoyNER, Constant. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
Royal Fencible Americans. He went to Nova Scotia after 
the war, where he fought a duel and killed his antagonist. 
He died at Halifax. 

CoNOLi^Y, John. He was bom in Lancaster County, Penn- 
sylvania, and was bred a physician. Before the Revolution 
he lived at or near Pittsburg, and was in correspondence with 
Washington on matters of business. In 1770 Washington, on 
his toiir to Ohio, invited Doctor ConoUy to dine with him, and 
said he was " a very sensible, intelligent man." His difficul- 
ties with the authorities of Pennsylvania, in 1774, occupy con- 
siderable space in the records of the Council of that Colony. * 
In the course of these difficulties, and while he was at the head 
of an armed party, he was seized and imprisoned. It appears 
that he claimed lands under Virginia, at the falls of the Ohio, 
which, it was contended by Pennsylvania, Lord Dunmore, the 
Governor of the former Colony, had no right to gi'ant. But 
he and John Campbell advertised their intention of laying out 
a town there, and invited settlers. They set forth the beau- 
ties and advantages of the location in glowing teims, and said, 
that " we may with certainty affirm, that it (the j)roposed 
town) will, in a short time, be equalled by few inland places 
on the American continent." 

As the controversy ripened to war, Conolly became active 
on the side of the Crown, and in 1775 was employed by Lord 
Dunmore, who authorized him to raise and command a regi- 
ment of Loyalists and Indians, to be enlisted in the Western 
country and Canada, and to be called the Loyal Forresters. 
While on his way to execute this design, he was taken pris- 
oner. His papers having been sent to Congress, it was deter- 
mined to retain his person. He wrote to Washington several 
times, but the Commander-in-Chief declined to interfere, and 
he remained a captive till near the close of the contest. The 
Loyal Forresters were in service in 1782, and probably later. 



332 COPLEY. 

Always, as it would seem, moving in some doubtful enterprise, 
we hear of Colonel Conolly soon after the peace, and about the 
year 1788, at Detroit. At this time he and other disaffected 
persons held conferences with some of the prominent citizens 
of the West as to the seizure of New Orleans, and the control 
of the navigation of the Mississippi by force. The precise 
plan, and the degree of support which it received, are not, 
perhaps, known. But the attention of Washington was atr 
tracted to the subject, and measures were taken to detect and 
counteract the plot. 

Copley, John Singleton. Of Boston. An eminent 
painter. His father, " Richard Copley, of the county of 
Limerick, who emigrated to America, and became of Bos- 
ton, in the United States, married Sarah, younger daughter 
of John Singleton." The subject of this notice was bom in 
1738, and achieved distinction earlv. John Adams wrote: 
"Copley is the greatest master that was ever in America. 
His portraits far exceed West's." He himself said that he 
had as many commissions in Boston as he could execute. 
His price for a half-length was fourteen guineas. 

In 1774 he was an Addresser of Hutchinson ; and, the 
same year, he deposited several pictures with his mother, 
arranged his affairs generally, and sailed for Italy by way of 
England, with the design of three yeara' residence abroad. 
In 1776 he was in London, and a member of the Loyalist 
Club, for weekly conversation and a dinner. He subsequently 
resumed his profession, and increased his fame. " The Death 
of Chatham ; " " King Charles ordering the Arrest of the Five 
Members of Parliament;" and "The Death of Major Peir- 
son," are among his celebrated works. His last pictures, it is 
believed, are " The Resurrection," and the portrait of his son. 
He died in England, September, 1815, aged seventy-eight. 
His wife, who deceased in 1836, was a daughter of Richard 
Clarke, one of the Boston consignees of the tea. One son 
and three daughters survived him. 

His son, John Singleton Copley, rose to eminence as a jurist 
and a statesman. He was a native of Boston ; and the tradi- 



COOK.— COOKE. 338 

tion is, that, born a few weeks after the Hon. Josiah Quincy, 
Senior, " the monthly nurse went directly from Mrs. Quincy 
to attend Mrs. Copley." Mr. Copley was admitted to the bar 
in 1804, was made Sergeant-at-law in 1813, and became a. 
Judge in 1818. Later, he was Solicitor and Attorney-Gen- 
eral, and Master of the Rolls. In 1827, on the retirement of 
Lord Eldon, he was appointed Lord Chancellor ; and the same 
year was elevated to the peerage as Baron Lyndhurst. He 
was Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, subsequently ; and 
held the office of Lord Chancellor a second and third time. 

Lord Lyndhurst died October, 1863, in his ninety-second 
year. By his first wife, Samh Geray, daughter of Charles 
Brunsden, and widow of Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas, who 
fell at WaterloQ, he was the father of Sarah Elizabeth, Susan 
Penelope, and Sophia Clarence. His second wife, Georgiana, 
daughter of Lewis Goldsmith, bore him a single child, Georgi- 
ana Susan. His Lordship's sister, widow of the late Gardner 
Greene, of Boston, and several other relatives in Massachu- 
setts, survive. 

Cook, Abiel. Of Little Compton, Rhode Island. He 
"Was denounced as " an enemy to his country, and the liber- 
ties of America," in 1775, for selling sheep to go on board of 
the Swan^ British ship-of-war, at Newport. The Whigs took 
the sheep at Forkland Ferry, and voted to send them as a 
present to the army at Cambridge. Cook confessed the sale, 
and avowed his intention of repeating the act every oppor- 
tunity. 

Cooke, Rev. Samuel, D. D. Of Shrewsbury, New 
Jersey. Episcopal minister. He was educated at Cam- 
l>ridge, England, and came to America as missionary of 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts, as early, probably, as 1749. In 1765 he had the 
care of the churches in Shrewsbury, Freehold, and Middle- 
town. The Revolution divided and dispersed his flock, and 
lie became Chaplain to the Guards. In 1785 he settled at 
Fredericton, the capital of New Brunswick, as the first Rec- 
tor of the Church there. In 1791 he was Commissarv to the 



334 COOMBE. — COOPER. 

Bishop of Nova Scotia. He was drowned in crossing the 
river St. John, in a birch canoe, in 1795. His son, wlio 
attempted to save his life, perished with liim. His wife was 
Miss Kearney, of Amboy, New Jersey. Lydia, his fifth 
daughter, died at Fredericton in 1846, aged seventy-six ; and 
Isabella, the last survivor of his family, and widow of Colonel 
Harris William Hales, died at the same city in 1848. 

CooMBE, Rev. Thomas, D. D. Of Philadelphia. He was 
a native of that city, and graduated at the College there in 
1766. He was chosen Assistant Rector of the Churches of 
Christ and St. Peter's in 1772. Five years later, he was 
confined for disaffection to the Whig cause, and finally or- 
dered to be sent prisoner to Virginia. In 1778 he resigned 
his Rectorsliip and w^ent to England. He lived some time 
in Ireland, as Chaplain to Lord Carlisle ; was in charge of a 
parish ; a Prebendary of Canterbury, and a Chaplain to the 
King. The degree of D. D. was conferred by Trinity College, 
Dublin. 

Coombs, Michael. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. Mer- 
chant. Went to England during the war, returned at the 
peace ; died at Marblehead in 1806, aged seventy-three. 

Coombs, John. Lieutenant in the Second Batallion of 
New Jersey Volunteers. Settled in New Brunswick in 1783, 
and died in that Province in 1827, at the age of seventy- 
four. 

Cooper, Rev. Robert. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
Episcopal minister. Rector of St. Michael's; previously, 
however. Rector of Prince William's Parish, and Assistant 
Rector of St. Philip's. The Church of St. Michael's, with 
the bells, clock, and organ, cost about forty thousand dollars, 
which, if we consider the value of labor and materials, a cen- 
tury ago, was a large sum ; it was opened for worship early 
in 1761. Mr. Cooper officiated until the Revolution. The 
Vestry, having official information that he declined to take 
an oath prescribed by law, met on the morning of Sunday, 
June 30th, 1776, and resolved to omit service on that day, 
and to appoint a meeting of parishioners on Tuesday, July 2d. 



COOPER. — . CORNELL. 335 

He refiised to confer with his flock, on the groand that he 
considei*ed himself already dismissed ; and the pulpit was ac- 
cordingly declai-ed vacant. He soon went to England, and 
after having been employed as a joint curate and lecturer, 
became a rector. The Government gave him a pension of 
£100 per annum, as a Loyalist. He died in 1812, or the 
year following, at the age of more than eighty. 

Cooper, Myles, D. D. He was educated at Oxford, Eng- 
land, and coming to America in 1762, was elected President 
of King's College, New York, the year following. In 1771, 
he advocated the appointment of Bishops for the Colonies, in 
an Address to the Episcopalians of Virginia. His political 
opinions rendered his resignation of that office necessary as 
the Revolutionary storm darkened, and in 1775 he retired to 
England. He died at Edinburgh in 1785, aged about fifty, 
having previously lived there, and officiated as an Episcopal 
clergyman. He was a gentleman of literary distinction, and 
published several works. Four lines of an epitaph written 
by himself are : — 

" Here lies a priest of English blood, 
Who, living, liked whatever was good : 
Grood company, good wine, good name ; 
Yet never hunted afler fame/' 

The son of Mrs. Washington was a pupil of Doctor Cooper 
at King's College ; and Washington, after Mr. Custis left the 
institution, late in 1773, expressed the conviction, that he had 
been under the care of " a gentleman capable of instructing 
him in every branch of knowledge." Young Custis, it ap- 
pears, abandoned his studies, and married against Washing- 
ton's wish, though with the approbation of his mother and 
most of the family friends. 

Cornell, Samuel. Of Newbern. A member of the 
Council of North Carolina. In 1775 he was present in 
council, and concurred in the opinion that Whig meetings 
were objects of the highest detestation, and gave his advice to 
Governor Martin to issue his proclamation to inhibit and for- 
bid them. Before the Declaration of Independence he went 



336 CORBIN. — CORSA. 

to Europe, but left his family at Newbem. During the war 
he returned to New York, and went to Newbern in a flag of 
truce, but was forbidden to land, unless he would take an oath 
of allegiance to the State tinder its Whig rulers. This he re- 
fused to do. While on board of the vessel in the harbor, he 
conveyed his estate to his children by several deeds of gift, 
and duly proved and registered the conveyances. Having 
thus arranged his afiairs, he removed his family, by permission 
of the Executive of the State, to New York. Subsequently 
this property was confiscated and sold. A Mr. Singleton be- 
came the purchaser of a part of it, and the portion which Mr. 
Cornell had given to one of his daughters. This lady claimed 
to hold under her father's deed, and instituted a suit to eject 
Singleton ; but, on a heai*ing and trial, the Confiscation Act 
was held to be valid, and judgment was given against her. 
This case, of course, determined that all the deeds of gift 
were void. The conveyances were made, it will be recol- 
lected, ^;nVr to the passage of the Confiscation Act of North 
Carolina. His daughter Hannah married Herman Le Roy, 
of New York, in 1786. 

CoRBiN, John Tayloe. Of Virginia. Ordered to be 
confined to a certain part of the county of Caroline, by the 
Virginia Convention, May, 1776, and to give bond with se- 
curity, in the sum of iB 10,000, not to depart the territory 
assigned to him. 

CoRRiE, Rev. . Of Delaware. Episcopal minister. 

Rector of St. David's Church. Came from England in 1770. 
Resigned, because of the opposition to his praying for the 
King. 

CoRRiE, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Died at 
Dumfries, Scotland, in 1791. 

CoRSA, Colonel Isaac. Of Long Island, New York. 
An officer in the French war, of distinguished merit. In 
1776 he was arrested by order of Washington, and sent pris- 
oner to Middletown, Connecticut ; but was released on parole. 
He died at Flushing, in 1805, by one account, in 1807, by 
another, in his eightieth year, ^^ beloved as a man and a Chria- 



COSKEL. — COULBOURNE. 337 

tian/' " He was small in stature, and juvenile in appear- 
ance." Maria Franklin, his only cliild, married John I. Sta^ 
pies, and (1852) is still living. 

CosKEL, Thomas. A Whig soldier. In 1778 he was 
tried on a charge of attempting to desert to the Royal side ; 
and, confessing his guilt, was sentenced to receive one hun- 
dred lashes. 

CossTELL, Charles M. Of South Carolina. Was an 
Assistant Judge of the Supreme Court of the Colony. He 
went to England. 

CoTHAM, Thomas. Of the State of New York. Went 
to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, and taught school there nearly 
fifty years. He died in 1830. 

CoTTEN, James. Of North Carolina. Lieutenant-Colonel 
in the Militia. A " friend of Government," and in confiden- 
tial communication with Governor Martin after he had taken 
reftige on board a ship-of-war. He was summoned before the 
Provincial Congress, subsequently, and made a solemn recan- 
tation. In 1776 he was on the Royal side at Moore's Creek 
Bridge, but "fled," it is said, "at the first ^fire." In 1779 
he was attainted, and his estate was confiscated. 

Cotton, John. Of Boston. John Cotton, the celebrated 
pastor of the First Church in that town, was his great-grand- 
latlier. His father, Thomas Cotton, lived first in Brookline, 
Massachusetts, and subsequently in Pomfret, Connecticut. 
The subject of this notice graduated at Harvard University 
in 1747 ; and was, I suppose, the last Royal Deputy Secre- 
tary of Massachusetts. He died at Boston in 1776. His 
^fe was Mary, daughter of William Dudley. 

CouGLE, James: Of Pennsylvania. Was a captain in the 
first Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. He went to New 
Brunswick at the close of the contest, and died at Sussex 
^ale in 1819, aged seventy-three. 

CouLBOURNE, Charles. Of Norfolk, Virginia. Was a 

lieutenant in the Loyal American Regiment, and quai*ter- 

^naster of the corps. At the peace he settled at Digby, Nova 

Scotia, and was a ship-master; but returned finally to his 

VOL. I. 29 



838 COULSON. — COWDEN. 

native State, and died there. His wife was the widow of 
James Budd, who was shot by a party of " cow-boys " at 

Rye. 

CouLSON, Thomas. Merchant and ship-owner, of Fal- 
mouth, now Portland, Maine. " Captain Coulson," wrote 
the good Parson Smith in his Journal, April 12, 1776, " is 
very troublesome." On the 10th of May following, Coulson's 
house, which was on King Street, was rifled by the Whigs, 
under Colonel Thompson. The difficulties with him caused 
the burning of that town by Mowatt. It appears that, con- 
trary to the agreement of the Association as to importation of 
merchandise, a vessel arrived at Falmouth with the sails and 
rigging for a ship which he was fitting for sea. These arti- 
cles, it was determined by the Whigs, should be returned to 
England, together with some goods brought in the same ves- 
sel. Coulson resolved otherwise. A quarrel ensued, which 
continued for several weeks. The Canseau sloop-of*war ar- 
rived for the protection of himself and property, and mobs and 
tumults and conflagration were the final results. 

Coulson returned to England, and his wife, Dorcas, daugh- 
ter of the elder I)r. Nathaniel Coffin, of Falmouth, soon fol- 
lowed him. Both died in England ; Mrs. Coulson about the 
year 1800. 

Courtney, Thomas, Richard, and James. Of Boston. 
The first was an Addresser of Gage in 1775, went to Halifax 
in 1776, was proscribed and banished in 1778, and lost £2000 
in consequence of his loyalty. The three removed to Shel- 
burne. Nova Scotia, from New York, at the peace ; Thomas, 
with a family of four, and four servants. They built largely 
at their new home ; but Shelbume soon declined, and Rich- 
ard went to Charleston, South Carolina, and James to Wil- 
mington, North Carolina. 

Covert, Abraham. He died at Maugerville, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1824, aged seventy-nine. His widow, Phebe, died 
at the same place in 1838, at the age of eighty-seven. 

Cowden, Thomas. Of Fitchburg, Mass. He was known 
as disafi^ected to the popular cause, but made a written confes- 




COWLING. — cox. 389 

sion, and applied for a commission in the army. Washington 
and Greene communicated his application to the Assembly of 
Massachusetts, and the case was referred to a Committee of 
both Houses, who reported adversely ; yet said, that as he had 
given " some " evidence of reformation, he might safely and 
properly be released from confinement, and allowed to return 
to his family and estate. 

Cowling, John. Of Virginia. At the peace, accompa- 
nied by his family of three persons, and by one servant, he 
went from New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the 
Grown granted him one town and one water lot. His losses 
in consequence of his loyalty were estimated at £5000, and 
in 1 783 he was poor. He opened a school, and was assisted 
by his wife Phebe, who, after his death, kept a small shop. 

Cox, Daniel. Of New Jersey. Was a member of his 
Majesty's Council of that Colony. In January, 1777, his ele- 
gant house at Trenton Ferry was burned, not by Whigs, 
but by persons in the Royal Array, who, in their progress 
through New Jersey, committed almost every imaginable 
crime. Through his agency, principally, it is believed that 
the Board of Refugees, consisting of delegates from the Loy- 
alists of the Colonies, was established at New York in 1779. 
Of this Board, he was a president ; and Christopher Sower, 
an highly influential Loyalist of Pennsylvania, in a letter of 
December 5th, 1779, wrote as follows : " The Deputies of 
the Refugees from the different Provinces meet once a week. 
Daniel Cox, Esquire, was appointed to the chair, to deprive 
him of the opportunity of speaking, as he has the gift of say- 
ing little with many words." In the year last mentioned, he 
addressed a memorial to Lord George Germain, to which Gov- 
ernor Franklin called his Lordship's attention. He went to 
England, and was followed by his wife and cliildren, in 1785. 
Mrs. Cox was daughter of the distinguished Dr. John Red- 
man. At her departure her parents were well-nigh incon- 
solable. When, by the death of her sister, in 1806, she 
became the only surviving child, she came across the ocean 
to soothe her afflicted father, and to minister to the wants of 



S 



840 COX. 

her dying mother. Mr. Cox's property in New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania was confiscated. Sarah, his widow, died at 
Brigliton, England, in 1843, aged ninety-one. 

Cox, Lemuel. Of Boston, Massachusetts. Near the close 
of the year 1775, he was in prison at Ipswich for his attach- 
ment to the cause of the Crown. Mr. Felt, in his very inter- 
esting work, the " Annals of Salem," supposes this Lemuel 
Cox to have been the chief architect of Essex Bridge in 1788, 
and who, subsequently, constructed bridges in England and 
Ireland. " In 1796," says Mr. Felt, " he had a grant of 1000 
acres of land in Maine from our Legislature, for being the 
first inventor of a machine to cut card-wire, the first projector 
of a powder-mill in Massachusetts, the first suggestor of em- 
ploying prisoners on Castle Island, to make nails, and for 
various other discoveries in mechanical arts." 

Cox, Francis. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Was a lieu- 
tenant in the regiment commanded by Colonel Mansfield, and 
deserted from the camp at Cambridge, in June, 1775, and 
left the service. General Ward submitted to the Provincial 
Congress the propriety of making him a public example, for, 
besides his own desertion, he incited his men to follow his 
example. 

Cox, John. Of Falmouth, Maine. Was the son of John 
Cox, of that town, and married Sarah Proctor in 1739, who 
died in 1761. He married again at Falmouth ; and, molested 
for his political opinions, removed with the family by his second 
wife, to Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, about the year 1783. The 
Crown made him a grant of land, now, (1848,) as I under- 
stand, occupied by his descendants, and known as Coxtoicn. 
He married a third time ; his children were twenty in 
number. 

Cox, James. Of Virginia. Some time in the war, he was 
at Newtown, New York. At the peace, accompanied by his 
family of four persons, and by four servants, he went from 
New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown 
granted him one town lot. His losses in consequence of his 
loyalty were estimated at £3000. He died at New York, 



COXE. - COY. 341 

CoxE, Tench. Of Pennsylvania. Son of William Coxe, 
X)f New Jersey. His loyalty is disputed, as I understand, on 
two grounds. First, because, after he was attainted of trea- 
son, lie surrendered himself, and was discharged ; second, 
because, after the organization of the Federal Government, 
he was employed by Washington and Hamilton. These facts 
prove nothing either way. The accusation against him was 
that, on the approach of the Royal Army, he went from Phil- 
adelphia to join it, and marched into the city under its ban- 
ners* Of this, he was legally acquitted ; but, unless I am 
misinformed, his sympathies were on the side of the Crown. 
As relates to the other point, I cite a single incident to show 
the degree of confidence reposed in him. 

In February, 1795, it became necessary to provide for the 
temporary performance of the duties of Comptroller, and the 
President consulted Hamilton, who, in reply, objected to 
Coxe (then Commissioner of the Revenue) because his ap- 
pointment " could not fail, for strong reasons, to be unpleasant 
to Mr. Wolcott," (Secretary of the Treasury) " and because 
there is real danger that Mr. Coxe would first perplex and 
emliarrass, and afterwards misrepresent and calumniate." 

He published an " Address on American Manufactures ; " 
an " Inquiry on the Principles of a Commercial System for 
the United States ; " an " Examination of Lord Sheffield's 
Observations ; " a " View of the United States ; " " Thoughts 
on Naval Power, and the Encouragement of Commerce and 
^Manufactures ; " " Memoir on the Cultivation, Trade, and 
IVf anufacture of Cotton ; " *' Memoir on a Navigation Act ; " 
and ** Statement of the Arts and Manufactures of the United 
States." He died at Philadelphia, in 1824, at the age of 
wxty-eight. Rebecca, his wife, died in the same city in 1806. 
CoYLE, Francis. Of New York. Went to Shelburne, 
Uova Scotia, at the peace, and in the excitement of the time, 
paid a guinea a foot for a house-lot. A few years after, he 
C!ould hardly have sold his property at one tenth of its cost. 
Me died at Shelburne, leaving a family. 

Coy, Amasa. Of Connecticut. He went to New Bruns- 

29* 



842 COZENS. — CROFT. 

wick in 1783. He died at Fredericton in 1838, aged eighty- 
one. 

Cozens, Daniel. Captain in the New Jersey Volunteers. 
Killed in 1779, during the siege of Savannah. 

Crane, Jonathan. Settled in Nova Scotia, and was a 
magistrate, a colonel in the militia, and a member of the 
Assembly. Coming out of the Government-House one day, 
John Howe asked him — " What is going on ? " " Oh," re- 
plied Crane, " 't is all a game of whist ; the honors are di- 
vided, and nothing is to be got except by tricks,'''* His son 
William, who died rich, was a member of the Assembly, 
Speaker of that body, and a delegate of the Province to 
England. His widow, Rebecca, died in Horton, in that 
Province, in 1841, aged eighty-eight. 

Crannell, Bartholomew. Of New York. He was a 
public notary in the city, in 1782. The year following he 
announced his intention of removing to Nova Scotia, and 
was one of the fifty-five petitioners for lands in that Colony. 
He arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, before the close of 
1783, and received the grant of a city lot. He commenced 
business as a merchant. In 1785 he was Clerk of the Com- 
mon Council. 

Creighton, James, and Alexander. The first, Secre- 
tary of the Pohce Department of Long Island, New York, 
in 1782 ; the other, of Georgia, and attainted of treason, in 
1778. A person named James Creighton died at Hali&x, 
Nova Scotia, in 1813, aged eighty-one. 

Crocker, Josiah. Of Barnstable, Massachusetts. Son 
of Cornelius Crocker. He graduated at Harvard University 
in 1765. He taught school in Barnstable a short time ; " but, 
on account of his feeble health and Tory proclivities," took but 
little part in public affaire. He died of consumption in 1780, 
in his thirty-sixth year. His wife was Deborah, daughter of 
Hon. Daniel Davis. His five children were Robert, Uriel, 
Josiah, Deborah and Mehitable. 

Croft, Frederick. Of North Carolina. In the battle at 
Cross Creek, 1776, he " shot Captain Dent in cold blood." 



CROMWELL. — CRUGER. 343 

He was made prisoner, confined in Halifax jail, and sent, 
finally, to Maryland. 

Cromwell, Josiah. He died at Portland, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1803. 

Cross, William. He went from New York to Nova 
Scotia, at the close of the war, and died at Aimapolis Royal, 
in 1834, aged eighty-three. 

Crossing, William. Of Newport, Rhode Island. A 
noted marauder and robber. He was employed at first as 
a pilot of the Royal troops, but, in 1778, seems to have be- 
longed to Wightman's motley regiment. The account of him 
is, tliat he plundered women of their jewelry and fancy arti- 
cles of dress ; that he robbed and burned houses ; and that 
he carried off Whigs in mere wantonness. He was taken 
prisoner in the year above mentioned, and confined at Provi- 
dence. 

Crow, Charles. Of Boston. In September, 1777, he N. 
was. seized in that town, fastened to a cart and carried to ^ 
Roxbury, where another party conveyed him to Dedham. 
The object was to "cart him" through every town to the 
Rhode Jsland line, and compel him to join the British. 

Crow, Jonathan. Of Massachusetts. Was buried in 
Trinity Church-yard, New York, in October, 1780. 

Crowell, Joseph. Was a captain in the First Battalion 
of New Jersey Volunteers. He settled in New Brunswick, 
received half-pay, and died at Carleton in that Colony. His 
son Thomas died at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, in 1845, aged 
eighty. His only daughter married Luther Wetmore. 

Cruder, John Harris. Of New York. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Commandant of DeLancey's First Battalion. He 
succeeded his father, Henry Cruger, as member of the Coun- 
cil of the Colony ; and at the beginning of the Revolution, 
held, beside, the office of Chamberlain of the City. He en- 
tered the military service in 1777, and from 1779 to the 
peace, few Loyalist officers performed more responsible or 
arduous duty. We hear of him in the last-mentioned year, 
as made prisoner at a dinner-party in Georgia, on the King's 



A 



344 CRUGER. 

birtliday, but as soon exchanged ; as in command of the gar- 
rison at Sunbury, but ordered to evacuate tlie post and I'epair 
to Savannah, with all possible haste. In July, 1780, he was 
at Ninety-Six, when, in the condition of affairs, he was di- 
rected to send a part of his force to Camden. In August, 
Lord Cornwallis wrote to him to execute all in his district who 
had borne arms on the side of the Crown, and who afterwards 
fought with the Whigs ; and that he obeyed appears from his 
own letter to Major Ferguson, in which he said that he had 
fallen in with the Rebels, taken most of their plunder, killed 
a great number, had hung several others, and designed to hang 
many more. In September, he made a forced march to Au- 
gusta, to relieve Colonel Browne, and arrived just in time to 
save him. In 1781, Lord Rawdon was sorely pressed in South 
CaroHna, and sent re|)eated expresses to Cruger to abandon 
Ninety-Six, to join Browne, assume command of the whole 
force, and act at his discretion. But not one of the messen- 
gers reached him, and he was left in ignorance of his Lord- 
ship's situation. While completing the defences by throwing 
up a bank of earth, building block-houses, and the like. Gen- 
eral Greene encamped in a wood within cannon shot of the vil- 
lage, and summoned him to surrender. Cruger replied that 
he should maintain the post to the last. The Whig attempted 
to burn the barrac^ks by shooting African arrows ; the Loyal- 
ist defeated the plan by directing all the buildings to be un- 
rooffed, which exposed officers and men to the night air and 
to rains the remainder of the siege. Greene made an assault, 
which, after a terrible conflict, failed. The besieged suflTered 
much f(»r water ; the negroes went out naked at night, that 
they might not be distinguished from the trees, and brought 
in a scanty supply. During these trying scenes, Cruger's 
courage, skill, and fertility of resource, drew commendation 
even from his foes. Without relief, he knew that he must sub- 
mit at last ; when almost in despair, an American lady who had 
lately married one of his officers, (and who, it is related, was 
bribed by a considerable sum of money,) arrived with a letter 
assurinor him that Rawdon was near with a reinforcement. 



CRUGER. 346 

Mrs. Cmger was with her husband during the perils of his 
command at Ninety-Six. When General Greene approached 
that post, he found her and the wife of Major Green in a 
farm-house, and not only allowed them to remain, but placed 
a guard to protect them. Indeed, among the last acts of the 
Greneral, though defeated and worn with care, was a leave- 
taking of these ladies, and measures to ensure their continued 
safety. At his departure, he left the guard ; and Cruger, as 
generous as his antagonist, sent it with his passport, to rejoin 
the Whig Army on the retreat. Nay, more; Mrs. Cruger 
pointed out the route of the retiring " Rebels " to a return- 
ing scouting party, that, absent some days, were unconscious 
of the condition of things, and so were on their way to the 
supposed Whig camp ; and they, too, reached their compan- 
ions. 

The dreadful civil war, which desolated South Carolina, 
"began at Ninety-Six," and many who had incurred the 
hate of the Whigs were in garrison when besieged by 
Greene, and fought in fear of the halter. Rawdon decided 
to evacuate the post, and moving himself toward the Con- 
garee, ordered Cruger to protect the Loyalists and to escort 
such as wished to remove to a place of safety. Most, appre- 
hending a general slaughter, determined to abandon their 
homes. " Melancholy was the spectacle that followed ; troop- 
ing slowly and gloomily in the van and rear of the British 
Army, went the families of this unhappy faction. For days 
the roads from Ninety-Six were crowded with the wretched 
cavalcade ; men, women, children, and slaves, with cattle and 
wagons " — all journeying to the seaboard. 

In the battle of Eutaw Springs, Colonel Cruger occupied 
the centre of the British line, and was distinguished. On 
leaving Charleston, July 1782, the inhabitants presented him 
an Address. In June, 1783, his furniture was sold at auction 
at his house, Hanover Square, New York ; and soon after he 
embarked for England. His estate was confiscated, and he 
remained in exile. He died in London, in 1807, aged sixty- 
nine. Mrs. Cruger, who died at Chelsea, England, in 1822 



346 CRUGER. — CUNNINGHAM. 

at the age of seventy-eight, was a daughter of the senior 
Oliver DeLancey, and was at her father's hoiise in 1777, 
when it was burned at night by a party of Whigs. It was in 
the counting-liouse of Colonel Cruger's " brother Nicholas, 
at St. Croix, that Alexander Hamilton commenced his mer- 
cantile clerkship." His brother, Henry Cruger, who died in 
New York in 1827, aged eighty-eight, was a member of Par- 
liament for Bristol, and a colleague of Burke. His sister 
Mary married Jacob Walton ; his sister Elizabeth married 
Peter Van Schaack. 

Cruger, John. Of New York. In 1775 he was Speaker 
of the House of Assembly, and during the recess that year, 
with thirteen other members of the Ministerial party, ad- 
dressed a letter to General Gage on the alarmini; state of 
public, affairs. This communication is dated May 5th, on 
which day two members of the Council of New York sailed 
for England. When, in 1769, he was elected to the Assem- 
bly, the success of his party was deemed a victory of the 
Episco[)alians over the Presbyterians. 

Cumberland, . Of North Carolina. Captain. 

Killed in 1780, in the battle of Ramsour's Mill. 

CuNARD, Robert. Of Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. 
He was attainted of treason and lost his estate by confiscation. 
He died at Portland, New Brunswick, in 1818, aged sixty- 
nine. His son Abraham settled in Halifax, became a mer- 
chant, and died in that city. The Brothers Cunard, so widely 
known as the projectors of the Royal Mail Steamship Line, 
are sons of Abraham. 

CuNNABEL, Edward G. He died at Union Point, New 
Brunswick, in 1838, aged seventy-six. 

Cunningham, Robert. Of South Carohna. One of the 
most prominent LoyaHsts of the whole South. In 1769, he 
settled in the district of Ninety-Six, and was soon commis- 
sioned a Judge. }Iq incuiTed the displeasure of the Whigs 
in 1775, when he disapproved of their proceedings in sus- 
taining the cause of Massachusetts, and in the adoption of 
the Non-Importation Act. In the course of that year he was 



CUNNINGHAM. 347 

seized and imprisoned at Charleston. His brotlier Patrick 
assembled a body of friends in order to effect his release. 
The Whigs despatched Major Williamson with a force to 
prevent the accomplishment of this object, but Cunningham's 
party being superior, he was compelled to retreat. A truce 
or treaty was finally arranged, and both Whigs and Loyalists 
dispersed. In July of 1776, Robert Cunningham was allowed 
his freedom without conditions, and removed to Charleston. 
Colonel Williamson wrote to William Henry Drayton, the 
same month he appeared in camp, and ^^ declared himself our 
fiEist friend, and that he came to stand and fall with us." " I 
have no doubt," adds Williamson, "of his proving true to 
his declaration, but at present it would be improper to confer 
any public trust on him." In 1780 he was created a Brig- 
adier-General, and placed in conmiand of a garrison in South 
Carolina ; but in 1781 was at the head of a force in the field, 
and encountered Sumter. His estate was confiscated in 1782. 
After the peace, he petitioned to be allowed to continue in 
South Carolina. His request was refused, and he removed to 
Nassau, New Providence. The British Government made 
him a liberal allowance for his losses, and gave him an an- 
nuity. He died in 1813, aged seventy-four years. 

Cunningham, Patrick. Of South Carolina. Brother of 
General Robert. In 1769 he was appointed Deputy Surveyor- 
General of the Colony. He was connected with the earliest 
military movements at the South. In 1775, at the head of 
one hundred and fifty Loyalists, he intercepted a party of 
Whigs that were conveying ammunition ; and the same year 
assembled a force of fifteen hundred men to oppose Major 
Williamson, who was compelled to retire. After attempting 
to effect the release of his brother Robert in 177G, and the 
temporary accommodation of affairs that year, Patrick re- 
moved to Charleston, where he was committed to prison by 
order of the Provincial Congress. 

In 1780 he received the commission of Colonel, and the 
command of a regiment. His estate was confiscated in 1782. 
At the conclusion of the contest, he joined Robert in a request 



348 CUNNINGHAM. 

to be allowed to remain in the State. The application was not 
successful, and he went to Florida. In 1785^ a second peti- 
tion to be restored to his rights in South Carolina was more 
favorably received ; and the Legislature, amercing his estate 
twelve per cent., and imposing some personal disabilities for a 
term of years, annulled the. previous act of banishment and 
confiscation. He was elected a member of the Legislature, 
but his position was an unpleasant one, and, after serving for 
a short time, he retired. He died in 1794. 

Cunningham, David. Brother of General Robert. Be- 
fore the Revolution, he was Deputy Surveyor of the District 
of Ninety-Six. During the war, he accepted the place of 
Commissary of the Royal Army at Charleston. He was 
allowed to continue in the State at the peace, and became 
a planter in Ninety-Six. 

Cunningham, John. Of South Carolina. Was also a 
brother of General Robert. He was a planter ; but in the 
course of the war, removing with his brothers to Charleston, 
was a Commissary in the British Army. In 1782 his prop- 
erty was confiscated. He was permitted to reside in the State 
at the conclusion of hostilities ; and, embarking in commercial 
pursuits, accumulated a large fortune, 

Cunningham, William. Of South Carolina. Was 
known as " Bloody Bill ; " and there is no little evidence 
to show that he well deserved the appellation. At the be- 
ginning of the controversy he was inclined to be a Whig, and 
indeed accepted a military commission, and served in the cam- 
paign of 1776. Changing sides, he became an officer and a 
major in the service of the Crown, and was engaged in many 
desperate exploits, and hand-to-hand fights. About the close 
of the year 1781, when the Roj^al Army was confined to the 
vicinity of Charleston, this monster adopted the infernal scheme 
of taking his last revenge, by carrying fire and sword into the 
settlements of the Whig militia. At the head of a band of 
Tories, he reached the back country without discovery, and 
began to plunder, to bum, and to murder. To show the na- 
ture of the man and the kind of warfiu:^ which he waged, 



CUNNINGHAM. 349 

two cases will suffice. Firet, a party of twenty under Cap- 
tain Turner, armed in self-defence, took post in a house, and 
fought until their ammunition was nearly expended, when 
they surrendered on condition of being treated as pnsoners 
'of war. But Cunningham put every one of them to instant 
death. Second, a number of Whigs, in the District of Ninety- 
Six, commanded by Colonel Joseph Hayes, took shelter in a 
building which was set on fire, and, on promise of protection, 
yielded, rather than be burned alive. Hayes, and Captain 
Daniel Williams were immediately hung on a pole, which 
broke, and both fell ; thereupon, Cunningham <^ cut them 
into pieces with his own sword.'' This done, he turned upon 
his other prisoners, and hacked, and maimed, and killed, un- 
til his strength was exhausted. Not yet glutted with blood, 
he called upon his comrades to complete the dreadful work, 
and to slay whoever of the survivors they pleased. The end 
jsras the slaughter of twelve more, or of fourteen in all. 
Thus, " Bloody Bill," murdered thirty-five persons in these 
two instances. In 1782, his property was confiscated ; and, 
at the peace, he retreated to Florida. 

Cunningham, Archibald. Of Boston. Merchant. Mem- 
ber of the North Church, and high in office among the Free 
Masons. Went to New York in 1776, and was proscribed 
and banished in 1778. 

At the peace, accompanied by his family of six persons, and 
by one servant, he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova 
Scotia. His losses in consequence of his loyalty were esti- 
mated at £1100. In Nova Scotia he was Clerk of the Peace, 
and Register of Probate. He was a man of reading and ob- 
servation, and left valuable papers. He died in 1820. 

Cunningham, Andrew. Of the District of Ninety-Six, 
South Carolina. He held a commission under the Crown, 
and lost his estate under the Confiscation Act. But the Gen- 
eral Assembly, by special Act, subsequently, gave Margaret, 
his widow, and her children, an estate on Rexburns Creek, 
which had not been sold by the Commissioners of Forfeited 
Estates, and which seems to have been the homestead. 

VOL. I. 80 



860 CUNNINGHAM. - CURWEN. 

Cunningham, William. Of New York. Provast Mar- 
shal. To receive as authentic the " Confession " wliich ap- 
peared in the newspapers about the time of his death, we 
have the following facts, namely : that his father was a 
trumpeter in the Dragoons, and that he was bom in the bar- 
racks at Dublin ; that he arrived at New York in 1774, with 
some indented serA'ants, kidnapped by him in Ireland; that 
his first employment here was the breaking of hoi*ses and the 
teaching of young gentlemen and ladies to ride ; that his 
course in the Revolutionary controversy rendered him ob- 
noxious to the Whigs of New York ; that he fled to Boston, 
where, continuing his opposition to the popular movement, he 
attracted the attention of General Gage, who, as the quarrel 
came to blows, appointed him Provost Marshal to the Royal 
Army, which gave him an opportunity to wreak his vengeance 
on the Americans. The details of his crimes are horrible. 
Of the prisoners under his care, two thousand were starved 
to death, and more than two hundred and fifty were privately 
hung without ceremony. To reject this paper, there is quite 
enough in the documents of the time to show that he was an 
incarnate devil. At tlie peace he went to England, and set- 
tled in Wales. Persuaded to go to Lcmdon, he became dissi- 
pated ; and, to relieve his embarrassments, mortgaged his half- 
pay, and subsequently forged a draft. Convicted of forgery, 
he was executed in London in 1791. 

Cunningham, James. Pilot to the fleet under the com- 
mand of Lord Howe. He went to England, and died there 
in 1783. 

CuRWEN, Samuel. Of Massjichusetts. Graduated at 
Harvard University in 1735. He was in the commission of 
the peace for thirty yeai-s, and at the breaking out of the 
Revolution, a Judge of Admiralty. He went to England in 
1775, remained there until 1784, when he initumed to Salem, 
where he passed the remainder of his days, dying in 1802, at 
the age of eighty-six years. While in exile, he kept a jour- 
nal, wliich has been published, and is an interesting book ; 
its editor, George A. Ward, Esq., of New York, has enriched 



CURWEN. 861 

it with several notices of his relative's fellow-Loyahsts, and 
thus added greatly to is vahie. No work extant contains so 
mach information of the unliappy exiles while abroad. 

A rapid synopsis of the joumal follows : " Visited West- 
minster Hall. Went to Vauxhall Gardens. Dined with a 
fellow-refugee. Saw the Lord Mayor in his court. Dined 
with Governor Hutchinson, in company with several Massar 
chasetts refugees. Walked to Hyde Park. A whole army 
of sufferers in the cause of loyalty are here, lamenting their 
own and their country's unhappy fate. * The fires are not 
to be compared to our large American ones of oak and wal- 
nut, nor near so comfortable ; would that I were away I ' 
Saw many curiosities brought from Egypt and the Holy 
Land. Visited Hampton Court ; saw there chairs of state 
with rich canopies ; pictures of the reigning beauties of the 
times of Charles the Second ; pictures of monks, friai*s, nuns ; 
pictures of fonner kings and queens. Went to Windsor. 
Heard news from America. Went to Governor Hutchin- 
son's ; he was alone, reading a new pamphlet, entitled ^ An 
Enquiry whether Great Britain or America is most in Fault.' 
Dined with eleven New Englanders. Went to meeting of 
Disputation Club. Bought Dr. Price on ' Civil Liberty and 
the American War.' Visited Governor Hutcliinson, who was 
again alone. Went to Herald's office. Went to New Eng- 
land Coffee-house. New England refugees form a Club. 
Went to Cliapel Royal, and saw the King and Queen ; 
Bishop of London preached. Heard Dr. Price preach. 
Dinner, tea, and evening with several refugees. Attended 
funeral of fellow-refugee ; many have died. At the New 
England Club dinner, twenty-five members present. News 
of Banishment and Confiscation Acts. Saw procession of 
peers for trial of Duchess of Kingston. Went to St. Paul's ; 
Dr. Porteus preached ; several high chnrcli dignitaries pre- 
sent. Saw Lord Mansfield in Court, his train borne by a 
gentleman. Went to Bunyan's tomb. Heard Dr. Peters, 
a Connecticut Loyalist, preach. News from America. Strive 
hard for some petty clerkship ; application was unsuccessful ; 



352 CURWEN. 

such offices openly bought and sold. Hopes and fears excited 
by accounts from native land. Visited ancient ruins, supposed 
to be either of Roman or Danish origin. Witnessed election 
of a member of Parliament. Discnss probability of war's 
closing. Sigh to return to America. Fear to be reduced to 
want ; lament distressed and forlorn condition. Visited noble- 
men's estates and castles. Heard of death of Washington. 
Letter from a friend in America. Visited different colleges 
and public gardens. Fears about losing pension, and horror 
of utter poverty. Attended sessions of Parliament ; heard 
Fox, Burke, and other great orators. Heard that Washing- 
ton and his army were captured. Heard Wesley preach to 
an immense throng in the open air. Visited a fishing-town, 
and reminded of fishing-towns in Massachusetts. Heard that 
Washington is declared Dictator, like Cromwell. King im- 
plored to drive Lord North from his service, and take Chat- 
ham, and men of his sentiments, instead. Witnessed equip- 
ment of fleets and armies to subdue America. Angry and 
mortified to hear Englishmen talk of Americans as a sort of 
serfs. Wearied of sights. Sick at heart, and tired of a so- 
journ among a people, who, after all, are but foreigners. New 
refucrees arrived to recount their losses and sufferings. Fear 
of alliance with France. Great excitement in England among 
the opposers of the war. Continued and frequent deaths 
limong the refugee Loyalists. Pensions of several friends 
refduced. Fish dinner at the Coffee-house. O for a return 
to New England ! Anxious as to the result of the war. News 
of surrender of Cornwallis, and admission on all hands, that 
England can do no more. All the Loyalists abroad deeply 
agitated as to their future fate. Failure of British Commis- 
sioners to procure in the treaty of peace any positive condi- 
tions for the Americans in exile. Long to be away, but dare 
not' go. Some refugees venture directly to return to their 
homes ; others embark for Nova Scotia and Canada, there 
to suffer anew. Know of forty-five refugees from Massa- 
chusetts who have died in England ; among them, Hutch- 
inson, the Governor, and Flucker, the Secretary." 



CURRY. — CUTLER. 353 

Such were some of the things which Curwen saw and 
heard, such the hopes and fears which agitated him during 
bis exile, and the course of life of hundreds of others, we may 
very properly conclude, was not dissimilar. Would that all 
the opposers of the Revolution had passed their time as inno- 
cently 1 Some of those who remained in the country, did in 
fiM^t do so ; since they were nominal Loyalists only, and lived 
quietly upon their estates, or pursued their ordinary employ- 
ments at their usual homes, in the towns occupied by the Royal 
forces. 

Curry, John. He settled in New Bnmswick after the 
war, and as early as 1792 was senior Justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas for the Countv of Charlotte. He died in that 
county. His son, Cadwallader Curry, was for some years a 
merchant at Eastport, Maine, and subsequently at Campo 
Bello, New Bininswick. 

CuKRY, Ross. Of Philadelphia. A Whig at first, and a 
lieutenant in the army. Attainted of treason, and property 
confiscated. Was a lieutenant in the Pennsylvania Loyalists, 
and adjutant of the corps. He settled in New Brunswick, 
received half-pay, and devoted himself to the profession of 
the law. He died in that Province. 

Curtis, Charles. Of Scituate, Massachusetts. Grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 176o. He was one of the 
eighteen country gentlemen who were driven into Boston, 
and who were Addressers of Gage on his departure, in 
October, 1775. He was proscribed under the Ac^t of 1778. 
His death occurred at New York ])rcvi()us to 1882. 

Cutler. Two persons of the name of Thomas Cutler were 
proscribed and banished in 1778 ; one by the Act of New 
Hampshire, the other by that of Massachusetts. The Thomas 
of the latter belonged to Hatfield. There died at Gaysbor- 
ottgh, Nova Scotia, in 1838, Thomas Cutler, Escj., at the 
age of eighty-five, who was a Loyalist, and who was, un- 
doubtedly, one of them. 

Cutler, Ebenezer. .Of North borough, Massachusetts. 
In May, 1775, the Northborough ('ommittee of Correspond- 

80* 



854 CUTLER. — CUTTING. 

ence made charges against him, and sent him, with the evi- 
dence of his misconduct, to General Ward at Cambridge. 
His case was submitted to Congress, when it appeared that 
he had spoken " many things disrespectful of tlie Continental 
and Provincial Congresses," that he had " acted against their 
resolves," had said that " he would assist Gage," had called 
such as signed the town-covenant or non-consumption agree- 
ment, " damned fools," &c., &c. A resolve to commit him 
to prison was refused a passage, and a resolve that he be 
allowed to join tlie British troops at Boston, was also lost. 
But subsequently he was allowed to go into that town " with- 
out his effects." Cutler had formerly lived at Groton. In 
1776 he accompanied the British Army to Halifax. In 1778 
he was proscribed and banished. He settled in Nova Scotia, 
and was protonotary of the county of Annapolis. He was a 
zealous Episcopalian ; and, it is related that, seeing his cow 
drinking from a stream which passed under a Methodist meet- 
ing-house, " he beat her severely for her apostacy from the 
' true faith." He died at Annapolis Royal, in 1831, quite 
aged. Mary, his widow, died at the same place in 1839. 

Cutting, Leonard. An Episcopal clergyman, of New 
York. He graduated at Cambridge, England, in 1747, and 
shortly after was appointed a tutor and a professor in King^s 
College, New York. In 1766 he was settled as minister of 
St. George's Church, Hempstead, New York. In 1776 he 
signed an acknowledgment of allegiance, and professed him- 
self a loyal and well-atiected subject. While at Hempstead, 
he preached occasionally at Huntington and Oyster Bay. He 
also taught a classical school of high repute, and educated sev- 
eral young men who became eminent. In 1784 his pastoral 
relations at Hempstead were dissolved, and he accepted the 
Rectorship of the Episcopal Church at Snow Hill, Maryland. 
Subsequently, he was called to Christ Church, Newbem, 
North Carolina ; and, after officiating there about eight years, — 
he returned to New York. He died in 17V^4, in his seventieth 
year. His wife survived until 1S03. One of his sons was«^ 
the father of Francis B. Cutting, an eminent lawyer of the^ 



CUTTER. — CUTLER S55 

citv of New York. He was small and of slender frame : and 
. was " beloved, equally by his pupils, bis parishioners, and his 
j ! friends." 

ly Cutler, Samuel, Of Edenton, North Carolina. Physi- 
cian, com in Brookfield, Massachusetts, in 1741 ; graduated 
at Harvard University, 1765. After travelling in Europe, he 
settled at Edenton, and enjoyed the respect of several leading 
Whigs. At one period of the war, he was in practice at New- 
town, New York. His fortunes subsequently were various. 
In 1785 he was at Hartford, Connecticut, where he formed 
business relations with an English gentleman, by which, he 
said, he hoped to live comfortably the remainder of his days. 
Though treated with every civility, his situation was disagree- 
able, because he was among people whose genius and manners 
were totally different from those with whom he had minorled 
for twenty years, and because he was entirely separated from 
old friends to whom he was most tenderly attached. In De- 
cember of the same year he was at New London, where — he 
wrote — his employment called him up before the sun, kept 
him on f(M)t the whole day, and often still later. I find him 
next in 1795, when he was in Vermont. His two sons were 
with him, but his wife was at Hartford. His circumstances 
were easy, but there was no society around him, and he lived 
almost in solitude. He had relinquished practice, but acted 
occasionally in consultations. He was a trader, farmer, miller, 
and distiller. He had been a member of the Legislature ; 
and had he not been loyal in the Revolution, would have 
enjoyed popular favor. He died at Walpole, New Hampshire, 
in 1821, in his eightieth year. 

Cutter, Zacheus. Of Amherst, New Hampshire. Aban- 
doned " the country. Commissioners appointed to examine 
claims against his estate, June, 1781. For a time during the 
'^var, he was at Newtown, New York. Prior to the peace, 
li« sailed for London for the purchase of goods, intending to 
Establish himself in New York, and perished at sea on the 
x-eturn passage.. Dr. Samuel Cutter was a kinsman. 

Cuyler, Abraham C. Of Albany, New York. Mayor 



356 CUYLER. — D ABNEY. 

of that city. Confined at Hartford, he applied to the New 
York State Convention, (August, 1776,) for permission to 
visit his wife, who, he said, was sick and unable to take care 
of his children and large family ; and, in the mean time, to 
settle some of his private afi&irs. 

Released after some delay, he was authorized by the British 
Commander-in-Chief to raise a battalion of six hundred men 
for the Royal service, and in November, 1779, was recruiting 
loyal refugees at Bett's tavern, Jamaica, New York. He 
was attainted, and his property confiscated. In 1781 he went 
to England. He returned to Albany, and lived where the 
North Dutch Church now stands ; but his course in the Rev- 
olution rendered his situation uncomfortable, and he removed 
to Canada, and died there in 1810, aged sixty-eight. " He 
was a man of dignified and gentlemanly deportment." His 
son, Cornelius, a major in the British Army, died at Montreal 
in 1807. 

CuYLER, Henry. Colonel in the British Army. He en- 
tered the service in 1782, as an ensign ; was commissioned a 
Major in 1797, a Lieutenant-Colonel in 1800, and Colonel in 
1810. He died in England in 1841, aged seventy-two. 

CuYLER, Sir Cornelius, Baronet. Of Albany, New 
York. General in the British Army. He was born at 
Albany, and entered the service young. Besides the honors 
above mentioned, he was Governor of Kinsale, and Colonel 
of the 69th Foot. He died at St. John's Lodge, Herts, Eng- 
land, in 1819, and was succeeded by his son Charles, the 
present (1857) Baronet. Lady Cuyler, who died in 1815, 
was Anne, daughter of Major Richard Grant. George, a 
son, Colonel of the 11th Foot, and K. C. B., died at Ports- 
mouth, England, in 1818, immediately after his return from 
Gibraltar. 

Dabney, Nathaniel. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Phvsi- 
cian. All Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, but one of the- 
" Rwanters." He went to England in 1777, and died befores- 
the i>eacc. In 1781, his estate was advertised for sale by the-* 
Whig authorities. 



DALGLISH. - DANA. 857 

Dalolish, Andrew. Of Salem, Massachusetts. An Ad- 
dresser of Gage in 1774. He went to England. Was at 
Glasgow, November, 1781. . 

Dana, Samuel. Of Massachusetts. He was born in that >^^ 
part of Cambridge which is now Brighton, in 1739, and grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1756. Six years later, the 
town of Groton voted unanimously to invite liim to become 
their minister, with a settlement of £200, a salary of £80, 
and fii-e-wood, not to exceed thirty cords per annum. He 
was ordained June, 1761. In the crisis of 1775, he believed 
that resistance would lead to greater evils than were then 
endured, and used his influence on the side of non-resistance. 
In March, " he preached a sermon which gave great offence 
to the people, who were generally inclined to unwavering re- 
sistance. He was not allowed to enter the meeting-house on 
the next Sabbath, and his dismission by the town soon fol- 
lowed." " It is a matter of tradition, that the in- 
habitants were so enraged, that they shot bullets into Mr. 
Dana's house, to the great danger of his life and the lives of 
bis family." That he was an excellent man, cannot be 
doubted. In May, he made a written confession, which, at 
the moment, was satisfactory. He had warm Whig friends. 
In the hope that all trouble might terminate, the Whig Com- 
mittee of Groton, (of whom Colonel Prescott, who shortly 
after commanded the American force at Breed's Hill, was 
one^) published a card, to the effect that Mr. Dana had fully 
atoned for his offences. The good will of his parishioners 
was, however, alienated, and separation was the consequence. 
After his dismission at Groton, he continued in that town for 
some years, but finally removed to Amherst, New Hampshire, 
when he read law, and was appointed Judge of Probate for 
the County of Hillsborough. He died at Amherst in 1798, 
and was buried with Masonic honors. ■ His son Luther was 
an enterprising ship-master, and father of Samuel L. Dana, 
physician and chemist, of Lowell, Massachusetts. His second 
son, Hon. Samuel Dana, who died in 1835, was bred to the 
law, was distinguished in his profession, and became President 



356 CUYLER. — D ABNEY. 

of that city. Confined at Hartford, he applied to the New 
York State Convention, (August, 1776,) for permission to 
visit his wife, who, he said, was sick and unable to take care 
of his children and large family ; and, in the mean time, to 
settle some of his private afi&irs. 

Released after some delay, he was authorized by the British 
Commander-in-Chief to raise a battalion of six hundred men 
for the Royal service, and in November, 1779, was recruiting 
loyal refugees at Bett's tavern, Jamaica, New York. He 
was attainted, and his property confiscated. In 1781 he went 
to England. He returned to Albany, and lived where the 
North Dutch Church now stands ; but his course in the Rev- 
olution rendered his situation uncomfortable, and he removed 
to Canada, and died there in 1810, ageil sixty-eight. " He 
was a man of dignified and gentlemanly deportment." His 
son, Cornelius, a major in the British Army, died at Montreal 
in 1807. 

CuYLER, Henry. Colonel in the British Aniiy. He en- 
tered the service in 1782, as an ensign ; was commissioned a 
Major in 1797, a Lieutenant-Colonel in 1800, and Colonel in 
1810. He died in England in 1841, aged seventy-two. 

CuYLER, Sir Cornelius, Baronet. Of Albany, New 
York. General in the British Army. He was born at 
Albany, and entered the service young. Besides the honors 
above mentioned, he was Governor of Kinsale, and Colonel 
of the 69th Foot. He died at St. John's Lodge, Herts, Eng- 
land, in 1819, and w^as succeeded by his son Charles, the 
present (ISf)?) Baronet. Lady Cuyler, who died in 1815, 
was Anne, daughter of Major Richard Grant. George, a 
son. Colonel of the 11th Foot, and K. C. B., died at Ports- 
mouth, England, in 1818, immediately after his return from 
Gibraltar. 

Dabney, Nathaniel. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Phvsi- 
cian. An Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, but one of the 
" Recanters." He went to England in 1777, and died before 
the peace. In 1781, his estate was advertised for sale by the 
Whig authorities. 



DALGLISH. - DANA. 857 

Dalolish, Andrew. Of Salem, Massachusetts. An Ad- 
dresser of Gage in 1774. He went to England. Was at 
Glasgow, November, 1781. . 

Dana, Samuel. Of Massachusetts. He was born in that >^^ 
part of Cambridge which is now Brighton, in 1739, and grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1756. Six years later, the 
town of Groton voted unanimously to invite him to become 
their minister, with a settlement of £200, a salary of £80, 
and fire-wood, not to exceed thirty cords per annum. He 
was ordained June, 1761. In the crisis of 1775, he believed 
that resistance would lead to greater evils than were then 
endured, and used his influence on the side of non-resistance. 
In March, " he preached a sermon which gave great offence 
to the people, who were generally inclined to unwavering re- 
sistance. He was not allowed to enter the meeting-house on 
the next Sabbath, and his dismission by the town soon fol- 
lowed." " It is a matter of tradition, that the in- 
habitants were so enraged, that they shot bullets into Mr. 
Dana's house, to the great danger of his life and the lives of 
bis family." That he was an excellent man, cannot be 
doubted. In May, he made a written confession, which, at 
the moment, was satisfactory. He had warm Whig friends. 
In the hope that all trouble might terminate, the Whig Com- 
mittee of Groton, (of whom Colonel Prescott, who shortly 
after commanded the American force at Breed's Hill, was 
one-,) published a card, to the effect that Mr. Dana had fully 
atoned for his offences. The good will of his parishioners 
was, however, alienated, and separation was the consequence. 
After his dismission at Groton, he continued in that town for 
some years, but finally removed to Amherst, New Hampshire, 
when he read law, and was appointed Judge of Probate for 
the County of Hillsborough. He died at Amherst in 1798, 
and was buried with Masonic honors. ' His son Luther was 
Ml enterprising ship-master, and father of Samuel L. Dana, 
physician and chemist, of Lowell, Massachusetts. His second 
son, Hon. Samuel Dana, who died in 1835, was bred to the 
law, was distinguished in his profession, and became President 



356 CUYLER. — DABNEY. 

of that city. Confined at Hartford, he applied to the New 
York State Convention, (Angust, 1776,) for permission to 
visit his wife, who, he said, was sick and unable to take care 
of his children and large family ; and, in the mean time, to 
settle some of his private affairs. 

Released after some delay, he was authorized by the British 
Commander-in-Chief to raise a battalion of six hundred men 
for the Royal service, and in November, 1779, was recruiting 
loyal refugees at Betfs tavern, Jamaica, New York. He 
was attainted, and his property confiscated. In 1781 he went 
to England. He returned to Albany, and lived where the 
North Dutch Church now stands ; but his course in the Rev- 
olution rendered his situation uncomfortable, and he reniovetl 
to Canada, and died there in 1810, aged sixty-eight. " He 
was a man of dignified and gentlemanly deportment." His 
son, Cornelius, a major in the British Army, died at Montreal 
in 1807. 

CuYLER, Henry. Colonel in the British Aniiy. He en- 
tered the service in 1782, as an ensign ; was commissioned a 
Major in 1797, a Lieutenant-Colonel in 1800, and Colonel in 
1810. He died in P2ngland in 1841, aged seventy-two. 

CuYLKR, Sir Cornelius, Baronet. Of Albany, New- 
York. General in the British Anny. He was born at 
Albany, and entered the service young. Besides the honors 
above mentioned, he was Governor of Kinsale, and Colonel 
of the 69th Foot. He died at St. John's Lodge, Herts, Eng- 
land, in 1819, and was succeeded by his son Charles, the 
present (1857) Baronet. Lady Cuyler, who died in 1815, 
was Anne, daughter of Major Richard Grant. George, a 
son, Colonel of the 11th Foot, and K. C. B., died at Ports- 
mouth, England, in 1818, immediately after his return from 
Gibraltar. 

Dabney, Nathaniel. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Phvsi- 
cian. All Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, but one of the 
" Recanters." He went to England in 1777, and died before 
the peace. In 1781, his estate was advertised for sale bv the 
Whig authorities. 



DALGLISH. - DANA. 857 

Dalgush, Andrew. Of Salem, Massacliusetts. An Ad- 
dresser of Gage in 1774. He went to England. Was at 
Glasgow, November, 1781. . 

Dana, Samuel. Of Massachusetts. He was bom in that >^^ 
part of Cambridge which is now Brighton, in 1739, and grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1756. Six years later, the 
town of Groton voted unanimously to invite him to become 
their minister, with a settlement of £200, a salary of £80, 
and fire-wood, not to exceed thirty cords per annum. He 
was ordained June, 1761. In the crisis of 1775, he believed 
that resistance would lead to greater evils than were then 
endured, and used his influence on the side of non-resistance. 
In March, " he preached a sermon which gave great offence 
to the people, who were generally inclined to unwavering re- 
sistance. He was not allowed to enter the meeting-house on 
the next Sabbath, and his dismission by the town soon fol- 
lowed." " It is a matter of tradition, that the in- 
habitants were so enraged, that they shot bullets into Mr. 
Dana's house, to the great danger of his life and the lives of 
his family." That he was an excellent man, cannot be 
doubted. In May, he made a written confession, which, at 
the moment, was satisfactory. He had warm Whig friends. 
In the hope that all trouble might terminate, the Whig Com- 
mittee of Groton, (of whom Colonel Prescott, who shortly 
after commanded the American force at Breed's Hill, was 
one,) published a card, to the effect that Mr. Dana had fully 
atoned for his offences. The good will of his parishioners 
was, however, alienated, and separation was the consequence. 
After his dismission at Groton, he continued in that town for 
some years, but finally removed to Amherst, New Hampshire, 
when he read law, and was appointed Judge of Probate for 
the County of Hillsborough. He died at Amherst in 1798, 
and was buried with Masonic honors. His son Luther was 
in enterprising ship-master, and father of Samuel L. Dana, 
physician and chemist, of Lowell, Massachusetts. His second 
son, Hon. Samuel Dana, who died in 1835, was bred to the 
law, was distinguished in his profession, and became President 



356 CUYLER. — D ABNEY. 

of that city. Confined at Hartford, he applied to the New 
York State Convention, (August, 1776,) for permission to 
visit his wife, who, he said, was sick and unable to take care 
of his children and large family ; and, in the mean time, to 
settle some of his private affairs. 

Released after some delay, he was authorized by the British 
Commander-in-Chief to raise a battalion of six hundred men 
for the Royal service, and in November, 1779, was recruiting 
loyal refugees at Bett's tavern, Jamaica, New York. He 
was attainted, and his property confiscated. In 1781 he went 
to England. He returned to Albany, and lived where the 
North Dutch Cliurch now stands ; but his course in the Rev- 
olution rendered his situation uncomfortable, and he removed 
to Canada, and died there in 1810, aged sixty-eight. " He 
was a man of dignified and gentlemanly deportment." His 
son, Cornelius, a major in the British Army, died at Montreal 
in 1807. 

CuYLER, Henry. Colonel in the British Ai-my. He en- 
tered the service in 1782, as an ensign ; was commissioned a 
Major in 1797, a Lieutenant-Colonel in 1800, and Colonel in 
1810. He died in England in 1841, aged seventy-two. 

CuYLER, Sir Cornelius, Baronet. Of Albany, New 
York. General in the British Army. He was born at 
Albany, and entered the service young. Besides the honors 
above mentioned, he was Governor of Kinsale, and Colonel 
of the 69th Foot. He died at St. John's Lodge, Herts, Eng- 
land, in 1819, and was succeeded by his son Charles, the 
present (1857) Baronet. Lady Cuyler, who died in 1815, 
was Anne, daughter of Major Richard Grant. George, a 
son. Colonel of the 11th Foot, and K. C. B., died at Ports- 
mouth, England, in 1818, immediately after his return from 
Gibraltar. 

Dabney, Nathaniel. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Phvsi- 
cian. An Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, but one of the 
" Recanters." He went to England in 1777, and died before 
the peace. In 1781, his estate was advertised for sale by the 
Whig authorities. 



DALGIJSH. - DANA. 857 

Dalglish, Andrew. Of Salem, Massacliusetts. An Ad- 
dresser of Gage in 1774. He went to England. Was at 
Glasgow, November, 1781. 

Dana, Samuel. Of Massachusetts. He was bom in that >^ 
part of Cambridge which is now Brighton, in 1739, and grad- 
uated at Harvard University in 1766. Six years later, the 
town of Groton voted unanimously to invite him to become 
their minister, with a settlement of £200, a salary of £80, 
and fire-wood, not to exceed thirty cords per annum. He 
was ordained June, 1761. In the crisis of 1776, he believed 
that resistance would lead to greater evils than were then 
endured, and used his influence on the side of non-resistance. 
In March, " he preached a sermon which gave great offence 
to the people, who were generally inclined to unwavering re- 
sistance. He was not allowed to enter the meeting-house on 
the next Sabbath, and his dismission by the town soon fol- 
lowed." " It is a matter of tradition, that the in- 
habitants were so enraged, that they shot bullets into Mr. 
Dana's house, to the great danger of his life and the lives of 
bis family." That he was an excellent man, cannot be 
doubted. In May, he made a written confession, which, at 
the moment, was satisfactory. He had warm Whig friends. 
In the hope that all trouble might terminate, the Whig Com- 
mittee of Groton, (of whom Colonel Prescott, who shortly 
after commanded the American force at Breed's Hill, was 
one,) published a card, to the effect that Mr. Dana had fully 
atoned for his offences. The good will of his parishioners 
was, however, alienated, and separation was the consequence. 
After his dismission at Groton, he continued in that town for 
some years, but finally removed to Amherst, New Hampshire, 
when he read law, and was appointed Judge of Probate for 
the County of Hillsborough. He died at Amherst in 1798, 
and was buried with Masonic honors. His son Luther was 
Ml enterprising ship-master, and father of Samuel L. Dana, 
physician and chemist, of Lowell, Massachusetts. His second 
son, Hon. Samuel Dana, who died in 1835, was bred to the 
law, was distinguished in his profession, and became President 



358 DANFORTII. 

of the Senate of Massachusetts, and Cliief Justice of the Cir- 
cuit Court of Common Pleas ; the Hon. James Dana, late 
Mayor of Charlestown, is liis youngest son. 

Danforth, Samuel. Of Massachusetts. Son of Rev. John 
Danfortli of Dorcliester, and was educated at Harvard Uni- 
versity. For several years he was President of the Council, a 
Judge, and in 1774, a Mandamus Councillor. After the last 
appointment, the Middlesex County Convention — '* Resolved, 
That whereas the Hon. Samuel Danforth, and Joseph Lee, 
Esquires, two of the Judges of the Inferior Court of Common 
Pleas for the County, have accepted commissions under the 
new Act, by being swoni membere of his Majesty's Council, 
appointed by said Act, we therefore look upon them as utterly 
incapable of holding any office whatever." He died in 1777, 
aged eighty-one. He was distinguished for his love of natural 
philosophy and chemistry. 

Danforth, Samuei^ Physician. Of Boston. Son of the 
preceding. He was bom in Massachusetts in 1740, and grad- 
uated at Hai*vard University in 1758. He pursued his medi- . 
cal studies with Doctor Rand, and commenced practice at 
Newport; but finally settled in Boston. The Revolutionary 
troubles disturbed his professional pursuits, and distressed his 
family. His wife and three children took refuge with her 
father ; his brother went to England and never returned ; 
while he himself continued in Boston during the sieffe. At 
the evacuation, he was treated harehlv. But, as Whiffs could 
not do without physicians better than others, he was soon in 
full practice, and the confidence of his patients was nearly 
unlimited, and their attachment almost without bounds. 
From 1795 to 1798 he was President of the Medical So- 
ciety. He excelled in medicine, but not in surgery. He 
continued in full practice until he was nearly fourscore years. 
After about four vears' confinement to his house, he died at 
Boston in 1827, aijed eifirhty-seven. The familv from which 
he was descended occupy a distinguished place in the annaU 
of New England. 

Danforth, Thomas. Counsellor-at-Iaw, Charlestown, 



DANIEI^ — DAVIS. 859 

Massachusetts. Brother of the second Samuel. He was a 
graduate of Harvanl Univei'sity ; an Addresser of Hutchin- 
son ; and was proscribed and banished. He was the only 
lawyer at Charlestown, and the only inhabitant of that town 
who sought protection from the parent country at the begin- 
ning of serious opposition. He went to Halifax in 1776. He 
died in London in 182t!|. 

Daniel, Joseph. In December, 1783, warrant issued on 
petition of the Selectmen of Stamford, Connecticut, ordering 
him to depart that town forthwith, and never return. 

Daniel, Timothy. Settled in New Brunswick in 1783, 
and died at Hampton in that Province, in 1847, aged one 
hundred years. 

Darington, John. He emigrated to New Brunswick at 
the peace, and died there. Joanna, his widow, died in Port- 
land, in tliat Province, in 1840, at the age of ninety-five. 

Davenport, Captain . He was a Whig, and held 

a military commission under Congress, but " was found wholly 
destitute of honor and principle." His connections were re- 
spectable, and he possessed the air and manners of a man of 
the world. He remained at New York after the retreat of 
Washington from Long Island, and until the city was occu- 
pied by the British troops ; and thus became a voluntary cap- 
tive, if not a deserter. 

Davenport, Joseph. Of Virginia. Went to England, 
and died there in 1783. 

Davidson, Hamilton. He died in York County, New 
Brunswick, in 1841, aged ninety-two. 

Davis, Benjamin. Merchant of Boston. Was an Ad- 
dresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. He 
left that town with his family, determined, he declared, to 
settle in some part of his Majesty's dominions. He went 
first to Hali&x, Nova Scotia ; and in his passage from that 
ei^ J to New York, in the ship Peggy ^ was captured and car- 
ried to Marblehead, and thence to Boston, and imprisoned. 
I>^ a letter to James Bowdoin, dated in jail, October 10, 
IT 16, he said he was denied pen, ink and paper, was required 



360 DAVIS. — DAWKINS. 

to keep in an apartment by himself, and was allowed to con- 
verse with others only in the presence of the jailer. When 
he left Boston he had goods in his store of the value of XIOOO 
sterling, which he lost ; and when taken at sea he lost XI 500 
sterling more. In addition, a large amount was due him 
which was never recovered. In 1778 he was proscribed and 
banished. He was in New York, July, 1783, and a petitioner 
for lands in Nova Scotia. In his religious faith Mr. Davis 
was a Sandemanian. 

Davis, John. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Was an 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780, and also a Petitioner 
to be armed on the side of the Crown. He was banished in 
1782, and his property was confiscated. He probably went 
to England. John Davis, an attainted Loyalist, was in Lon- 
don in 1794, and represented to the British Government that 
he had been unable to recover several large debts due to him 
at the time of his banishment. It may be remarked here, that 
though the sums of money, due to Loyalists proscribed, were 
now included in the Confiscation Acts, the courts of some of 
the States were slow to coerce the debtors. 

Davis, Solomon. Of Setauket, New York. Shipmaster 
in the London trade. His house was assailed, in 1779, by a 
band of marauders, who fired several balls through it. He 
was armed, and told them that he was used to the flying of 
balls around him. Neighbors were alarmed, and the gang 
went off without entering. In 1783, while returning home 
from the city of New York, he was met by two men, who 
shot him dead on the spot. 

Dawkins, George. Of South Carolina. In 1782 he was 
a captain of cavalry in the South Carolina Royalists. His 
estate was confiscated. Wounded, 1781, in the battle of Hob- 
kirk's Hill. 

Dawkins, Henry. Of New York. Taken on Lon^r Jsl- 
and and sent to prison. In his despair, he stated to the Com- 
mittee of Safety, that he was " weary of such a miserable life 
as his misconduct hath thrown him into," and prayed that hon- 
orable body to appoint the manner of terminating his sorrows 
by death. 



DAWSON. — DEANE. 861 

Dawson, David. Of Chester County, Pennsylvania. At- 
tainted of treason and property confiscated. Subsequently 
joined the Royal Army in Philadelphia, and went with it to 
New Tork, and was employed in passing counterfeit Conti- 
nental money. He was detected in 1780, and executed. 

Dawson, Jakes. Of Pennsylvania. Deserted from the 
StAte galleys, and joined the British at Philadelphia. Cap- 
tured at sea. In 1779, in jail and to be tried for treason. 

Dealet, James. Of Charleston, South Carolina. He 
and Locklan Martin were tarred and feathered, and driven 
in a cart through the streets of that city in June, 1775 ; and 
Dealey was, besides, compelled to leave the country, and go 
to England. The Secret Committee of Charleston, at that 
time, was composed of distinguished men, one of whom was 
subsequently in nomination for the highest honors, and there 
18 evidence that they countenanced, if they did not actually 
direct, the procedure. 

Dean, Jacob. Of New York. Was a loyal Declarator 
in 1775. He became an inhabitant of New Brunswick, and 
died at St. John in 1818, aged eighty. 

Deane, Silas. Of Connecticut. Graduated at Yale Col- 
lege in 1758. He played a distinguished part among the 
Whigs in the early part of the contest, but his political sun 
went down in gloom, sorrow, and destitution. He may have 
been wronged. A member of the first Continental Congress 
in 1774, and the first diplomatic agent to Franco, a brilliant 
career was before him. But while abroad, his engagements 
And contracts embarrassed Congress, and ho was recalled. 
Required to account for his pecuniary transactions, he did 
Hot dispel suspicion of having misapplied the public funds in- 
trmsted to his care. The delegates of Connecticut in Congress 
appear to have distrusted his integrity from the first. In turn, 
he accused Arthur and William Lee, who were abroad in 
t>ublic trusts, as well as their brothers in Congress, of con- 
ducting a secret correspondence with England. In 1784 he 
*ittempted to retrieve his feme, by an address to the country, 
V>iit fiuled. He now went to England. Mr. Jay, who was in 

VOL. I. 81 



362 DEBLOIS, 

Europe, had been his friend, and wished to aid him, and would 
have done so, had he been able to remoye the accusations 
that had blighted his hopes and injured his character. But 
Mr. Jay had heard that he was on terms of familiarity with 
Arnold, and '^ every American who gives his hand to that 
man," he wrote to Deane, " in my opinion pollutes it." I 
have said that he may have been wronged. He may have 
been careless in his accounts, but not dishonest ; he may have 
been incapable, not corrupt. In 1842 his long-disputed claims 
were adjusted by Congress, and a large sum was found to be 
due to his heirs, under the principles recognized by the Grov- 
emment, and applicable to all claimants ; hence the doubt, 
whether he received entire justice at the haqds of his asso- 
ciates. A man driven to despair is to be judged mercifully. 
He died on board the Boston Pcusket^ in the Downs, in 1789, 
in his fifty-third year, after four hours' illness. His wife was 
" the rich widow Webb." 

Deblois, Gilbert. Merchant, of Boston. An Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. He went to 
Halifax in 1776. In 1778 he was proscribed and banished* 
In 1779 he was in London, and addressed the King. He died 
in England in 1791, aged sixty-three. 

Deblois, George. Of Salem, Massachusetts. An Ad- 
dresser of Gage in 1774. He went to England. In 1784, 
George Deblois, Jr., was a merchant at Halifax, Noya Scotia. 
The widow of a (Jeorge Deblois, died at the same city, De- 
cember, 1827, aged seventy-four. 

Deblois, Isaac. He was in the service of the King, and 
a lieutenant. In 1784 a lot in the city of St. John, New 
Brunswick, was granted him by the Crown. 

Deblois, Lewis. Merchant, of Boston. He was an Ad- 
dresser of Gage in 1775, and in 1776 was at Hali&x. In 
1778 he was proscribed and banished. He was in London 
in 1779. He died very suddenly in England, (after being 
out all day,) in 1779, aged seventy-one. 

Deblois, Lewis. Of Massachusetts. After the peace, a 
merchant in St. John, New Brunswick, and in 1795 a mem- 



DEBOW. — DE LANCET. 868 

ber of the company of Loyal Artillery. He died in that city 
in 1802. His daughter, Elizabeth Cranston, is the wife of 
James White, Esq., late (1847) sheriff of the county of St. 
John. 

DsBow, James. Served in the Queen's Rangers ; settled 
in New Brunswick in 1783, and died there. His widow, 
Huldah, died in that Province in 1847, aged ninety-four. 

De Lancey, Oijvek. Of New York. In command of 
a Loyalist brigade. He was the eldest son of Stephen De 
Lancey and of his wife, Ann Van Cortlandt, and was bom 
in the city of New York in 1717. He served with credit in 
two campaigns of the French war, at the head of a regiment. 
In 1759 he was elected to the House of Assembly, and the 
next year appointed a member of the Council. His father, 
who was a French refugee, was a gentleman of wealth, and 
of the first rank. His career for some years may be consid- 
ered in connection with that of his brother James, who was 
Chief Justice and Lieutenant-Governor of that Colony. James 
was a man of talents, of learning, of great vivacity, and of 
pc^ular manners ; but, if the writers of the time are to be fol- 
lowed, he was also an unprincipled demagogue, who opposed 
the governors whom he could not rule, and who, for unworthy 
purposes of his own, kept the public mind in continual agita- 
tion. He was at the head of affairs and administered the 
government after the removal of Clinton and the death of Os- 
bom, and a second time as the successor of Hardy. He died 
in 1760. The party opposed to his advancement, in denounc- 
ing' his ambitious projects, did not spare Oliver, the subject of 
this notice. On some occasions, Oliver seems to have promo- 
ted his brother's designs, at the expense of propriety and deco- 
Tum. But yet Oliver De Lancey, at the period of the French 
near, occupied a commanding position, and perhaps he did not 
overrate his personal influence when he said, that if in the 
expedition against Crown Point, he ^^ should accept the com- 
mand of the New York Regiment, he could in ten days raise 
the whole " quota of troops allotted to that Colony. This 
standing he maintained after his brother's death, and until the 



364 DE LANCET. 

Revolution. At the beginning of the controversy he may 
not have been a zealous adherent of the Crown. Some of 
the Whigs insisted, indeed, that he heartily approved of the 
course of the Ministry, and a letter appeared in a newspaper 
in England, in 1775, which, if genuine, authorized the opin- 
ion. But this letter he publicly averred to be an infamous 
and a malicious forgery. Nor did he stop there, for he sub- 
mitted, as he declared upon his honor, the whole of his corre- 
spondence with his friends in England, from the earlist mo- 
ment of the dispute, to Mr. Jay, who, finding nothing objec- 
tionable, so stated in a card which was published. But what- 
ever was his course before the question of separation from the 
mother country was discussed, he opposed the dismemberment 
of the empire, and put his life and property at stake to pre- 
vent it. In 1776 he was appointed a brigadier-general in 
the Royal service. Skinner, of New Jersey ; Brown, a former 
governor of the Bahamas ; Arnold, the apostate ; and Cun- 
ningham, of South Carolina, were of the same grade, but 
their commissions were of later dates. General De T-#ancey 
was, therefore, the senior Loyalist officer in commission dur- 
ing the contest. His command consisted of three battalions, 
known as De Lancey's Battalions. In his orders for enlist- 
ments, he promised to any well-recommended characters, who 
should engage a company of seventy men, the disposal of the 
commissions of captain, lieutenant, and ensign. The common 
soldiers, he said, would be '' in British pay." * Yet his success 
in filling his battalions was not flattering. Of the fifteen hun- 
dred men required, only five hundred and ninety-seven were 
embodied in the spring of 1777, and but seven hundred and 
seven a year later. 

It is stated, that, while he was raising his brigade on Long 
Island, Colonel Henry R. Livingston made a '' little excur- 
sion " there, and carried off more than three thousand sheep 
and about four hundred horned cattle, and that <£500 w^as 

♦ Copies of several of his orders, which disclosed his plans for raising 
recruits and obtaining provisions, were sent to Washington, and trans- 
mitted by him to Congress, October, 1776. 



DE LANCET. 366 

oflfered for the " Rebel " officer's head. In November of the 
last-mentioned year, a small party of the Whig ^^ advanced 
water^guard '' passed the British ships in the night, burned his 
mansion at Bloomingdale, and rudely treated the inmates, who 
were ladies and servants of the family. Mrs. De Lancey, who 
was very deaf, hid herself in a dog-kennel, and came near be- 
ing burned there. Her daughter Charlotte, (of whom pres- 
ently,) and Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Floyd, (who mar- 
ried John Peter De Lancey, and was the mother of the wife 
of Cooper, the great American novelist,) wandered about in 
the woods, for hours, barefooted, and in their night clothes. 
The Council of Safety promptly disapproved of the act ; not 
so much, however, because of its barbarity, but because of the 
^)prehension that the British would retaliate. 

In 1780, Greneral Robertson, who had succeeded Tryon as 
Royal Grovemor of New York, wrote Lord George Germain : 
'* Brigadier-Greneral De Lancey is extremely desirous I should 
mention his name to your Lordship by this very occasion. I 
canH do this without saying that he is a man of consequence 
in this countiT, and has suffered much by the Rebellion, the 
authors of which he is earnest to punish." 

The Whig Government of New York, which was organized 

in 1777, attainted him of treason and confiscated his estate. 

He went to England at the peace, but did not long sui'vive. 

Jie died at Beverley in 1785, at the age of sixty-eight. In 

tvlie " Life of Van Schaack," his decease is mentioned thus by 

^. fellow-Loyalist : ^^ Our old friend has at last taken his de- 

r^^rture from Beverley, which he said should hold his bones ; 

n^ < went off without pain or struggle, his body wasted to a 

t ]l*eleton, his mind the same. The family, most of them, col- 

^^cted in town [London.] There will scarcely be a villacre in 

B2 ngland without some American dust in it, I believe, by the 

'^m xne we are all at rest.'^ 

"The Gentlemian's Magazine" announces simply the place 
his death, his name, military rank, and " late of New York 
ho lost a large estate by his loyalty." His mother and the 
'Other of Cortlandt Skinner were sisters. He married Phelia 

81 • 



/ 



:16tl DE I.ANCEY. 

Franks, of Philadelphia, who died in Smitli Street, CW 
Erio;land, in 1i*l1, in her eighty-ninth year. One of hia 
daiifilitere, Susan, was tlio wifv? of the celi'bmted Lietilenant- 
tJi'm-ral Sir William Draper, Kiiiglit of the Bath; another, 
Charlotte, married F^ fid- Marshal Sir David Dundas. Bart, 
who at one time whs Com man detain -Chief of the British 
Army; a third married Lieutenant-Colonel John Hama 
Cniger. 

Dk Lanctty, Ouvbr, Jh. Of New York. Son of Briga- 
dirr-General Oliver De Lancey. General in thu British Army. 
He was edueati'd in Europe. At the beginning of the llovo- 
hition lie was a captain. In 177*5 he became a major; was a 
litii tenant-colonel as early as 1779, and succeeded Andrfi as 
adjiiiiint-general of the army in Ameriea. His treatment of 
GLiieral Nathaniel Woodhull, an estimable Whig of New 
York, who became bis prisoner in 177ti, should never be 
forgollen. There seems no room to doubt, that when that 
nnt'ortunate ^L'litlemiiii sur rendered his swnrd to l)e Lancey, 
hi; stipulated f.ir, and was promised, proteclioii ; but tliat his 
L()_viilist <'uiiutryni:ni basely ,-tnick hiui, and permitted his men 
to L'ut and hack him at pleasure. Aud it is no less certain 
that the Geiierul, maimed and wwnuled, was denied ju-oper 
care, atteiitiiin, and accommodation, and that lie perished in 
consequence of the barbarities of his caiitors. 

I find De l.ancey called Harrack-Master-Gencral and Major- 
Gcneral in 17i'4 ; and, some years later, Lieutei(ant-Gei»eral, 
and General. He went to England and died unmarried, nearly 
at the he.id of the British Army List. He was the father of 
a natural son and daughter who bore his name, and who were 
openly acknowledjred. The latter was living in 1H44. Pos- 
sibly, the former was the Colonel ( Hiver De Lancey, who died 
at St. Sebastian in l^:'u, at the age of thirty-fuur, in conse- 
quence of wounds received in battle. It seems this ofticer had 
left the British Army, in which he was a captain in the tiOtb 
Riflos, and had espoused the cause of the Queen of Spain in 
the war with the Cailists. 

The accuracy of t!ie text as relates to General De Lancey 's 



DE LANCET. 367 

conduct to General WoodhuII, as it stood in the first edition 
of this work, and as it stands above, was questioned by Mr. 
Cooper, the itovelist, over his own signature, in an article 
published in the " Home Journal," New York, February 12, 
1848. A discussion ensued between us in that paper, in which 
Henry C. Van Schaack, Henry Onderdonk, Jr., and the 
writer, " Vindex," participated. A review of it is not neces- 
sary here, since the question between us was one of evidence, 
and to be determined by the opinion formed of tlie credibil- 
ity of writers ; except the following passage in Mr. Cooper's 
communication of May 6th, which, as it contains the denial 
of the party accused, I insert with great cheerfulness. Mrs. 
Cooper was a daughter of John Peter De Lancey, and her 
husband, after stating this fact, remarked that he well remem- 
bered a conversation with her father, who said : " They en- 
deavored to put the death of General WoodhuU on my cousin, 
Greneral De Lancey. Colonel Troup made an affidavit, which 
Groaveneur Morris published. Troup and Morris [both were 
then alive] are respectable men, certainly — but Oliver always 
indigfuintly denied it!^^ The italics are Mr. Cooper's. 

Robert Troup, in after life, was the personal friend and 
political associate of Jay and Hamilton, and of stainless honor. 
^t the time of WoodhuU's death, he was a lieutenant in Col- 
onel Lasher's Battalion of New York Militia ; and, a fellow- 
prisoner with the General, seems to have listened to his latest 
^statement of his treatment. The curious reader who wishes 
examine the case for himself, will find full details in '^ Onder- 
:'s Revolutionary Incidents of Queen's County." In 1775, 
le Committee of Safety of New York described General De 
icey as " a lusty, fat, ruddy young fellow, between twenty 
thirty years of age." He died at Edinburgh in 1820. 
De Lancet, James. Of the city of New York. Son of 
lientenant-Govemor James De Lancey. He was educated 
^^t Eton, and at Cambridge, England. He obtained a com- 
^^aiission in tlie British Army, and in the campaign against 
iTiconderoga, during the French war, was an Aid of General 
^bercrombie. Soon after the decease of his father, he sold 



368 DE LANCET. 

his commission. He inherited the principal family estates; 
and, at the Revolutionary era was one of the richest men in 
the country. From 1769 to 1775, he was a member of the 
House of Assembly, and his election was regarded as a tri- 
umph of the Episcopalians over the Presbyterians. In the 
last-named year, he went to England, and some time after 
was followed by his wife and children. Attainted of treason, 
and his property confiscated, he never returned. At the 
formation of the Loyalist Commission for the prosecution of 
claims, he was appointed Agent for New York, and became 
Vice-President of the Board. His own losses were large and 
difficult of adjustment, and occupied the attention of the Com- 
missioners for some days. Excepting Sir William Pepperell, 
Colonel De Lancey appears to have been the most active mem- 
ber of the agency ; and two papers on the subject of the Loy- 
alists' claims which bear his signature contain much informa- 
tion. These papers produced no effect, except as is stated in 
the preliminary remarks to this work ; no discrimination was 
finally made between Loyalists of different degrees of loyalty, 
merit, and grades of service. In this respect all were treated 
alike ; but the Commissioners were not required to revise their 
proceedings, as was asked for in the Address to Parliament ; 
nor was Mr. Pitt induced to change his purpose of making 
certain rates of reduction on the sums reported to be due to 
claimants by the Commissioners, as was solicited in the com- 
munication to him. 

Indeed, the claimants appear to have acquiesced in the deci- 
sion of the Minister ; and the Board of Agents, after Mr. Pitt's 
plan was confirmed by an Act of Parliament, presented an Ad- 
ress to the King. De Lancey affixed his signature to this Ad- 
dress, and with his associates had an audience of his Majesty, 
and " had the honor to kiss his Majesty's hand." 

The time and place of his decease have not been ascertained. 
His wife was Margaret, daughter of Chief Justice Allen, of 
Pennsylvania. Five children grew up, namely : Charles, who 
entered the Navy, and died unmarried ; James, who in 1851 
was Lieutenant-Colonel of the First Dragoon Gnards, and the 



\ 



DE LANCET 869 

only male survivor of the family ; Anne and Susan, who were 
unmarried and living in 1848 ; and Margaret, who, the wife 
of Sir Juckes Granville Clifton, Baronet, died childless. 

De Lancet, James. Of West Chester County, New York. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant of a battalion of his uncle, the 
senior Oliver De Lancey. He was the son of Peter De Lancey 
and Elizabeth Colden. For a considerable time he was sher- 
iff of West Chester, in which, owing to his intimate acquaint- 
ance with the county, he was stationed during several years 
of the Revolution. " His corps made free with the cattle of 
that part of the country, and got the souiriquet of ' Cow- 
Boys,' in revenge for their knowledge of beef." In 1777 
according to Governor Tryon, he raised and commanded a 
troop of light-horse, the " elite " of the Colony. The same 
year, one of Putnam's scouting parties surrounded the house 
in which he lodged, to take him prisoner. In the alarm, he 
jumped out of bed and hid himself under it. Discovered in 
the search, he was dragged out, and carried to camp. While 
in jail at Hartford, he received the following letter from Mr. 
Jay, who was an old friend : — 

" Sib, — Notwithstanding the opposition of our sentiments 
and conduct relative to the present contest, the friendship 
which subsisted between us is not forgotten ; nor will the 
good offices formerly done by yourself and family cease to 
excite my gratitude. How far your situation may be com- 
fortable and easy, I know not ; it is my wish, and it shall be 
my endeavor, that it be as much so as may be consistent with 
the interest of the great cause to which I have devoted every- 
thing I hold dear in this world. I have taken the liberty of 
requesting Mr. Samuel Broome immediately to advance you 
on ^hundred dollars on my account. Your not having heard 
ft-^^m me sooner was unavoidable. A line by the first oppor- 
tts^itj will oblige me. Be explicit, and avail youreelf without 
hesitation of the friendship which was entertained as well as 
professed for you by 

" Your obedient and humble servant, 

"John Jay." 

** ^oiighkeep«Ie, January 2d, 1778." 



370 DE LANCEY. 

In July, 1781, Colonel De Lancey was at Morrisania, and 
a plan was formed to capture or destroy his unpopular, nay, 
odious, corps. Washington ordered the Duke de Lauzun to 
proceed in advance, and directed General Lincoln to cooperate > 
while he himself put the army in motion, " in order," as he 
records in his Diary ^ " to cover the detached troops and im- 
prove the advantages which might be gained by them." Ow- 
ing to circumstances which I have not room to state, the 
expedition failed. At the peace, the commander of the " Cow- 
Boys ". retired to Nova Scotia. 

Mr. Macdonald, in a paper read before the New York His- 
torical Society, in 1861, gave an interesting account of Colonel 
De Lancey's final departure from West Chester. I make brief 
extracts : " The Outlaw of the Bronx," he said, " with a heavy 
heart mounted his horse, and riding to the dwellings of his 
neighbors, bade them each farewell." Again : " His paternal 
fields and every object presented to his view were associated 
with the joyful recollections of early life. The consciousness 
that he beheld them all for the last time, and the uncertainties 
to be encountered in the strange country to which banishment 
was consigning him, conspired to awaken emotions, such as 
the stemest bosom is sometimes compelled to entertain. It 
was in vain that he struggled to suppress feelings which shook 
his iron heart. Nature soon obtained the mastery, and he 
burst into tears. After weeping with uncontrollable bitterness 
for a few moments, he shook his ancient friend by the hand, 
ejaculated with difficulty the words of benediction — * God 
bless you, Theophilus ! ' and spurring forward, turned his 
back forever upon his native valley." 

Colonel De Lancey was appointed a member of the Council 
of Nova Scotia in 1794. He died at Annapolis in that Prov- 
ince in the year 1800. Martha, his widow, died at the same 
place in 1827, aged seventy-three. 

De Lancey, James. Of New York. He was an officer 
in Oliver De Lancey's Second Battalion. James De Lancey, 
Esq., Collector of his Majesty's Customs, died at Crooked 
Island, New Providence, in 1808, and was perhaps the same. 



DE LANCEY. 871 

Db Lancey, John. Of New York. Son of Peter De 
Lancey, of West Chester County. Succeeded his father in 
the House of Assembly. In 1775, elected a member of the 
Proyincial Congress. In 1776, an Addresser of Lord .and 
Sir William Howe. 

Db Lancet, John Peter. Of New York. He was born 
in that city in 1753. He was educated in England by his 
brother James. He entered the British Army, and was a 
captain. He participated in the battles of Brandywine and 
Monmouth, and was in service at the South. In 1789 he 
resigned his commission, and returned with his wife to his 
native State. The remainder of his life was passed in West 
Chester County, and he died there in 1828. Elizabeth, his 
wife, died in 1820. 

De Lancey, Stephen. Of New York. Lieutenant-Col- 
<niel Commandant of the Fu*st Battalion of New Jersey Vol- 
unteers. The fragmentary accounts of this gentleman are 
conflicting. He was son of Peter, or of the senior Oliver, and 
in 1765 was appointed clerk of the city and county of Albany. 
The King's birthday, in 1776, " was ushered in with firing of 
guns, and other rejoicings, not agreeable to the inhabitants, 
and in the evening a party assembled to do honor to the day, 
with Abraham C. Cuyler, the Mayor, at their head, and were 
found carousing, and singing ^ God save the King.' The cit- 
izens became exasperated, rushed in, and seized Stephen De 
Xjancey and others, and carried them oft* to jail, whence they 
Were shortly after removed to Hartford, Connecticut." Some 
time after his release by Governor Trumbull on parole, I find 
him in command, as above mentioned. At the close of the 
^rar, he went to Nova Scotia, and in 1786 was appointed 
x^ember of the Council. 

Omitting several discrepancies in facts and dates, which I 

c^annot reconcile, I insert next the following notice which 

Uppeared in an English periodical in 1799 : — ^^ Died, at 

I^ortsmouth, in America, on board the brig Nancies^ Captain 

Tibbets, from Tobago, Stephen Do Lancey, Esq., who, for 

Several years was Chief Justice of the Bahama Islands, and 



872 DE LANCEY. — DE PEYSTER. 

continued to hold that office in 1797, since when (we believe) 
he was appointed Governor of Tobago. His remains were 
attended by a numerous procession of friends and strangers, 
and deposited in the tomb of the late Governor Wentworth." 
He may have married twice. In one place his wife is called 
Esther Rynderts ; in another, a daughter of the Rev. Henry 
Barclay, Rector of Trinity Church, New York. In 1817, it 
is recorded : " Died at Colchester, England, Mrs. Cornelia 
De Lancey, relict of S. De Lancey, Esq., formerly Governor 
of Tobago, and mother of Colonel Sir W. F. De Lancey, 
H. C. B., who fell at the battle of Waterloo." Sir William 
was Quartermaster- General of Wellington's army ; and Susan 
De Lancey, his daughter, married Sir Hudson Lowe, who 
was Napoleon's keeper — I must use that offensive word — at 
St. Helena. 

De Lancey, Warren. Of New York. At the engage- 
ment on Chatterton's Hill, West Chester County, in 1776, 
De Lancey was a youth of fifteen years. " While the British 
were advancing up the hill, a shot struck one of the standard- 
bearers dead." Warren ^^ instantly seized the colors^ and, 
rushing forward, was one of the first to gain the summit, 
where he planted them in the ground." For this act of bra- 
very, he afterwards received a comet's commission from Sir 
William Howe, in the 17th Dragoons, commanded by Oliver 
De Lancey the younger. He left the army before the peace, 
and died in the State of New York, " near me," says the late 
J, Fenimore Cooper, (in a letter dated March 11, 1848) 
"a year or two since," leaving issue. 

De Peyster, Abraham. Of New York. The De Peys- 
ters are of noble descent. Johannes de Peijster, (Peister, or 
Pester) the ancestor of this family in this country, was driven 
from his native land in the time of Charles the 9th, during that 
monarch's persecutions of his Protestant subjects. He settled 
in New York, and became an eminent merchant. " Portions 
of the costly articles of furniture, the elegant and massive 
family silver plate, and pictures, perfect gems of art ... . 
which he brought out from Holland, are still in the posses- 
sion of his descendants." 



D£ FEYSTER. 873 

The subject of this notice was bom in 1788. Two of his 
uncles, and one of his great-uncles, were members of the 
Council ; another uncle was Chief-Justice of the Colony ; 
and a brother-in-law was in command of a regiment of Royal 
Artillery. It is easy, therefore, to account for the loyalty of 
one so young and thus connected. He entered the King's 
service, and was a captain in the New York Volunteers. He 
was second in command at the battle of King's Mountain, in 
1780, and, after the fall of Ferguson, hoisted a flag as a signal 
of surrender. The firing immediately ceased, and the Royal 
troops laying down their arms, the most of which were 
loaded, submitted to the conquerors at discretion. It seems 
not to be generally understood, that nearly the whole of Fer- 
guson's force was composed of Loyalists ; but such is the &ct. 
He went into action with eleven hundred and twenty-five 
men, of whom only one hundred and sixty-two were Regulars. 
Of the Loyalists, no less than two hundred and six were 
killed, one hundred and twenty-eight wounded, and six hun- 
dred and twenty-nine taken prisoners. The loss of Regulars 
was eighteen slain and one hundred and three wounded and 
captured. Captain De Peyster was paid off the morning of 
the battle. Among the coin which he received was a doub- 
loon, which he put in a pocket of his vest. While on the 
field, a bullet struck the gold and stopped, and his life was 
thus saved. Sims, in his '^Life of Marion," relates that 
Major Postell, " who was stationed to guard the lower part 
of the Pedee, succeeded in capturing Captain De Peyster, 
with twenty-nine grenadiers." " De Peyster," he continues, 
^^ had taken post in the dwelling-house of Postell's father. 
The latter had with him but twenty-eight militia, but he 
knew the ground, and gaining possession of the kitchen, 
fired it, and was preparing to bum the house also, when " the 
Loyalist captain submitted. A gentleman of De Peyster's 
Uncage informs me that Sims is inaccurate ; that, in the 
court of inquiry whjch followed the surrender, it was proved 
that the Whig force was about one hundred, and entirely 
surrounded his kinsman's band of " twenty'-nine." Captain 

VOL. I. 82 



374 DE PEYSffER. 

De Peyster went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, 
and was one of the grantees of that city. He received half- 
pay. He was treasurer of that Province, and a colonel in 
the militia. He died previous to 1799, as, in that year, leave 
was given to sell a part of his estate in the hands of his 
administrator. His wife (whom he married in 1783) was 
Catharine, second daughter of John Livingston. The De 
Peysters of the Revolutionary era were allied by blood or 
marriage to several of the oldest and richest families in New 
York, and were themselves persons of great respectability. 

De Peyster, Frederick. Of New York. Brother of 
the preceding. While a minor, he was in command of a 
company raised for the protection of his uncle, Hon. William 
Axtell, a member of the Council, who lived in Flushing, 
Long Island. Subsequently, he was a captain in the New 
York Volunteers. In swimming a river on horseback, a rifle 
bullet passed through both his legs, and killed his horse. At 
the storming of Fort Montgomery in 1777, a detachment of 
his regiment, which was a part of the Royal force, was the 
first to enter the works. In 1784 Captain De Peyster was 
at St. John, New Brunswick, and received the grant of a city 
lot. In 1792 he was a magistrate in the county of York. 
He returned to tfie United States. His first wife was daugh- 
ter of Commissary-General Hake ; his second wife, daughter 
of Gerard G. Beekman, and granddaughter of Lieutenant- 
Governor Van Cortland t. 

Dk Peyster, James. Of New York. Brother of the 
preceding. He was captain-lieutenant in the King's Ameri- 
can Regiment under Fanning, and entered the service when 
he was only nineteen years of age. His superior officers 
gave him high " testimonials of courage, ability, and con- 
duct,'' after he closed his military life as a Loyalist. In 
1786, he was commissioned as first lieutenant in the Royal 
Artillery, commanded by his brother-in-law. Colonel James. 
De Peyster is said to have been one of the handsomest men 
in the British Army. 

I am indebted to one of his kinsmen in the State of New 



DE PEYSTEB. 375 

York — who has contributed several curious and interesting 
works to the literature of the countiy — for an account of his 
fate. I extract as freely as my limits will allow. The date 
is 1793 ; the scene, the siege of Valenciennes : " This siege 
was remarkable, in that a greater portion than usual of the 
operations were subterranean. Mines and counter-mines 
innumerable were foimed and sprung by both besiegers and 
besieged. On the 25th July, the English sprung two large 
ones under the glacis and horn-work, whose immediate result 
was to enable them to establish themselves in the covered 
way. Among the foremost, as usual, our hero was buried by 
one of these explosions, and reported among the *• missing.' 
After a search of more than an hour, he was discovered in 
a state of partial stupefaction. Thus he may have been said 
to have been i*estored to his regiment after having been 
buried alive. 

" Three days afterwards, Valenciennes surrendered. A 
large share in this success was accorded to the British Ar- 
tillery. The British now advanced and occupied a camp in 
the neighborhood of Menin, a fortified town of West Flanders, 
on the Lys." " Again," says my informant, " on the 18th 
August, three battalions of the English Guards, and detach- 
ments of the Royal Artillery, advanced to attack tlie French 
position. The enemy occupied a redoubt»of imcommon size 
and strength upon a height adjoining to the high-road, in 
front of the village of Lincelles. The road itself was de- 
fended by other works strongly palisadoed ; woods and ditches 
covered their flanks. The battalions were instantly fonned, 
and advanced under a heavy fire, with an order and intre- 
pidity for which no praise can be too high. 

" To overcome such difficulties demanded great sacrifices 
and greater exertions, yet the fall of two gallant officers, 
and the brave men who have suffered on this occasion, must 
be a matter of regret. In the fore front of this glorious 
attack, and among the first who fell, was the subject of this 
article." 

Still again : " Many years after, my grandfather, Frederick 



876 DE ROSSET. - DESCHAMP. 

De Peyster, was dining with his second consin, Frederick C. 
White, General in the British Army, when the conversation 
turned upon the latter's military service in Holland, and par- 
ticularly the combat of Menin, or, more properly speaking, of 
Lincelles. ' While advancing at the head of my corps,' said 
the General, ' on the 18th of August, 1793, I noticed a 
remarkably fine-looking dead officer, with his cocked hat 
slouched over his face, whom his men had raised up and 
fixed in an erect position, by taking advantage of the support 
afforded by the crotch of a tree. Not being able to recognize 
him, — for his chin had sunk down upon his chest, and his 
chapeau had been drawn down almost so as to cover his eyes, 
to keep it from falling off, — I turned aside, and, lifting his 
head, removed the hat, discovering thereby, to my grief and 
horror, that it was your beloved brother and my gallant 
cousin, James, who had been shot directly through the fore- 
head.' " Finally : " Under contract of marriage to a lady of 
fortune, won by his physical and mental advantages, he post- 
poned his union until the close of the campaign, and passed 
from the transient endearments of love to the lasting embrace 

of death His portrait in New York attracts universal 

attention, and bears ample testimony to his advantages of 
person." 

De Rosset, Lewis H. A member of the Council of North 
Carolina. He was present April 2, 1775, and gave his assent 
to the issuing of a proclamation to forbid the meeting of a 
Whig Convention at Newbem on the following day. This 
Convention was for the purpose of electing delegates to the 
Continental Congress. He was in communication with Gov- 
ernor Martin after the Royal authority had ceased, and his 
Excellency had abandoned the palace. In the war against 
the " Regulators," he was called Lieutenant-General. A 
Whig, who knew him well, said he was "a cultivated and 
elegant gentleman." He was expelled from North Caro 
lina. 

Deschamp, . Committed suicide at Shelburne^ 

Nova Scotia, about the year 1806. 



DEVEAUX. 877 

Deveaux, Andrew, Jr. Of South Carolina. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel in the Loyal Militia. In Apri], 1783, he 
commanded a successful expedition against the Bahamas. 
His own account of the afiair follows : — "I have the honor 
to inform you," he wrote, " that, on the night of the 14th 
instant, we arrived at the Salt Key with our fleet, four miles 
distant from the Eastern Fort, which consisted of thirteen 
pieces of cannon. I landed about a mile from it, a little after 
daylight, with my formidable body of about one hundred and 
sixty men, and proceeded against it with all possible expedition, 
determined to storm immediately ; but there being a plain for 
some distance round their fortifications, gave the enemy an 
opportunity of discovering us, when they, in great confusion, 
abandoned the fort, and drew up in a field near a wood. As 
soon as I came up with tlicm, they fired upon us. My young 
troops charged them, made two prisoners, and drove their main 
body, in great irregularity, into town. We sustained no loss on 
our side. Captains Wheeler and Dow detached about seventy 
lAen in boats, to board three formidable gallies that lay abreast 
of the Eastern Fort, which was effected about the time of my 
skirmish with the enemy. On my going to take possession 
of the fort, I smelt a match on fire, which circumstance, 
together with their abandoning their works so readily, gave 
me reason to suspect their intentions. I immediately had the 
two prisoners confined in the fort, and halted my troops at some 
distance from it ; but, self-preservation being so natural a re- 
flection, they soon discovered the match that was on fire, which, 
in half an hour, would have been communicated to the maga- 
zine and two mines that were laid for the purpose. About two 
hours after I had taken possession of the fort, his Excellency 
Governor Claraco sent out a flag, giving some trifling infor- 
mation of a peace. I supposed his information entirely for the 
purpose of putting off" time and amusing me ; I, therefore, 
shortly after the return of his flag, demanded the surrender 
of the garrison at discretion, in fifteen minutes. In answer to 
which his Excellency waved the surrender, and requested a 
conference with me personally, when he made oflTers which I 

32 • 



378 DEVEAUX. — DE VEBER. 

thought prudent to accept, and to establish a truce between 
us for some days ; but fortunately his Excellency was discov- 
ered to be carrying on his works, and not adhering so strictly 
to the terms of the truce as he ought ; this gave me an oppor- 
tunity of commencing hostilities once more with him. I im- 
mediately landed eight pieces of heavy cannon from the cap- 
tured vessels, viz., one brig and two sloops, with twenty-fonr 
and twelve-pounders, with which I stole a march in the night 
of the 17th instant, and sunk my cannon in the solid rock on 
Society-hill, which is about four hundred yards from the grand 
fortress, consisting of twenty-one pieces of cannon, and two 
small flanking batteries of three guns each. On an adjacent 
hill I erected a work with one twelve and four four-pounders, 
which was not three hundred yards distance from them, com- 
manded by Captain M'Kenzie ; a third work of two nine- 
pounders was not coqciplete. The enemy kept up a heavy 
fire, and throwing of shells during the night, which had no 
bad effect. On the morning of the 18th, having two batteries 
ready to open on them, and a third, which, though not com- 
plete, could have annoyed them greatly, besides two gallies, 
with twenty four-pounders, I gave his Excellency once more 
an opportunity of saving the lives of his men from the horrid 
consequences attending a work being carried by storm ; upon 
which his Excellency surrendered the garrison." New Prov- 
idence received quite an accession to its population fix>m Loy- 
alists who fled from the Southern States. 

De Veber, Gabriel. Of New York. He entered the 
military service of the Crown, and in 1782 was lieutenant- 
colonel of the Prince of Wales's American Volunteers. He 
settled in New Brunswick at the close of the war, and was a 
grantee of the city of St. John. He received half-pay- In 
1792 he was sheriff of the coimty of Sunbury, and colonel in 
the militia. He died in that county. Margaret, his wife, third 
daughter of Doctor Nathaniel Hubbard, of Stamford, Connect- 
icut, died in King's County in 1813. 

De Veber, Gabriel, Jr. Of New York. Son of Ga- 
briel. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in De Lancey's Third 



DEVOE- — DIBBLEE. 379 

Battalion. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
peace, was a grantee of that city, and received half-pay. He 
died in that Province. 

Devoe, Frederick. Of West Chester County, New York. 
Went to St. John, New Brunswick, and was a grantee of that 
city. His form of three hundred acres, at New Rochelle, was 
confiscated, and given to Thomas Paine, by tlie Legislature of 
New York. 

Devoe, James. Of the State of New York. A grantee 
of St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783. He died at Hampton, 
in that Province, in 1833, aged seventy-nine. 

DiBBLEE, Joseph. Of Danbury, Connecticut. Known to 
be a Tory and to shelter Tories ; he suffered, at the hands of 
the Whigs, for his principles and his deeds. He and his father 
entertained Try on at Danbury, when that ruthless oflScer was 
on the expedition of devastation to Connecticut. Dibblee was 
once taken out of bed at night, by men in disguise, carried to 
a stream, and ducked until he expected to perish. At the 
peace he continued in his native town. " Time softened the 
asperities of feeling " against him ; and, when visited by Los- 
sing a few years ago, he was in his hundredth year, and had 
" lived among his old neighbors and their descendants, a 
worthy and respected citizen." He was never married. 

Dibblee, Frederick. He was born at Stamford, Connec- 
ticut, and graduated at King's College, New York. He was 
a missionary of the Society for Propagating the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts, with a salary of .£50. In December, 1783, 
a warrant was issued upon petition of the Selectmen of Stam- 
ford, ordering him and his family to depart that town forthwith, 
and never return. He settled in New Brunswick, and became 
Rector of the Episcopal Church at Woodstock. He died at 
that place in 1826, aged seventy-three. Nancy, his widow, 
died at the same place in 1838, at the age of eighty-three. 

Dibblee, FviiER. Attomey-at-law, Stamford, Connecti- 
cut. In 1775 he was captain of the first military company of 
that town, and a person of consideration. He early incurred 
the displeasure of the Whigs, and the Assembly of Connecti- 



380 DIBBLEE. — DICKE. 

cut appointed commissioners to inquire into his conduct. In 
1778, he and sixteen other Loyalists were taken prisoners on 
Long Island, New York, by a party of Whigs, who landed 
there from boats. His property in Connecticut was confis- 
cated. In 1783 he was a deputy agent for the transportation 
of Loyalists from New York to Nova Scotia, and, in April of 
that year, sailed from Huntington Bay in the ship Union, for 
St. John, New Brunswick, and arrived in May. He was ac- 
companied by his wife, five children, and two servants. In 
1784 he received the grant of two city lots. Some years afker 
he committed suicide. Various reasons have been assigned for 
the melancholy termination of his life. 

DiBBLEE, Ralph. Died at Kingston, New Bininswick, in 
1799. 

DiBBLEE, Walter. Of Stamford, Connecticut. He ar- 
rived at St. John, New Brunswick, in the ship Union, in 1783. 
The Crown granted him a city lot in 1784. He died at Sus- 
sex Vale, in that Province, in 1817, aged fifty-three. 

Dick, John. Of New York. At the peace, accompanied 
by his family, he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova 
Scotia, where the Crown granted him one town lot. He died 
at St. George, New Brunswick, in 1839, aged ninety-five years. 

DiCKE, Waldo. Of Warren, Maine. His mother was 
daughter of a Scotch laird, and unacquainted with any kind 
of domestic labor. He was the first child born to tlie emi- 
grants on the " Waldo Patent," after their arrival, and was 
named for the proprietor, who " promised to give him a lot of 
land as soon as he should get large enough to wear breeches ; 
but, the General dying, the promise was never fulfilled." 

During the Revolution, he was too active on the side of the 
Crown to be forgiven by the people of Warren ; and at the 
peace went to St. Andrew, New Brunswick, w^here he was 
employed as a ship-master. About the year 1794, he was 
confined in irons at New London for some offence committed 
on ship-board, and succeeded in releasing himself from prison ; 
but, attempting to escape by swimming, was drowned. Wai^ 
ren was the first town incorporated in Maine, after the Whigs 



DICKSON. — DOANE. 881 

of Massachusetts assumed the government ; and was named 
in honor of the distinguished victim of June 17th, 1776. 

Dickson, Robert. Settled in Nova Scotia. Was a mem- 
ber of the House of Assembly, and magistrate of the District 
of Colchester. He died in 1835. 

Dickson, W. Of New York. He commanded a company 
in the New York Volunteers. In 1780 he was drowned at 
Long Island, while bathing. His body was found and interred. 

DiNOEE, Solomon. He died at Gagetown, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1836, aged eighty. 

Dingey, Charles. Of Pennsylvania. Imprisoned in 
1778, on the charge of acknowledging himself to be still a 
subject of George the Third ; of refusing to take the oath 
prescribed by the Whig Government ; of declining to give his 
parole to do the popular cause no injury ; and of attempting 
to go into Philadelphia while in possession of the Royal Army. 
Released, on furnishing three sureties, in «£1000 each, to ap- 
pear at Lancaster within ten days, to answer. 

DiNGWELL, Arthur. He went to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 
In 179f5 he was a member of the Loyal Artillery of St. John. 
In 1801, advertised that he was about to leave the Province. 

DiTMARS, John J. Of Long Island, New York. Went 
to Nova Scotia, and died there in 1829, aged ninety-seven. 

Dixon, Charles. He became an inhabitant of New Bruns- 
wick at the peace, or perhaps a little earlier, and continued a 
resident of the Province until his death, in 1817, at the age of 
eighty-nine. 

Dixon, Joseph. He died at Hampton, King's County, 
New Brunswick, in 1842, aged ninety-two. 

DoANE. Of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Five broth- 
ers, namely : Moses, Joseph, Israel, Abraham, Mahlon. They 
were men of fine figure and address, elegant horsemen, great 
runners and leapers, and excellent at stratagems and escapes. 
Their father was respectable, and possessed a good estate. 
The sons themselves, prior to the war, were men of reputa- 
tion, and proposed to remain neutral. But, harrassed person- 



382 DOANE. 

ally, their property sold by the Whigs because they would 
not submit to the exactions of the time, the above-mentioned 
determined to wage a predatory warfare upon their persecu- 
toi*s, and to live in the open air, as they best could do. This 
plan they executed, to the terror of the country around ; act- 
ing as spies to the Royal Army, and robbing and plundering 
continually ; yet they spared the weak, jthe poor, and the 
peaceful. They aimed at public property and at public men. 
Generally, their expeditions were on horseback. Sometimes 
the five went together ; at others, separately, with accomplices. 
Whoever of them was apprehended, broke jail ; whoever of 
them was assailed, escaped. In a word, such was their course, 
that a reward of £300 was offered for the head of each. 

Ultimately, three were slain ; Moses, after a desperate fight, 
was shot by his captor ; Abraham and Mahlon were hung at 
Philadelphia. 

Joseph, before the Revolution, taught school. During the 
war, while on a marauding expedition, he was shot through 
the cheeks, fell from his horse, and was taken prisoner. He 
was committed to jail, but while waiting his trial, escaped to 
New Jersey. A rewai*d of $800 was offered for his appre- 
hension, without success. He resumed his former employment 
in New Jei-sey, and lived there under an assumed name, nearly 
a year ; but finally fled to Canada. Several years after the 
peace, he returned to Pennsylvania, — "a poor, degraded, bro- 
ken-down old man," — to claim a legacy of about .£40, which 
he was allowed to recover, and to de{)art. In his youth he 
was distinguished for great physical activity. 

The only separate mention of Israel is, that in February, 
1783, he was in jail ; that he appealed to the Council of Penn- 
sylvania to be released, on account of his own sufferings and 
the destitute condition of his family, and that his petition 
was dismissed. 

Beside these five brothers, there were three others : Joseph, 
their father, who was in Bedford County jail, Septelnber, 
1783 ; Aaron, who was under sentence of death at Philadel- 
phia, October, 1784, but was pardoned by the Council, March, 



DOBBIE. - DOHERTY. 388 

1785 ; and a second Aaron, who was in prison in 1785, and 
was reprieved under the gallows, at Newark, New Jersey, in 
July, 1788. 

DoBBiE, George. He died at the beginning of the Revo- 
lution, and the greater part of his property was lost to his 
family. His son, William Hugh Dobbie, captain in the Brit- 
ish Navy, died in England in 1830, aged fifty-eight. 

DoDD, Robert. Of Pennsylvania. Deserted from the 
State galleys. Joined the British in Philadelphia. Captured 
at sea. In jail in 1779, and to be tried for treason. 

DoDD, . Was in the military service of the Crown, 

and engaged in the battles of White Plains and Monmouth, 
and in the siege of Yorktown. At the peace, he went to 
New Brunswick, and died there. His widow, Elizabeth, died 
at St. Stephen in that Province, in 1849, aged one hundred 
and eleven years. She was born on board of a British ship- 
of-the-line, in the Bay of Biscay. She accompanied her hus- 
band in the Revolution, and endured all the deprivations and 
hardships of life in the camp. 

DoGGiT, John. Of Middleborough, Massachusetts. He 
went to New Brunswick, and died on the Island of Grand 
Menan, Bay of Fundy, in 1830, aged seventy. 

DoHARTY, Edmund. Of Pownalborough, Maine. At 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, November, 1779, and employed by 
the Government. Implicated in concealing deserters from 
two ships-of-war, was dismissed. " How he will support his 
family," said the Rev. Jacob Bailey, "I know not, as his 
reputation is greatly blasted by his foolish conduct." He 
went subsequently to the British post at the mouth of the 
Penobscot ; and one who knew him there, wrote in 1782, 
" Doharty has gone out on a cruise." 

DoHERTY, Michael. Sergeant in the Delaware Regiment. 
Taken prisoner and confined. A British recruiting sergeant, 
*' up to all manner of cajolery," — such is Michael's story, — 
" by dint of perpetual blarney, gained my good will, slipped 
the King's money into my hand, which I pocketed, and en- 
tered a volunteer in the 17th Regiment." Michael's corps 



t\J ««OUV>Vk 



'* Oh, botlieration, what a mistake ! " T 
Cowpens soon followed. " Howard and 01 
us tlie bayonet so handsomely, that we wei 
all ; " and a dragoon " added a scratch or t 
already scored on my unfortunate carcass, 
eries that I have since endured, afflicted i 
everything but appetite and musquitoes, I i 
them." No wonder his tale ends in thes< 
some qualms at the thought of battle, sine 
side I will, I am always sure to find it tl 

DoMETTE, Joseph. Of Boston. Impri 
went to England, and for a time received a 
per annum from the Government. He bee 
minister, and, probably, settled in Ireland 
passed ** through many scenes of disappoin 

Donaldson, Samuel. Of Virginia. I 
York in July, 1783, and was one of the fi 
tioned for grants of lands in Nova Scotia. 

\ In a Loyalist tract, published at London : 
sud that he was a Rebel committee man, tl 
York, and that, at the peace, he returned to 
ginia, and took the oath of allegiance to tl 
ment. 



DOUD. - DOWDNEY. 386 

mandant of the Third Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. 
He was the youngest son of Walter Dongan, of Staten Island, 
and was bred to the law. He was killed in his twenty-ninth 
year, August, 1777, in a skirmish on Staten Island. He left 
a widow ; but his only child died the very day of his own 
death. 

DouD, , Of North Carolina. Captain in the Loyal 

Militia. Killed in 1781, in the attack of McNiel on Hills- 
borough, when Governor Burke, his Council, and other per- 
sons of distinction, were taken prisoners, and carried to Wil- 
xnuigton. 

DouoHEKTY, Edward. In 1776 he embarked at Boston 
for Halifax. A Loyalist of this name died in extreme poverty 
on the river St. John, New Brunswick, where he had lived 
many years, about the year 1808. 

Doughty, . A captain in De Lancey's Brigade ; 

perished in 1788, on his passage to Nova Scotia, in the wreck 
ef the transport ship Martha. [See James Reyxley.'] 

Doughty, Rev. John. An Episcopal minister. He grad- 
iiated at King's College, New York, in 1770. He was or- 
^ined in England for the Church at Peekskill, but was soon 
'transferred to Schenectady. 

In 177f5 political troubles put an end to divine service, and 
lie suffered much at the hands of the popular party. In 1777 
^e obtained leave to depart to Canada, (after having been 
^wice a prisoner) where he became chaplain of the '* King's 
T3loyal Regiment," of New York. 

In 1781 he went to England ; but returned to Canada in 
^784, and officiated as missionary at Sorel. He resigned his 
^connection with the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
:fin Foreign Parts, in 1803. 

DovB, Abraham. Of New York. Went to Shelburne, 
^Hfova Scotia, kept a hotel, and died there in 1803. 

Dove, James. Went to Shelburne, Nova Scotia; was a 
^xnerchant and magistrate, and died there in 1824, leaving 
'fthree sons. 

DowDNEY, Nathaniel. Of New Jersey.. Convicted of 

VOL. I. 38 



386 DOXSTADER. — DRAPER. 

" cursing all Congresses and Committees," and of enmity to 
his country ; and, January, 1776, ordered by the Committee 
of Safety to be disarmed, and to be kept in close prison until 
he should manifest contrition for his oifences, pay the cost of 
pi*oceedings against him, and give security for his future good 
behavior. 

DoxsTADER, John. A Tory leader. On an incursion to 
Cnrrietown, he and his Indian associates took nine prisoners, 
who, in an affair at a place called Ourlagh, New York, the 
day succeeding their capture, were bound to standing trees, 
tomahawked, and scalped. The bodies of these unfortunate 
men were hastily buried by friends. But one of them, Jacob 
Diefendorff, was alive, and was afterwards found on the out- 
side of his own grave ; he recovered and lived to relate the 
story. In 1780, on one of his incursions in New York, Dox- 
stader carried away a horse belonging to a Whig ; but com- 
ing to the same region, from Canada, afler the war, he was 
arrested by the owner, and compelled to pay the value of the 
animal. 

Drake, Jeremiah. Residence unknown. Settled in New 
Brunswick in 1783, and died at St. John in 1846, aged eighty. 

Drake, Francis. Died at Queensbury, New Brunswick, 
in 1886, aged eighty-one. He was in the service of the Crown 
for some yeai*s. 

Drake, John. Innkeeper, of Newcastle, Delaware. Was 
required in 1778 to surrender himself, or to submit to the for- 
feiture of his property. 

Drake, Uriah. Of New York. Went to St John, New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 
He died at Carleton, in that Province, in 1832, at the age of 
seventy. 

Draper, Richard. Printer and proprietor of the " Mas- 
sachusetts Gazette and Boston News Letter.'^ He was the 
apprentice, silent partner, and successor of his father, John 
Draper. He was early appointed printer to the Governor 
and Council, which employment he retained during life. His 
paper was devoted to the Government, and, in the controversy 



\ 



DRAPER. — DRURY. 887 

between Great Britain and the Colonies, gave strong support 
to the Royal cause, and had some able contributors. He was 
a man of feeble health, and was remarkable for the delicacy 
of his mind and gentleness of his manners. No stain rested 
upon his character. He was attentive to his affairs, and was 
esteemed the best compiler of news of his day. He died June 
8th, 1774, aged forty-seven years, without children. 

Drapeb, Margaret. Wife of Richard Draper, of Bos- \ 
ton. With the aid of John Howe, continued the publication 
of the ^^Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News Letter'^ 
fifom the time of her husband's death, in 1774, until the evac- 
uation of Boston, in 1776 ; and her paper was the only one 
that was published during the siege of that town.. She 
accompanied the British Army to Halifax, and proceeding 
to England, lived there for the remainder of her days. She 
died about the year 1800. The British Government allowed 
her a pension. Trumbull, in his " McFingal," calls her 
"Mother Draper." 

Dredden, W. Of New York. An officer in a band of 
marauders. 

Drew, Joseph. A grantee of the city of St. John, New 
Brunswick ; he died there in 1808. 

Drummond, Robert. Major in the Second Battalion of 
New Jersey Volunteers. Of this battalion, upwards of two 
hundred, who were his neighbors, enlisted under his influence 
and persuasion. A very large proportion of them fell victims 
to the climate of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, or 
perished in battle. Major Drummond himself went to Eng- 
land at the peace, and died at Chelsea, in 1789. 

Drummond, George. Of Pennsylvania. Physician. In 
1777, confined to a small and inconvenient house, and de- 
prived, he said, of his practice, of his means of support, and 
of his health, he appealed to the Council for such enlargement 
as they should think reasonable. 

Drummond, Rev. William. Of Connecticut. Died at 
Jamaica, Long Island, in 1778. 

Drury, Wake. Of Burlington, New Jersey. One of 



388 DRY. — DUCHE. 

the " King's Justices of the Peace." It was charged that 
" he behaved scandlessly." He owned that he said the Whigs 
had no right to draft men ; that the drafted men were fools 
if they went ; and that, if tliey would come to him, he would 
protect them for not going. The County Committee sent him, 
under guard of ten persons, to the Provincial Congress. In 
conducting him to the city wharf, the order of procession was, 
as the record has it, " Ensign Smith ; Fifer Haight ; Four 
Guards; Justice Wake; Four Guards." His Majesty's for- 
midable magistrate was soon back, however, to Burlington 
fi*om Trenton, on his way to Sal6m, to be put in jail until 
further orders. Of the order and number of " guards," 
when he departed, history is silent. 

Dry, William. Of North Carolina. He was Collector 
of Customs, and a member of the Council. When Mr. 
Quincy, of Massachusetts, was on his Southern tour in 1773, 
he was his guest, and recorded in his journal, that " Colonel 
Dry's mansion is justly called the house of universal hospital- 
ity." At this time, it is probable, from circumstances related 
by Mr. Quincy, that Mr. Dry was inclined to the popular side. 
But, by the records of the Council, it appears that, April 12, 
1775, he " took again the oath appointed to be taken by Privy 
Counsellors." The Board at this meeting dismissed from a 
commission of the peace Colonel John Harvey, one of the 
most zealous Whigs in North Carolina, and with the consent 
of all the membc»rs present. Yet I find that, after the adop- 
tion of the Constitution in 1776, Colonel Dry was elected a 
member of the new, or Whig Council. But a man who 
changed so often was not a Whig. 

DucHi:, Jacob, D. D. An Episcopal minister of Phil- 
adelphia. He was born in that city, and graduated at the 
college there in 1757. He entered the ministry, and after 
the first Continental Congress assembled, in 1774, oflSciated 
as chaplain on the 7th of September, and was thanked by a 
vote of that body, " for the excellent prayer which he com- 
posed and delivered " on the occasion. At this time he was 
Assistant Rector of two churches ; but on the death of Rev. 



DUCHfc 380 

Doctor Richard Peters, an Episcopal minister of Philadel- 
phia, in 1775, was appointed his successor. In 1776 he was 
elected chaplain to Congress, with a salary. The following 
is the form of prayer which he made use of after Independ- 
ence was declared : — 

" O Lord, our heavenly Father, high and mighty, King of 
kings, and Lord of lords, who dost from thy throne behold all 
the dwellers on earth, and reignest with power supreme and 
uncontrolled over all kingdoms, empires, and governments, 
look down in mercy, we beseech thee, on these our American 
States, who have fled to thee from the rod of the oppressor, 
and thrown themselves on thy gracious protection, desiring to 
be henceforth dependent only on thee ; to thee have they ap- 
pealed for the righteousness of their cause ; to thee do they 
now look up for that countenance and support, which thou 
alone canst give : take them, therefore, heavenly Father, 
under thy nurturing care ; give them wisdom in council, and 
valor in the field ; defeat the malicious designs of our cruel 
adversaries ; convince them of the unrighteousness of their 
cause, and if they still persist in their sanguinary purposes, 
oh ! let the voice of thine own unerring justice, sounding in 
their hearts, constrain them to drop the weapons of war from 
their unnerved hands in the day of battle. Be thou present, 
O God of wisdom, and direct the councils of this honorable 
assembly ; enable them to settle things on the best and surest 
foundation, that the scene of blood may be speedily closed, 
that order, harmony and peace may be effectually restored, 
and truth and justice, religion and piety, prevail and flourish 
amongst thy people ; preserve the health of their bodies and 
the vigor of their minds ; shower down on them, and the 
millions they represent, such temporal blessings as thou seest 
expedient for them in this world, and crown them with ever- 
lasting glory in the world to come. All this we ask in the 
name, and through the merits of Jesus Christ, thy Son and 
our Saviour. Amen." 

He officiated as chaplain about three months, when he aban- 
doned the Whigs, and resigned. In October, 1777, he wrote 

3S* 



390 DUCHE. 

an extraordinary letter to Washington, which was delivered 
by Mrs. Ferguson, and which the Commander-in-Chief trans- 
mitted to Congress. The objects of this communication were, 
to cast a general odium on the Whig cause, to induce Wash- 
ington to apostatize and resign his command of the army, or, 
at the head of it, to force Congress immediately to desist from 
hostilities, and to rescind the Declaration of Independence. 
If this is not done, said Duche, " you have an infallible re- 
source still left ; negotiaU far Anierica at the hecid of your 
army,^^ In the course of this letter he represents Congress 
in a most despicable view, as consisting of weak, obscure 
persons, not fit associates for Washington ; and he speaks of 
the members from New England, especially, with great indel- 
icacy. The army, in his estimation, both officers and men, 
were possessed neither of courage nor principle, and were 
taken from the lowest of the people. 

Various motives were assigned for his apostasy ; some be- 
lieved that it was occasioned by the gloomy aspect of affairs ; 
others supposed that it arose from a change in his sentiments 
respecting the justice of the Whig cause. But whatever was 
the reason, the aspersions contained in his letter admit of no 
excuse. After quitting Philadelphia, Doctor Duche went to 
England, and became chaplain to an asylum for orphans. He 
was a man of brilliant talents, an impressive orator, had a fine 
poetical taste, and figured as a preacher even in London. He 
was banished, and his estate was confiscated. His house was 
bought by Thomas McKean, a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence. 

In April, 1783, he solicited Washington's influence to effect 
a repeal of the Act that kept him in banishment from his na- 
tive country, " from the arms of a dear aged father, and the 
embraces of a numerous circle of valuable and long-loved 
friends.'' Washington replied that his feelings as an indi- 
vidual were favorable, but that his case must continue to rest 
with the authorities of Pennsylvania. In 1790 the laws of 
that State having allowed the refugee Loyalists to return. 
Dr. Duch^ came back to Philadelphia in shattered health. 



% 



I . 



DUCKINFIELD. 391 

He died in 1798, aged about sixty years. One account states 
that his decease occurred in 1794; another, in 1796. His 
wife, a sister of Francis Hopkinson, was» killed at Philadel- 
phia in 1797, by the falling of a sand-bag on her head, while 
opening a window. His daughter Sophia married John Henry, 
a person whose real or supposed connection with our politics, 
about the time of the war of 1812, caused considerable sensa- 
tion. Dr. Duche published several sermons before his defec- 
tion, and two volumes in London, in 1780. 

DucKiNFiELD, SiK Nathaniel, Barouot. Of North Car- 
olina. He was a member of the Council of North Carolina, 
and owned large tracts of land in that Colony. He " was 
gay, good-humored, and popular." .... In 1772 he went 
to England, when his friends prevailed on him to purchase a 
commission in the British Army. When the war broke out 
he could not be induced to serve against America, and when 
his regiment was sent out, he contrived to remain behind. 
In 1779 his estate was confiscated. James Iredell, who, after 
the organization of the Federal Government was a Judge of 
the Supreme Court, and the Baronet, were on very intimate 
terms. They became rivals in love ; " but the contest was 
so generously conducted, and the deportment of each so 
marked by magnanimity, that, so far from their friendship 
being shaken, their mutual esteem was increased." 

The Baronet's " proposal met with a courteous but prompt 

refusal His disappointment so affected him, that he 

deserted the Province, to which he never returned; subse- 
quently, when his estate was forfeited, 'most ably and elo- 
quently did Mr. Iredell plead his cause.' They regularly cor- 
responded until the close of 1791." Mr. Iredell records in 
his journal, Saturday, December 19th, 1772 : " I have this 
morning had the happiness to receive a most pleasing friendly 
letter from Sir N. D., wherein he discovers a most noble soul, 
generously extolling in terms of the highest admiration a con- 
duct severely killing his hoi)es, and congratulating me on a 
happiness raised on the ruin of his. Excellent young man I 
may your lot be a happy one ; though indeed it will be very 



392 DUCKINFIELD. 

difficult to fix your affections on one so likely to insure it," 
&c. On the 20th of January, 1773, the Baronet wrote his 
rival : " I don't know any couple so deserving of each other 
as yourselves, and as it was not my good fortune to be the 
happy possessor of Miss Hannah Johnston's affections, I re- 
joice exceedingly that such felicity was destined for you. 
Happy may you long continue to be together. I, perhaps, 
may never be an eye-witness of it. My intentions of settling 
in America are now at an end, and I am in hopes some time 
or other to acquaint you with the iiilfilling of your wish that 

I may select some lady here for my own If I should 

again visit Carolina, I pledge you my assurance that the in- 
crease of happiness to yourself shall not in the least abate 

the ardor of my friendship for you and your partner 

At present I think to amuse myself a little while in the army, 
and have a promise from Major-General Burgoyne of the next 
vacancy which shall happen in his Light Dragoons, if I shall 
not satisfy myself sooner," &c. Again, in a letter five days 
later, he said : " I wish you would acquaint me whether my 
addressing Miss Johnston was publicly known in North Car- 
olina, and what she thought of my persisting to write to her." 
March 10th, of the same year, he wrote : " I have now the 
same reason to induce me to stay in England that I had to 
remain in Carolina, and which will, perhaps, be crowned with 
success. I am determined to marry as soon as I can meet 
with a lady whose person and fortune will be suitable, and 
who shall think me suitable for her," &c. 

On the 14th of May : " I am now entirely firee from the last 
tincture of that unhappy situation of being in love, but how 
long the warmth of my constitution will permit me to be thus 
cool, I will not venture to promise. I am, however, destined 
to a cold part of the island, to join the Queen's (or 7th) Beg- 
iment of Dragoons, now quartered at Edinburgh, in which I 
have purchased a cornetcy." On the 9th of August, 1778 : 
" My passions are violent, and I cannot govern them. Since 
my last to you, in which I told you of one disappointment which 
I had met with, I have had another with a young lady who, His 



DUCKINFIELD. 393 

supposed, will be a fortune of near £100,000, and though I 
-was much distressed at first, I got the better of it in a short 
time. I saw Captain Messenger at Liverpool ; he told me of 
my ' penchant ' for Miss Hannah, and I think said my mother 
mentioned it to him. I did not expect that it could be kept a 
secret." Again, in the same letter : " I am quite out of con- 
ceit with matrimony at present, but can't promise how long it 
will continue. There are some very pretty girls in this neigh- 
borhood." In 1783 he wrote that he had been in command 
of a troop of dragoons three years ; that he was then aide-de- 
camp to General Warde, with " nothing to do," and in a few 
days was to marry the General's niece, whose constitution 
would not allow her to cross the sea. A year later, he said 
he had made an exchange with an officer in a regiment of foot, 
and should retire on half-pay. " I am most perfectly happy," 
he continued, " and much fonder of my wife than when I mar- 
ried. She is not at all handsome, but what you may call a 
devilish good one^ Again, in 1784, he mentioned that he was 
the father of a boy who was a charming fellow, and attempted 
to talk and to scold ; that Lady Duckinfield was soon to pre- 
sent him with another child ; and closed with the remark : 
"You will not be surprised at my being desirous that the 
plantation should be sold, and the money secured for my use 
after my mother's death, as I have entirely given up all 
thoughts of settling in Carolina ; and should I have a large 
family it will be necessary, in order to keep the younger ones 
from being carpenters and mantua-makers." In June, 1785, 
he announced the birth of a second son before the first was a 
year old ; and he discoursed about a numerous progeny, and 
of his parent's decease, in terms that caused Mr. Iredell to say 
in communicating with a friend : " I am quite vexed (between 
ourselves) at the levity and indifference of Sir N. Duckin- 
field's letter, wrote in answer to mine giving a very particular, 
and to me very affecting, account of his mother's death. He 
bears it with all the cursed stoicism of a philosopher ; and is 
still afraid that his wife will ruin him with a screat number of 
children. He will deserve a Xantippe for his next wife, and 



394 DUDLEY. 

a double set of children into the bargain. It is so intolerable 
to see a young man so insensible aad so avaricious/* The 
noticeable points of a letter dated in February, 1789, are the 
birth of a daughter, the allowance by the British Government 
of £3000 for his losses as a Loyalist, and the expression of 
joy that the Confiscation Act did not include ^^ the negroes 
which he had lent to his mother." 

The Baronet died in 1824. His wife was Ejitharine Warde, 
who deceased in 1823. His son Samuel, captain in the Dra- 
goons, was drowned in 1810. His son John Lloyd succeeded 
him, but dying without issue in 1836, the title devolved on 
his third son, Henry Robert, the present Baronet. His fourth 
son, Charles Egerton, is (1855) in the military service of the 
East India Company. His daughter Katharine married R. P. 
Smith, M. D. His family is one of the most ancient in the 
county of Chester, and is said to be descended from the Nor- 
man house of De Massey. 

Dudley, Charles. Last Royal Collector and Surveyor 
of the Customs at Newport, Rhode Island. He was son of 
Thomas and Mary (Leavitt) Dudley, of a highly respectable 
family of Staffordshire, England, and was born in that county 
in 1737. When Robinson was transferred to the Board of 
Commissioners of the Customs, Boston, and in 1768, he was 
appointed his successor at Newport. In November, 1775, he 
fled to the RoBe ship-of-war. The Whig Committee seized his 
])ersonal property soon after, sold a part, and stored the rest 
in Providence. The Committee voted, subsequently, ** that 
one of his best beds, with the fiirniture, be presented to Gren- 
eral Lee," who was in command in Rhode Island, and very 
busy with the Loyalists. In 1776 Mr. Dudley embarked at 
Boston for Halifax, with the British Army, and went to Eng- 
land the same year. He died at London in 1790. 

His only child who lived to mature years, Charles E. Dud- 
ley, of Albany, New York, was a Senator in Congress from 
1828 to 1833, and died in 1841. The Dudley Obser\^atory is 
named in honor of this gentleman ; and his widow, Blandina 
(Bleecker) Dudley, contributed, at various times, the sum of 



DUFIFELD. - DULANY. 895 

175,000 to erect and endow it. She died at Albany, March, 
1868. In her will, in addition to her former gifts, she be- 
queathed the sum of $30,000 for the maintenance in the 
Dadley Observatory, which she established, of a scientific 
chair, to be known as the ^^ Blandina Professorship." This 
pats the institution in an excellent financial position, giving 
it a permanent endowment of $80,000, which is safely in- 
vested, and yields an annual income of $5600. 

DuFFiELD, John. Of New Jersey. In 1774 the Whigs 
destroyed some tea owned by him, by Stacy Hepbuni, and a 
Captain Allen, the value of which they attempted to recover 
by suit at law. Joseph Reed, of Philadelphia, was their coun- 
sel, but they failed. 

DuFFUS, Charles. He died at St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1818, at the age of seventy. 

DuLANY, Daniel. Of Maryland. Early in the contro- 
versy, he and Charles Carroll engaged in a warm newspaper 
discussion, which attracted much interest. Dulany wrote 
over the signature of ArUihre^ and his Whig antagonist 
adopted that of the Fir^t Citizen. Dulany was an eminent 
lawyer, and was considered one of the most distinguislied men 
of his time. Before the Revolution he held the offices of Sec- 
retary and Attorney-General of Maryland, and was a member 
of the Council. Few memorials remain of him, but he is ever 
mentioned in terms of the highest respect. Mr. Quincy, of 
Massachusetts, while on his journey to the South in 1773, 
spoke of spending " three hours with the celebrated Daniel 
Dulany." 

Though a Loyalist at last, he stood up manfully against the 
Stamp Act. These words, uttered in 1765, are glorious : 
** A garment of linsey-wolsey," said he, *' when made the dis- 
tinction of patriotism, is more honorable than the plumes and 
the diadem of an emperor, witiiout it. Let the manufacture 
of Ajnerica be the symbol of dignity and the badge of virtue, 
and it will soon break the fetters of distress." 

He survived the Revolution several years. '^ He was one 
of the most refined gentlemen and flourishing counsellors of 



896 DULANY. 

his day, and dignified his profession by the liberality and grace 
with which he exercised it. Like Edward Rutledge, of South 
Carolina, he took no fee from the widow and orphan. We 
can barely remember his benevolent mien and silver locks, 
as, when superannuated, he walked the streets of Baltimore ; 
his chief pleasure, after all his high aspirations, grave labors, 
and bright successes of life, being the distribution of ginger- 
bread, with which he was constantly supplied, for the crowd 
of children who watched and followed their venerable pro- 
vider." 

DuLANY, Lloyd. Of Annapolis, Maryland. On the 27th 
of May, 1774, the Whigs of that city passed the following 
Resolution : ^^ That it is the opinion of this meeting that the 
gentlemen of the law of this Province bring no suit for the 
recovery of any debt due from any inhabitant of this Province 
to any inhabitant of Great Britain, until the said Act [Boston 
Port Bill] be repealed." Three days after, Mr. Dulahy's name 
appeared at the head of the following Protest : " Dissentient. 
1. Because we are impressed with a full conviction, that this j 

resolution is founded in treachery and rashness, inasmuch as it ^ 

is big with bankruptcy and ruin to those inhabitants of Great dl 

Britain, who, relying with unlimited security on our good ^ 

faith and integrity, have made us masters of their fortunes ; ^ ; 
condemning them unheard, for not having interposed their -^cr 
influence with Parliament in favor of the town of Boston, ^ j, 
without duly weighing the force with which that influence ^^:e 
would probably have operated, or whether in their conduct ^M'^2i 
they were actuated by wisdom and policy, or by corruption .m'^ar^n 
and avarice. 

" 2. Because, whilst the inhabitants of Great Britain are^3^*3H'e 
partially despoiled of every legal remedy to recover what is^M is 
justly due to them, no provision is made to prevent us fromiiK^K^in 
being harrassed by tlie prosecution of internal suits, but ouh 
fortunes and persons are left at the mercy of domestic credi- 
tors, without a possibility of extricating ourselves, unless hjm^ '« 
general convulsion ; an event, in the contemplation of sober ^^^"Kr 
reason, replete with horror. 




DUL ANY. — DUNBAR. 897 

'^ 8. Because our credit, as a commercial people, will expire 
under the wound ; for what confidence can possibly be reposed 
in those who shall have exhibited the most avowed and most 
striking proof that they arc not to be bound by obligations as 
lacred as human invention can suggest." 

Dulany was killed in a duel with the Reverend Bennet Al- 
len, Hyde Park, London, in 1782. The seconds were a Mr. 
De Lancey and a Mr. Robert Morris, both, I conclude, Loyal- 
ists. The cause of the fatal meeting was an article in a Lon- 
don newspaper, in 1779, touching the character of Dulany, 
(among other Americans) with whom Allen was not pleased. 
Walter Dulany, son of Walter Dulany of Maryland, married 
the widow of Lloyd Dulany, in 1786. 

DuL^NT, Daniel. Of Maryland. Son of Walter. At 
first, he enrolled himself in the militia, and seemed inclined 
to the popular cause ; but refusing to sign the Test, he in- 
curred the displeasure of the Whigs, and fled. Attainted, and 
estate confiscated. 

DuMABESQUE, Phiijp. Merchant, of Boston. An Ad- 
dresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. In 
1776, with his family of seven persons, he went to Halifax. 
Two years later he was proscribed and banished. He was 
appointed Collector of the Customs at New Providence, Nas- 
sau, and died there. His wife was Rebecca, daughter of Dr. 
Sylvester Gardiner. His children were — Philip, a captain in 
the Royal Navy ; James, who married Sarah Farwell, of Vas- 
salborough, Maine ; Francis, a physician in Jamaica ; and a 
daughter, Rebecca. Persons of his lineage are now living in 
Boston and vicinity. Perhaps the Lieutenant Dumaresquc 
of the British Navy, attached to the Hawke sloop-of-war, 
drowned in 1812, was also of his family. The Hawke lay 
ofi^ Calspot Castle, where she was employed to attend the 
Duke of Clarence. Lieutenant D. went up to Southampton 
to dine with Admiral Ferguson ; on his return, his boat upset. 

DiTKBAR, Daniel. Of Halifax, Massachusetts. Was an 
ofiicer in die militia, and in 1774 a mob demanded of him the 
surrender of the colors of his company. He refused, when the 

VOL. I. 84 



898 DUNBAR. 

multitude broke into his house, took him out, forced him to 
get upon a rail, where he was held and tossed up and down 
until he was exhausted. He was then dragged and beaten, 
and gave up the standard to save his life. In 1776 he went 
to Halifax, Nova Scotia, with the Royal Anny. In 1778 he 
was proscribed and banished. 

Dunbar, Jesse. Of Halifax, Massachusetts. Bought some 
fat cattle of a Mandamus Councillor in 1774, and drove them 
to Plymouth for sale. The Whigs soon learned with whom 
Dunbar had presumed to deal, and after he had slaughtered, 
skinned, and hung up one of the beasts, commenced punishing 
him for the offence. His tormentors, it appears, put the dead 
ox in a cart, and fixing Dunbar in his belly, carted him four 
miles, and required him to pay one dollar for the ride. He 
then was delivered over to a Kingston mob, who carted him 
four other ;niles, and exacted another dollar. A Duxbury 
mob then took him, and after beating him in the face with 
the creature's tripe, and endeavoring to cover his person with 
it, carried him to Councillor Thomas's house, and compelled 
him to pay a ftirther sum of money. Flinging his beef into 
the road, they now left him to recover and return as he could. 

DuNBAK, Moses. Of Bristol, Connecticut. He was born 
in Plymouth, Connecticut. He was convicted of holding a 
captain's commission under Sir William Howe, and of enlist- 
ing men for the Royal Army, by the Superior Court, January, 
1777, and soon after, while under sentence of death, cleared 
himself of his irons, knocked down the sentries, and escaped 
from jail, but was apprehended. The " Connecticut Courant " 
announced that, ^^ On Wednesday, March 19, Moses Dunbar 
will be executed. A sermon will be preached at the jail to the 
prisoner, by the Rev. Abraham Jarvis of Middleton ; and a 
sermon in the North Meeting-house to the spectators, by the 
Rev. Nathan Perkins." There was still another homily by 
Rev. Nathan Stone, which was printed, and which closes thus : 
^^ Bloody and deceitftil men shall not live out half their days/' 
Dunbar was hung on the day designated, (March 19, 1777,) 
in the presence of a ^^ prodigious concourse of people.'' 



DUNHAM. — DUNMORE. 399 

His son Moses came to an untimely end. His widow, whose 
maiden name was Esther Adams, retired to the British Army, 
and remained with it some time ; but returned to Bristol, mar- 
ried Chauncey Jerome, a Loyalist, and with her husband, went 
to Nova Scotia. At the peace, they settled at their old home 
in Connecticut, and were the parents of several children. She 
died in 1825, aged sixty-six. Dunbar's house was standing in 
1859. 

Dunham. Captain Asher Dunham and Daniel Dunham 
were among the Loyalists who went to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, in 1783, and both received grants of city lots. John 
Dunham, who emigrated the same year, and who was a cap-' 
tain in the militia of that Province, died at Carleton in 1829, 
aged eighty-one. 

DuNMORE, Earl of. Last Royal Governor of Virginia. 
He succeeded to the peerage in 1756 ; was appointed Gov- 
ernor of New York in 1770 ; assumed the Executive Chair 
of Virginia in 1772, and administered the government until 
the popular party compelled him to seek safety on board of a 
ship-of-war. He soon collected a number of vessels, and was 
joined by many Loyalists who had become obnoxious, and 
who, from necessity or fear, abandoned their homes. Wash- 
ington said, December, 1775, " I do not think that forcing his 
Lordship on shipboard is sufficient. Nothing less than depriv- 
ing him of life or liberty will secure peace to Virginia, as mo- 
tives of resentment actuate his conduct to a degree equal to 
the total destruction of that colony." 

Lord Dunmore, with his fleet of fugitives, continued on the 
coasts and rivers of Virginia for a part of the year 1776 ; and 
as every place was now strictly guarded, these unhappy peo- 
ple, who had put themselves under his protection, underwent 
great distresses. The heat of the weather, the badness and 
scarcity of water and provisions, with the closeness and filth 
of the small vessels in which they were crowded, by degrees 
produced that malignant distemper which is known by the 
name of the jail or pestilential fever. This dreadful disor- 
der particularly affected the Negroes, most of whom it swept 



400 DUNIIORE. 

away. After various adventures, in which they were driven 
from place to place, and from island to island, by the Virgin- 
ians, several of the vessels were driven on shore in a gale of 
wind, and the wretched fugitives became captives to their own 
countrymen. At length, every place being shut against the 
remainder, and neither water nor provisions to be obtained, 
even at the expense of blood, it was found necessary, towards 
the beginning of August, 1776, to burn the smaller vessels, 
and to send the remainder, amounting to between forty and 
fitly sail, with the exiles, to seek shelter in Florida, Bermudas, 
and the West Indies. In this manner ended the hopes enter- 
tained by the employment of the Negroes to suppress the 
rebellion in the Southern colonies. This measure tended 
infinitely to inflame the discontents in those colonies, without 
adding anything to the strength of the Royal arms. 

He is represented as both needy and greedy. " To get 
money was the rule of action which included his whole admin- 
istrative conduct." In 1779 his name appears in the Con- 
fiscation Act of New York. He was appointed Governor of 
the Bermudas in 1786. He died in England in 1809. His 
daughter Augusta married the Duke of Sussex, sixth son of 
King George Third. Lady Dnnmore, who died at South- 
wood House, near Ramsgate, in 1818, was Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of the Earl of Galloway ; to her daughter Virginia (thus 
named at the request of the Council and Assembly of Vir- 
ginia) she bequeathed her villa at Twickenham and all her 
personal property. In 1848 a London paper announced the 
death of Sir Augustus Frederic d'Este, son of his late Royal 
Highness the Duke of Sussex, by Lady Augusta Murray, 
daughter of the Earl of Dunmore, to whom his Royal High- 
ness was married at Rome, in 1793. Upon the death of the 
Duke, in 1843, Sir Augustus Frederic preferred his claim to 
succeed to the titles and honors of his father, and the claim 
was heard by the House of Lords in that year, when, after 
proof was given of the marriage of his father and mother, and 
of the birth of Sir Augustus Frederic in 1794, a question was 
submitted to the Judges upon the effect of the Royal Marriage 



DUNN. — EA8TERBR00KS. " 401 

Act, 12 Greorge III. The Judges pronounced their opinion 
to be that that statute had incapacitated the descendants of 
George II. from contracting a legal marriage without the con- 
sent of the Crown, either within the British dominions or 
elsewhere, whereupon the House of Loi*ds resolved that Sir 
Augustus Frederic had not established his claim. The Hon. 
Charles Augustus Murray, who visited the United States in 
1836, and again in 1851, is a lineal descendant of Lord Dun- 
more. 

Dunn, John. Of North Carolina. Major in the militia. 
In 1775, notoriously inimical to the Whigs, he was seized and 
sent to South Carolina. Frances, his wife, petitioned the 
Provincial Congress of North Carolina in his behalf, without 
success. He was, however, released ; but apprehended again 
in 1776, he was allowed the liberty of living in Salisbury on 
parole, on condition that he should appear once every day at 
the house of Maxwell Chambers, and give security in £1000 
for his good behavior. 

Dunn, John. Of New York. He left the United States 
at the termination of hostilities, and was one of the found- 
ers of St Andrew, New Brunswick, and through life contrib- 
uted to its improvement and prosperity. For many years he 
held the honorable and lucrative post of Comptroller of his 
Majesty ^s Customs at that port. He died at St. Andrew, 
April 14, 1829, aged seventy-six. His wife, Elizabeth, sur- 
vived until January, 1835, and at her decease was seventy- 
three. He was a man proverbially kind, liberal, and hos- 
pitable. 

DuYCKiNOS, . Of New Jersey. Colonel in the 

militia. In 1777 Colonel Weedon wrote the Council of Penn- 
sylvania that he was an '^ infamous character ; *' that he had 
been in the service of the Whigs ; bat, when the British 
entered New Jersey, he took the oath of allegiance to the 
Crown. Weedon sent him prisoner to the Council, by order 
of Washington. 

Easterbrooks, James. He was an early settler of New 

Brunswick, and was a magistrate and member of the House 

84* 



402 EDDY. — EDSON. 

of Assembly for many years. He died at Sackville, in that 
Province, in 1842, at the age of eighty-five. 

Eddy, Charles, and Thomas. Of Philadelpliia. Iron- 
mongers. Attainted of treason and their estates confis- 
cated. Charles was ordered to Virginia ; went to England, 
and was in London, July, 1779. 

Eden, Sir Robert, Baronet, and last Royal Governor of 
Maryland. His wife was Caroline, sister and co-heir of the 
last Lord Baltimore. 

He was appointed Governor in 1768, and continued in 
office until 1776, when the Royal authority ceased. But as 
he was accomplished, kind, and courteous, the Whigs allowed 
him to remain in Maryland without restraint. When, how- 
ever, some despatches addressed to him by Lord George Ger- 
main were intercepted, his arrest was ordered by General 
Lee. The Whig Council of Safety declined compliance ; and 
and Sir Robert was permitted to embark for England, in the 
sloop-of-war Fowey. He was created a Baronet, September, 
1776. He returned to Maryland in 1784, " to look after his 
lady's estate ; " and died near Annapolis in 1785. His son. 
Sir William Eden, (subsequently Lord Auckland) who de- 
ceased in 1814, was one of the Lords of Trade and Planta- 
tionJi in 1776, one of the Commissioners to America in 1778, 
and, later. Ambassador to Spain and to Holland. 

Edgett, Joel. Of New York. He went to New Bruns- 
wick at the peace, and resided there until his death, February, 
1841, at the house of his son John, at Hillsborough, aged 
eighty years. 

Edmiston, Rev. William. Of Maryland. Episcopal 
minister. In 1775 the Committee of Baltimore ordered him 
to appear and answer to the charges against him ; he obeyed, 
and made a written explanation which was voted satisfactory. 
In November, 1776, he was at Albany, New York, and asked 
General Gates to allow him to go to General Howe on pri- 
vate business, and promised to return at any specified time. 
He was in England previous to July, 1779. 

Edson, Josiah. Of Bridgewater, Massachusetts. H 



EDWARDS. 403 

was a noted politician of the time, and was known by the two 
most odious appellations which prevailed ; namely, as a lie- 
Bcinder and a Mandamu9 Caimcillor. Hutchinson speaks 
of him in 1771, when he was a member of the House of 
Representatives, as one of the several gentlemen of that body, 
who, in common times, would have had great weight, but 
who, then, discouraged by the great superiority of the num- 
bers against them, were inactive. In 1774 Mr. Edson was 
driven from his house by a mob, and was compelled to reside 
in Boston, under protection of the British troops ; and at the 
evacuation, in 1776, he accompanied the army to Halifax. 
He went from Halifax to New York, and died in that city, 
or on Long Island, not long after his arrival. He was a 
graduate of Harvard University, a colonel in the militia, a 
deacon of the church, and a respectable, virtuous man. He is 
alluded to in "McFingal," as "that old simplicity of Edson." 

Edwards, Morgan. A Baptist clergj^man. He was born 
in Wales in 1722, and came to America in 1761. He was 
at first pastor of a church in Philadelphia, and, subsequently, 
labored in various places, either as lecturer or preacher. Op- 
posed to the Revolution, he gave up the ministry during the 
war. He was an eccentric man, and among his acts was 
the preaching of his own funeral sermon. He lived a quarter 
of a century after the solemn farce, dying in 1795, aged 
seventy-two. He published many sermons, and left nume- 
rous manuscripts. 

Edwards, Stephen. Of New Jersey. An amiable 
young man, who joined the adherents to the Crown at New 
York, near the close of the war. Sent, by Colonel Taylor of 
a Loyalist corps, to Monmouth County to ascertain the Whig 
force there, he was arrested at midnight, in his father's house, 
in bed with his wife, disguised in a female's night-cap, by a 
party under Jonathan Forraan, a Whig captain of horse, 
taken to Freehold, tried as a spy by a court-martial, and two 
days afterward, executed. His father and mother arrived in 
town the morning of his death, to inquire into his situation ; 
and returned home with his corpse. The Fonnan and 
Edwards families had been on terms of intimate friendship. 



i 



404 ELLIOT. 

Elijot, Andrew. Of New York. He was Collector 
of the Customs for the port of New York, from about the 
year 1764 until the Revolution, and performed his official 
duties in a manner highly satisfactory. His first difficulty 
with the people of a serious nature occurred in 1774, when 
he seized some fire-arms, and was threatened with a visit from 
the " Mohawks and River Indians,'* or, in other words, with 
a coat of tar and featliers. After the Royal Army took pos- 
session of New York, he continued to perfonn his duties of 
Collector, and during the war held various important offices: 
In 1782 he was not only at the head of the Customs, but was 
Lieutenant-Governor, Receiver-General of Quit-rents, Super- 
intendent-General of Police, and Chief of the Superintendent 
Department, established by Sir William Howe in 1777. And 
when, in 1780, Sir Henry Clinton made his last effort to save 
Andrd, Mr. Elliot was one of the three eminent persons who 
were sent to confer with Washington. Mr. Elliot's estate in 
New York was confiscated ; and the Executive Council of 
Pennsylvania, to reach property possessed by him in that 
State, ordered by proclamation, that on his failing to appear 
within a specified time, to take his trial on the charge of 
treason, he should stand attainted. 

His family sailed for England in the Nonesuch^ of 64 guns, 
Jiuie, 1783 ; and his furniture was sold at auction in Septem- 
ber of that year, at his house in Bowery Lane. His daughter 
Elizabeth married the tenth Lord Cathcart, in 1779 ; and Sir 
George Cathcart, who fell at the battle of Inkerman, in the 
Crimean war, 1854, was the fourth son of this marriage. 
The present Earl (1857) is the second son. Mr. Elliot's 
daughter Eleanor married the Right Hon. Robert Digby, 
Admiral of the Fleet, and died in England in 1880 ; her first 
husband was a Jauncey, of New York. 

EiJJOT, Captain . Noted for his revengeful dis- 
position and infamous deeds. In the documents of the time, 
McKee, Elliot, and Simon Girty, are mentioned together, and 
as forming a sort of triumvirate. The three were imprisoned 
by the Whigs at Pittsburgh, but made their escape, and in 



ELLWOOD. - ERVING. 405 

1778 traversed the country to enlist the savages against the 
Rebels. The effects of their councils were long felt and de- 
plored. After the Revolution, and during the Indian troubles 
of Washington's administration, Elliot's hostile feelings towards 
the country which he had abandoned, were sufficiently mani- 
fest to deserve universal and lastinor detestation. He was 
dismissed &om the British Colonial service about the year 
1801, without trial, but whether for misconduct, is unknown 
to the writer. 

EixwooD, John. Of the county of Bucks, Pennsylvania. 
In 1778 he was tried for acting as pilot to the Royal fleet and 
army, in the invasion of the State by Sir William Howe, and 
sentenced *' to be hanged by the neck till he be dead." He 
was not executed. In 1783 Humphreys wrote Galloway, 
that Mr. Ellwood ^^ was out of his head at the time of his 
trial, and, indeed, ever since the army left Philadelphia." 
The records of the Council showed that he was pardoned 
July 15, 1789. 

Emes, John. Of Pennsylvania. Deserted from the State 
galleys. Joined the British at Philadelphia. Captured at 
sea in 1779, tried by a court-martial, and, September 20th, in 
prison. 

Emerson, Thomas. A physician. He died at Frederic- 
ton, New Brunswick, in 1843, aged eighty-one. 

Ensor, George. Of Southwark, Pennsylvania. At- 
tainted of treason and property confiscated. At the peace, 
accompanied by his family of five persons, he went from New 
York to Shelbume, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted 
him one town lot. His losses in consequence of his loyalty 
were estimated at £600. He died at Shelburne in 1805, 
leaving several children. 

Erving, John. Of Boston. He was one of the most 
eminent merchants in America, and a member of the Council 
of Massachusetts for twentv years. The Hon. Robert C. 
Winthrop, his great-grandson, in a public address in 1845, 
thus refers to him : " A few dollars earned on a Commence- 
ment Day, by ferrying passengers over Charles River when 



406 ERVING. 

there was no bridge — shipped to Lisbon in the shape of fish, 
and from thence to London in the shape of fruit, and from 
thence brought home to be reinvested in fish, and to be reen- 
tered upon the same triangular circuit of trade — laid the 
foundations of the largest fortune of the day, a hundred years 
ago." Mr. Erving died in Boston in 1786, aged ninety- 
three. 

Erving, John, Jr. Of Boston. He graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1747. In 1760 he signed the Boston Me- 
morial, and was thus one of the fifty-eight who were the first 
men in America to array themselves against the oflicers of the 
Crown. But in 1774 he was an Addresser of Hutchinson, 
and the same year was appointed a mandamus councillor. In 
1776 he fied to Halifax, and went thence to England. In 
1778 he was proscribed and banished ; and in 1779 his prop- 
erty was confiscated under the Conspiracy Act. He died at 
Bath, England, in 1816, aged eighty-nine years. His wife, 
Maria Catharina, (youngest daughter of Governor Shirley) 
with whom he lived quite sixty years, died a few months be* 
fore him. His son. Dr. Shirley Erving, died at Boston in 
1813, aged fifty-five. 

Erving, George. A merchant, of Boston. He was one 
of the fifty-eight memorialists who were the first men in 
America to array themselves against the ofiicers of the Crown." 
He was an Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774 ; was proscribed 
under the Act of 1778 ; and his estate was confiscated under 
the Conspiracy Act of 1779. He went to Halifax at the 
evacuation, with his family of five persons, and thence to 
England. He died in London in 1806, at the age of seventy. 
His wife was a daughter of the Hon. Isaac Royall, of Med- 
ford. His son, George W. ErviniLwas American Consul at 
London, Special Minister to Dennmrk, and Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to Spain. A distinguished gentlem^ in Boston 
kindly furnishes me with the following passage in a letter 
received by him from the son just mentioned : ** Many a time 
and oft " has my father " expressed to me his heart-bitter re- 
grets, and that his only consolation was that his errors had 



-< I ' ' V 



■A • •••:>. 



EVANS. — EVERITT. 407 

not deprived me of my rights as an American. I have com- 
mitted a great fhalt, but you are not responsible. I brought 
you away a child (of five years), but remember that when 
you are twenty-one, you are freed from my authority as 
father, and will then return to your native country — and so 
he sent me, and there commences my history He re- 
mained to the day of his death an empassioned American." 

EvAMS, Abel. In 1778, in a letter to Galloway, he said : 
"The number of horses, employed to transport flour from 
Maryland and Pennsylvania to Boston, were immense. These 
were principally taken from the farmers southward of New 
York, as those in the Continental Army were mostly rendered 
unfit for service through hard usage and bad feeding. Carry- 
ing so much provision so far, and over very bad roads, has 
destroyed many more of the horses belonging to the farmers. 
From these circumstances judge how badly the Continental 
Army must be prepared for another campaign." Evans was 
then in New York — " obliged to go into such business as he 
could get to do." 

EvERSFiELD, Rev. John. Of Maryland. Episcopal min- 
ister. He was bom in England, and belonged to a noble 
-family. He came to America in 1727, and the following 
jrear was placed over the parish of St. Paul's, Prince George's 
County. He possessed a good library, and was a man of great 
learning. In 1776 he was arrested, and his case examined by 
the Maryland Convention ; with the result that, in consider- 
ation of his age and infirmities, and his want of ability to 
«xert any dangerous influence, he be discharged, on payment 
of the expenses of his confinement. He died in 1780, aged 
about eighty. His wife was Eleanor Claggett, — an aunt of 
"the bishop of that surname, — by whom he received a large 
landed estate. Several children survived him ; one of whom, 
John, was an Episcopal clergyman, and settled in England. 

EvEBiTT, George. Was a quartermaster in the King's 
service. Went to New Brunswick in 1783, and died at 
Fredericton in 1829, aged seventy. 
EvEBm, Benjamin, Daniel, James, and Nicholas. Of 



408 FAQAK.— FAIfiPAX. 

l^iiLvn's County, New York. Acknowle(%ed allegiance, Oc- 
IuIkt, 1776. James signed a Declaration of loyalty ppis- 
viiju^ly : settled in Nova Seotia subsequently, and diud in 
Dighy in V99. 

Faoan, Jake, Of Monmou^ County, New Jeraey. One 
of llie " Pinii Ilijbbere." These miscreantA plundered when- 
ever they could, and dianged aides as often as interest dictated. 
Jake, aller a career of criino, was shot in 1778, by a party of 
Wliigs who lay in ambush. After his body was buried, it 
was disinterred, envelojied in a taiTed cloth, and suspended 
in cliains with iron bands around it, until the birds of prey 
picki'd the flesh fi-ora its bones, and the hkeleton fell to the 
gi-uuud in pieces. There is a tradition, also, that his skall 
was afterwards placed against the trL«e on which his body was 
liun^, with a pii>e in its mouUi. 

FuKiHiTi), Jamkh M. He went to New Brunswick in 
17y;t, a.id i\w<\ at St. John in 1807. 

Faihfax, L()K1> Thomas. He was the son of Thomas, 
the fifth Lord Fairfax, and of Catharine, daughter of Lord 
('ul])e].per, and was born in England in 1691. He was edu- 
catiid at Oxiiird, and was a good scholar. Succeeding to the 
title and to the family fstate in Virginia, he came over lo that 
Colony about the year IT^JO. After residing there a year, 
he returned to Erigliind ; but desirous of improving and induc- 
n 1 I 1 111 »nd pleased with America, 

11 I n k ^ he place of his perniiuient 

al 1 \ I 1 he sought seclusion in con- 

1 t I [1 m I e. Whatever the cau.se, 

nd came a second time to 
vera! years with William 
1 fixed his resideneo a few 
■rn side of the IJlue Ridge, 
it under high cultivation. 
ennay Court, and he lived 
He was fond of hunting and 
excess. I find it said that 
I ' Church at Falls Church 



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1 
1. 

ml 

1 

11 


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t 
f 

1 

1 


in L 1 1 

14 II 1 1 
1! 1 li 1 

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II all! 1 I 
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1 Al a d 1 



FAIRFAX. 409 

Corners, and the Hotel in Alexandria, which was the head- 
quarters of (General Washington, were built of bricks brought 
from England by Lord Fair&x. He was kind to the poor, 
and allowed them a large part of the surplus produce of the 
land under his immediate management, and afforded them 
the use of other parts of his estate on terms almost nominal. 
Indulgent to aU who held lands under him and to all around 
him, faithful in the discharge of his private duties and in the 
performance of several honorable public trusts, he lived re- 
spected and beloved by men of all parties. Though a frank 
and open Loyalist, he was never insulted or molested by the 
Whigs. When he heard of the surrender of Gornwallis, it 
is related that he said to the servant, " Come^ Joe^ carry me 
to bed, far it is high time for me to die,^^ Nor did he long 
survive this event. He died at Greenway Court in 1782, in 
the ninety-second year of his age, much lamented. His liter- 
ary attainments were highly respectable, and it is said that 
in his youth he was a contributor to the " Spectator." His 
remains were deposited under the communion-table of the 
Episcopal Church at Winchester, but were removed in 1833, 
to provide a place for the erection of a pile of buildings on 
the site of the church. He was a dark, swarthy man, more 
than six feet in height, of a large frame, and of extraordinary 
strength. 

Lord Fair&x was the friend and patron of Washington's 
early life, and though he died before the mother country ac- 
knowledged the independence of tlie thirteen Colonics, he 
saw, in the most intense anguish, that the widow's son, who 
surveyed his lands, was destined under Providence to be the 
great instrument to dismember the British empire. 

His barony and his immense domain in Virginia, between 
the rivers Potomac and Rappahannock, consisting, as appears 
by parliamentary papers, of five million two hundred and 
eighty-two thousand acres, descended to his only surviving 
brother, Robert Fairfax, who was the seventh Lord Fairfax, 
and who died at Leeds Castle, England, in 1791. But as this 
domain was in possession of Lord Thomas during the Revolu- 

VOL. I. 35 



410 FAIRFAX. 

tioiiary controversy, it was confiacatecl. Lord Robert, how- 
ever, (claiming in behalf of himsulf; of Francos Martin, his 
widowed aiater ; of Denny Fairfax, a clergyman ; of Philip 
and Thomas Martin, his nephews ; and tliree Misses Martin, 
his nieces), applied to the British Govemm(!iit for compen- 
sation, under the provision made to Loyalist sufferei-s, and 
slatLil the value of the estate at £98,000. The commissionon 
made a special report upon this claim, but do not appear j 
to liave come to a final decision with regard to it; and after J 
their labors were closed, it was among the few cases which J 
were referred to Parliament for settlement. It waa consid-l 
ercd by a committee of that body, who, as the coramissioneni J 
had done, reduced it to XeO.OOO. Lord Robert's life interestj 
therein, they find, by the established rules of computatioo, i 
»ei3,758. The value of the life interest Mr. Pitt recom- 1 
mended to be paid, but at this time (1792) advised no com- 
pensation to those who possessed the reversionary interest. But 
it is believed that, at a subsequent period, an allowance was 
made to nearly or quite the snm originally claimed. 

His estate was one i)f the largest and most valuable in 
America at the Revolution. It was granted May 8, 1681, by 
Charles the Second to Tliomas Lord Culpepper, the grand- 
father of Lord Thomas and Lord Robert Fairfax, on a "rent 
of £6 13«, id., payable as therein mentioned." At Lord Cul- 
pepper's death it became the pro])erty of his daughter, the 
Right Honorable Catharine, Lady Fairfax, who, by her will 
of April 21, 1710, devised the whole in trust thus: "Upon 
trust in the first place by mortgage, a sale of sufficient part 
of the estates thereby devised, to raise a sufficient sum for 
discharging all her debts, legacies, and funeral expenses ; 
and after such mortgage sale and disposition," as follows, 
namely : — 

" To the use of her eldest son, Thomas Lord Fairfax, and 
his assigns for life. Remainder to the first and other sons of 
said Thomas Fairfax, in tail male. Remainder to her second 
son, Henry Cul|>epper Fairfax, and Ins assigns, for life. Re- 
mainder to the first and other sons of said Henry Culpepper 



FAIRFAX. 411 

Fairfax, in tail male. Remainder to her third son, Robert 
Fair&x, and his assigns, for life. Remainder to trustees to 
preserve contingent remainders. Remainder to the first and 
other sons of said Robert Fairfax, in tail male. Remainder 
to the daughters of the said testatrix, as tenants in common, 
in tail. Remainder to the right heirs of the said testatrix, in 
fee." 

Such was the tenure of the Fairfax estate in Virginia. The 
magnitude of the property, and the circumstances of the case, 
caused an unusual degree of investigation in Parliament, and 
Lord Robert's memorial for relief was the subject of a separate 
and elaborate report. His individual loss, if computed at the 
value of his life interest, was less than that of several of the 
Loyalists whose property was confiscated ; though we have 
seen that the Government gave him, without hesitation, nearly 
seventy thousand dollars, after reducing his valuation more 
than a quarter part. A considerable portion of this estate had 
been granted prior to the Revolution, upon the quit-rent 
system, and thus a part of its value had been transferred to 
others. Still the reversionary interest on the decease of Lord 
Robert, which the committee of Parliament fixed at a sum 
equal to a quarter of a million of dollars, was by no means 
extravagant, even if the worth of lands at that period be alone 
considered. 

Perhaps the reader has journeyed through the present 
counties of Lancaster, Northumberland, Richmond, West- 
moreland, Stafford, King George, Prince William, Fairfax, 
Loudoun, Fauquier, Culpepper, Clarke, Madison, Page, 
Shenandoah, Hardy, Hampshire, Morgan, Berkely, Jefferson 
and Frederick — twenty-one in all — and embracing nearly 
one quarter of Virginia ; — perhaps the eye tliat glances at 
this page has surveyed everything between the Potomac and 
the Rappahannock ; — did the thought occur that this whole 
territory once belonged to a single family ; that though the 
Fair&x of the Revolutionary era was the friend of Washing- 
ton, every acre was confiscated simply because of loyalty to 
the British Crown ? Such a grant, after the lapse of genera- 



412 FAIRFAX. 

tii>iH, nntl in the progre&s of civilixatinii, we deem entirely I 
wrung ; but, niHtlu in accordance witli the spirit of" the age, H 1 
was valid. The many battlea on the Fairfax domain, in thfl-I 
prt'stnt unhallowed Rebellion, will render the conntry between 
the Potomac and the Rappahannock memorable in alt coming 
time. 

FuHFAX, Georoe WiiiUM. Of Virginia. He was the 
great-grandson of Thomas, the foiirtli Lord Fairfax, His 1 
iailior was the Hon. Colonel William Fairfex, who was Lieo- I 
tenant of tlie county of Fairfax. Collector of the Cnstoms of 1 
Souili Potomac, member and President of the Council iA f 
Viiiiiiiia. He was educated in England, but was the early J 
companion of Washington, and his associate as surveyor of J 
lands. On the death of his father in 1757, he succeeded to \ 
his c'.'itate. He married a daughter of Colonel Car^, <ffj| 
Hamilton, became a member of the Council, and lived i 
Belvoir. Some property in Yorkshire descended to him 1 
177;^, and he wont to England ; and in consequence of the 
political difficulties which followed, did not return to Ameiiea. 
He fixed his residence at Katli, where he died in 1787, aged 
sixty-three. During the war he evinced much kindness to 
American prisoners who were r.irrJed to England. A part 
of his Virginia estate was confiscated, by which his income 
was much reduced. Wa-hingtiiu esteemed him highly, and 
they were ever friends. The illustrious Commiinder-in-Chief 
was name<l an executor of his will, but declined fulfilling the 
trust in consefpience of his public engagements. Mr. Fairfax 
left no children. lie bequeatlied bis Ameriean pn^perty to 
Ferdinnndo, the second son of his only surviving brother. 

F.UHVAX, l.OE(i) liiiYAN. Of Vimiuia. He w,qs the third 
son (if tho Hon, Colonel William Fnirflix. His wife was a 
daughter of Wilson Carev, of Virginia, and !iis residence was 
at Towlston Hall in Fairfax County, though for some years, 
during the latter part of his life, he was an E}iiseopal clergy- 
man at Alexandria. An ,ifFeetioiiate intercourse existed be- 
tween him and Wasliinglon throughout life; both were of too 
elevated a east to allow politie.il diti'ercnces of opinion to alien- 



FAIRFAX. 413 

ate and separate them. In 1774 Washington expressed an 
earnest wish that he should stand as a candidate for the House 
of Bargesses, but he declined. He was opposed to strong 
measures, and in favor of redress by remonstrances and peti- 
tions. " There are scarce any at Alexandria," he wrote, " of 
my opinion ; and though the few I have elsewhere conversed 
with on the subject are so, yet from them I could learn that 
many thought otherwise ; so that I believe I should at this 
time give general dissatisfaction, and therefore it would be 
more proper to decline, even upon this account, as well as 
because it would necessarily lead me into great expenses, 
which my circumstances will not allow." Washington, in 
reply, remarked that he would heartily join in his political 
sentiments ^^ so far as relates to a humble and dutiful petition 
to the throne, provided there was the most distant hope of 
success. But," said he, "have we not tried this already? 
Have we not addressed the Lords, and remonstrated to the 
Commons ? And to what end ? ' Did they deign to look at 
oor petitions ? " &c. 

Prior to July 18, 1774, Mr. Fairfax attended several meet- 
ings of the Whigs of Fairfax County, but at that time with- 
drew from them. The immediate cause of withdrawal seems 
to have been his disapprobation of some of the resolutions pre- 
pared by a committee, and submitted to a general meeting of 
the inhabitants of the county. Washington was chairman of 
both the committee and the meeting, and Fairfax addressed 
to him a communication, expressing his views and objections, 
which he desired might be publicly read. Yet the two friends 
did not relinquish their correspondence upon the great ques- 
tions which agitated the country ; and the letters of Washing- 
ton to this gentleman contain the fullest and most satisfactory 
exposition of his sentiments that Mr. Sparks has preserved. 
On the death of Robert Fairfax (in 1791), who was the sev- 
enth Lord Fairfax, Bryan Fairfax succeeded to the title, and 
was the eighth Baron of the name. Benevolence and kind- 
ness were marked traits in Iiis character, and he was univer- 
sally respected and beloved. Washington bequeathed to him 

85 • 



414 FAIRFAX. - FALES. 

an elecrant Bible in three volumes folio. Lord Brvan died at 
Mount Eagle, near Cameron, in 1802, aged seventy-five, after 
a long illness, which he bore with resignation. 

Two of his sons were Ferdinando and Thomas. The lat- 
ter, as we shall see, inherited the empty title of Lord Fairfax. 
His grandson Henry, a graduate at West Point, raised a com- 
pany in the late war with Mexico, much against the wishes 
of his relatives and friends, and died a victim to the climate, 
soon afk»r arriving at the scene of strife. Lord Thomas Fair- 
fax, after his succession to the barony, chose to live much in 
retirement, to superintend " his paternal, estates on the Poto- 
mac, and to exercise a genuine old English hospitality, com- 
bined with the simplicity of the land in which he dwelt." 
" He uniformly declined, from Americans, any deference to 
his rank, preferring to be regarded as simply a gentleman of 
the county which bears his family name." He died at his 
seat in Virginia, in 1846, in his eighty-fourth year. Marga- 
ret, his widow, died in 1858, at the age of seventy-five. The 
present Baron is Lord Charles Snowden Fairfax, grandson 
of Lord Thomas. 

Fairweatiier, Benjamin, Jedediah, and Thomas. Set- 
tled in New Brunswick in 1783, and received grants of lands. 
Thomas died at Norton in that Colony in 1825, at the age of 
seventy-seven, and Elizabeth, his widow, at the same place, 
in 184(5, aged seventy-nine. Jedediah died at Norton in 
1831, at the age of ninety-six. 

Fales, David. Of Dedham, Massachusetts. In 1763 he 
removed to Maine, upon the Waldo Patent, and within the 
limits of the i)resent town of Thomaston ; where he practised 
as a physician, taught school, and surveyed lands. He w^s 
also employed by Mr. Flucker, the Secretary of Massachusetts, 
and son-in-law of General Waldo, as agent of lands embraced 
in the Patent. He wrote a remarkable fair hand, was me- 
thoilieal in business, but slow, and very tardy in coming to the 
rehef of a patient. In 1775 the Whigs, in the vicinity of his 
home, otl'ered him the alternative of signing a Test of fidelit}' 
to the popular cause, or of riding on the " wooden horse." 



FANNING. 416 

He refused to side with the " Rebels," and escaped the rail ; 
for his wife prepared a pailful of flip, and his sons became sure- 
ties for his good conduct. I find him in Maine in 1790, when, 
at Tbomaston, his name appears as one of a committee to se- 
lect the site for a meeting-house in Warren. 

Fanning, Edmund. Of North Carolina. General in the 
British Army. Son of Colonel Phineas Fanning. Bom on 
Long Island, New York. Graduated at Yale College ; stud- 
ied law ; removed to North Carolina, and commence<l practice. 
Appointed colonel in the militia in 1763, and two years later, 
clerk of the Superior Court. Subsequently, he -was a man of 
considerable note in the Colony, and respectable men aver 
that he was remarkable ^^ for all the vices that degrade the 
most abandoned and profligate minion." Among the public 
offices which he held, was that of Recorder of Deeds for the 
county of Orange ; and it is alleged, that to his abuses in this 
capacity, the war or rebellion of the Regulators in Governor 
Tryon's administration, is, in a good measure, to be attributed. 
The averment is, that, by his vicious character, " nearly all 
the estates in Orange were loaded with doubts as to their 
titles, with exorbitant fees for recording new and unnecessary 
deeds, and high taxes to support a government which supported 
his wickedness." This charge rests on very high authority ; 
and during the war of the Regulators against the Royal Gov- 
ernment, neither the person nor property of Fanning were re- 
spected. His losses were presented to the Assembly by Gov- 
ernor Martin, the successor of Try on, but that body not only 
peremptorily refused to consider the subject, but administered 
a rebuke to the Governor, for thus trifling " with the dignity 
of the House." It is not impossible that his unpopularity was 
greater than his ofiences deserved ; since neither the members 
of the Assembly, nor the people at large, were, at this junc- 
ture, in a frame of mind to do exact justice to opponents. 
Fanning followed Governor Tryon to New York, and became 
his secretary. In 1777 he raised a corj)s of four hundred and 
sixty Loyalists, which bore the name of the Associated Refu- 
gees, or King's American Regiment, and of which he had com- 



416 FANNING. 

mand. To aid in the organization of this body, £500 were sub- 
scribed at Staten Island, £310 in King's County, £219 in 
the town of Jamaica, and £2000 in the city of New York. 
While stationed in Rhode Island, August, 1778, he bad " a 
smart engagement with the enemy," said General Pigot, ** and 
obliged them to retreat to their main body." In March of 
the following year, a part of his regiment, and other Loyalists, 
embarked in seven vessels, protected by three privateers, on an 
expedition, " to get stock," or cattle, at the eastward. The 
chronicle has it that they landed on Nantucket and brought 
off a number of hogs, a quantity of oil, and three vessels. 
On the 16th of June, the whole corps sailed for New York. 
While his regiment was on Long Island, some of his men 
entered a house, tied the owner of it to a bedpost, and then 
held a candle under the ends of his fingers, to torture him to 
disclose the hiding-place of his money. The general charge 
that " Fanning's corps were rude and ill behaved," is sup- 
ported by evidence. In 1779 the property of Colonel Fan- 
ning in North Carolina was confiscated. In 1782 he was in 
office as Surveyor-General of New York. He went to Nova 
Scotia near the close of the war, and September 23d, 1783, 
was sworn in as Councillor and Lieutenant-Governor of that 
Colony. About the year 1786 he was appointed Lieutenant- 
Governor of Prince Edward Island ; and having served nearly 
nineteen years, was succeeded in 1805 by Des Barres, who is 
celebrated for his charts of parts of the American coast. 

Fanning was appointed Major-General in 1793, Lieutenant- 
General in 1799, and General in 1808. He died in Upper 
Seymour Street, London, in 1818. Whigs, as we have seen, 
said that his character was bad. At the time of his decease, 
a friendly pen wrote : " The world did not contain a better 
man in all the various relations of life : as a husband, a parent, 
and a friend — as a landlord and master, he was kind and in- 
dulgent. He was much distinguished in the American war, 
and raised a regiment there, by which he lost a very large 
propert}-." His only son, A. F. Fanning, a captain in the 
22d Foot, died in 1812. " Neither the Greneral nor any of 



FANNING. 417 

hia family ever recovered from that blow." Mrs. Fanning 
and three daughters survived. 

Fannivo, David. Of North Carolina. He was born in 
Virginia in 1755, and was bred to a trade. In 1775, to use 
hia own words, he was a planter ** in the back part of the 
Southern Provinces." His first military- service was jier- 
formed under Colonel Thomas Fletchell, in the atihir with 
Major Andrew Williamson. In a memorial to the Commis- 
sioners on Loyalists' Claims, he states, that during the Revolu- 
tion he had command of bodies of men from one hundre<I to 
nine hundred and fifty in number ; that he was engaged 
against **the Rebels" thirtj'-six times in North Carolina, 
and four times in South Carolina, — all of which skirmishes 
and battles he planned ; that he was wounded twice, and 
made prisoner no less than on fourteen occasions ; that, at 
the peace, he went to Florida, where he settled two hun- 
dred and fifty souls; that his proy»erty in North Carolina 
had been confiscated ; and that he and his family were in 
great distress. This paper is date<l at St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, in March, 1786. Of his coui*se in the Revolution, 
another remarks: "Always well mounted and accompanied 
by a band of kindred s|)irits, he swept over the country like 
a Camanche chief, surprising parties of Whigs when oft* 
their guard ; he often gave no quarter. In lying in ambush 
or pouncing upon them .it their homes, he seized and murdered 
or tortured the obnoxious patriots, and then pliinderod and 
burnt their dwellings. By a series of bold adventures he took 
the town of Cross Creek, now Fayetteville, captured the Whig 
militia officers of the countv of Chatham, when sittinrr in court- 
martial at Hillsborough, and by a sudden descent on Hills- 
borough, at dawn of day, about the middle of Se])tomber, 
seized and carried off^ the Governor of the State/' 

In 1799 Fanning removed from New Brunswick to Nova 
Scotia. In Februaiy, 1801, as appears by papers in his own 
handwriting, which are in my possession, he was under sen- 
tence of death. He was a Freemason, and Oliver Arnold, 
Master of Lodge No. 21, King's County, petitioned Governor 



418 FANNraO. — FANUEIL. 

Carloton to pardon him. By this document it seems that Fan- 
ning was convicted on the testimony of a single witness ; and 
tins fact is stated as a reason why mercy should be extended 
to him. The crime is not mentioned by Arnold, or in any of 
the other papers which I have examined ; but, from several 
expressions which occur, and from the manner of Fanning's 
reference to Sarali London, or, as he calls her, " Sail Lon- 
don," she must have accused him of violating her person, and 
have procured his conviction. He was pardoned. In 1804, 
his corresj)ondence shows that he abused — much abused — a 
gentleman of St. John, who " contributed greatly in saving 
his life ; " while, subsequently, it affords ample evidence that 
he was often involved in quarrels with his neighbors, and in 
lawsuits with others. In truth, he was in trouble every- 
where. In North Carolina he was declared an outlaw, and 
was one of the three who are excepted by name in the Act of 
General Pardon and Oblivion ; and not a Whig there or else- 
wliere, as far as I know, ever spoke or wrote of him in kind- 
ness ; while his fellow-Loyalists in New Brunswick and Nova 
Scotia often expressed their indignation at his words and 
deeds. In 1812, Fanning solicited military employment in 
the war with the United States, without success. Officers, 
however, who served with him in the Revolution, be it said 
in justice, testified to " his services and character as a brave 
soldier." He died at Digby, in 1825, at the age of seventy. 

Fanning, Thomas. Of Suffolk County, New York. Ad- 
dresser of Governor Tryon, November, 1776 ; and deputed to 
present the submission of the committees of that county tlie 
month previous. In June, 1778, a party of Whigs from Con- 
necticut seized him and carried him off. He was a kinsman, 
perhaps a brother, of Edmund. 

Fanueil, Benjamin. Of Boston. An eminent merchant. 
He was one of the consignees of the tea which was destroyed 
in that town in December, 1773. He died at Cambridge^ 
Massachusetts, in 1785, aged eighty-four. 

Fanueil, Benjamin, Jr. Of Boston. He went to Eng- 
land, and was in London, March, 1777. 



FARLEY. — FAYEBWE ATHEB. 419 

Farle7, Joseph. Of Georgia. In the eflFort to reestab- 
lish the Royal Government in 1779, he was appointed provost 
marshal. 

Fabbington, Thomas. Of Groton, Massachusetts. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel in the Continental Army. In May, 1777, by 
order of General Heath, he was tried by a court-martial for 
''pasdng counterfeit money, knowing it to be such," found 
guil^, unanimously sentenced to be dismissed from the army, 
and rendered incapable of holding any military office under 
Congress. This done, he was committed to jail, to be dealt 
with by the civil authorities. 

Fabnham, John. Of Monmouth County, New Jersey. 
A Tory marauder. In an affray in New Jersey, he attempted 
to shoot a young Whig into whose father's house he and a 
band of Tories and negroes had broken ; but was prevented 
by Lippincott, the murderer of Huddy. 

Fabnswobth, David. In 1778 he was tried as a spy, con- 
victed of the offence, and executed at Hartford, Connecticut, 
on the 10th of November. A large amount of counterfeit 
Continental money was found in his possession. 

Faulkneb, Thomas. Of North Carolina. Secretary of 
the Colony. Went to England, and died there in 1782. 

Fatebweatheb, Rev. Samuel. Of Rhode Island. Epis- 
copal minister. He was son of Thomas Fayerweather of 
Boston, and graduated at Harvard University in 1743. Or- 
dained a Congregationalist, he was settled at Newport, Rhode 
Island. His first service as an Episcopalian, after his return 
from England, was in South Carolina ; but the climate injured 
his health, and he applied to the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel for a mission at the North. He was accordingly 
transferred to the parish of St. Paul's, Rhode Island, in 1760. 
In 1774 the Whigs of his flock objected to the reading of 
prayers for the King and Royal family ; and, as he could not 
dispense with them, as he thought, without the violation of 
his ordination vows, his church was closed. He preached 
occasionally, however, in private houses, without molestation. 
It is said, indeed, that personally he favored the popular cause. 



420 FE^TALES. — FEN WICKE. 

He died in 1781, and was buried under the communion-table 
of liis church. The University of Oxford conferred the de- 
gree of A. M. in 1756. 

Females. [See Women.'] 

Fenton, John. Of New Hampshire. He was a captain 
in the British Army, but disposing of his commission, settled 
in New Hampshire, where he became a colonel in the militia, 
clerk in the Court of Common Pleas, and Judge of Probate 
for the county of Grafton. In 1775 he was also a member 
of the House of Assembly for the town of Plymouth, and 
was expelled. Enraged at the indignity, and at the measures 
of the Whigs generally, he gave vent to his passions, and fell 
into the hands of the people, who pursued him to tlie residence 
of Governor Wentworth with a field-piece, which they threat- 
ened to discharge unless he was delivered up. Fenton surren- 
dered, and was sent to the Committee of Safety at Exeter for 
trial. " Upon a full hearing of sundry complaints against " 
him in Provincial Congress, it was voted, that he was ^^ an 
enemy to the liberties of America," and that he should ** be 
confined in the jail at Exeter," and " be supported like a gen- 
tleman, at the expense of the Colony, until further orders." 
By a subsequent vote it was ordered, that his place of con- 
finement should be at the Whig camp. September 19, 1775, 
the Continental Congress instructed Washington to discharge 
him on his parole of honor, to proceed to New York and 
thence to Great Britain, and not to bear arms against the 
American people. Property confiscated, and banished, 1778. 

Fenton, Lewis. A Tory robber and outlaw, who infested 
the pine barrens of New Jersey. He was originally a black- 
smith, and learned his trade at Freehold, New Jersey. His 
first crime appears to have been the robbing of a tailor's shop ; 
when word was sent to him that, unless he returned his plun- 
der, he should be hunted down and shot. He was killed in 
Monmouth County, New Jersey, in 1779, by a party who 
went in pursuit of him. 

Fenwicke, Edward. Of South Carolina. He was op- 
posed to the measures of the Ministry in 1774, since be was 



FERGUSON. — FERRIS. 421 

in London that year, and joined Franklin, Lee, and other 
patriots then in England, in a remonstrance against the pas- 
sage of the bill for the Government of Massachusetts Bay. 
He married a daughter of John Stuart, Superintendent of 
Indian Afiairs ; and, in 1776, petitioned the> House of Assem- 
bly to allow him to hold as property thirty negroes who, as 
he averred, Stuart designed to give him as a part of the mar- 
riage portion of his wife. Stuart bad then fled, and his eifects 
had been seized. Fenwicke was a Congratulator of Com-, 
wallis on bis success at Camden in 1780. In 1782 his estate 
was confiscated, and he was banished. In 1785, by Act of 
the Greneral Assembly, his property was restored, and he was 
allowed to remain in the State one year. 

Ferguson, Henry Hugh. Of Pennsylvania. During 
the war he was made a commissaiy of prisoners. His wife 
was Elizabeth, a daughter of Doctor Graeme, the Collector 
of Philadelphia, and granddaughter of Sir William Keith, 
one of the proprietary Governors of Pennsylvania. In 1778, 
soon after he was attainted and proscribed, Mrs. Ferguson 
made a long statement to the Council, in which she gave a 
narrative of his conduct from September, 1775, (when, as 
appears, he embarked for Bristol, England,) until her appeal 
in his behalf. " As to my little estate," she remarked, " it is 
patrimonial, and left me in fee simple by my father." In 
1779 she appealed to the Council not to allow the sale of her 
property "in consequence of her husband's right by mar- 
riage," setting forth, as she thought, " good and cogent rea- 
sons " for her prayer. The estate was, however, confiscated ; 
bat a part of it was restored to her by the Legislature in 1781. 
She separated fi'om her husband, and died in 1801. 

Ferris, Josbph. Of Stamford, Connecticut. He raised 
a company, joined Colonel Butler, and was a captain in the 
Rangers. During the war he was taken prisoner by a brother- 
in-law who was a Whig, but escaped from captivity. After 
the peace he went to Newfoundland, but removed to New 
Brunswick, where he settled. He was fond of visits to the 
States and to the scenes of his youth ; and sometimes met 

VOL. I. 8^ 



422 FERRIS. - FISHER. 

those whom he had opposed in skirmishes and battles. He 
lived in Eastport, Maine, after it was captured by the British 
forces in the war of 1812, but returned to New Brunswick 
on its being surrendered to the United States. He died at 
Indian Island, New Brunswick, in 1836, aged ninety-two. 
He enjoyed half-pay from the close of the Revolution until 
his decease, a period of fifty-three years. 

Ferris, Joshua. Of New York. " An old offender," said 
Colonel Thomas, to the New York Convention, August, 1776, 
when sending him to that body ; ^' and has been sought for 
long since by the Committee of this county to answer for his 
repeated offences, particularly for being in arms against his 
country," &c. 

Fewtrell, John. Of South Carolina. He was a Judge 
of the Superior Court ; and was permitted to depart from the 
State. 

FiNDLEY, Hugh. He and John Foxcroft were the two 
Postmasters-General of the thirteen Colonies, and were con- 
tinued at the head of that Department until 1782, certainly, 
and probably until the peace. 

FiNLEY, James. Sergeant in Price's company of Riflemen. 
Tried by a general court-martial, at Cambridge, Mass., Sept. 
1775, "for expressing himself disrespectfully of the Conti- 
nental Association, and drinking Greneral Gage's health"; 
and sentenced to be deprived of his arms and accoutrements, 
to be put in a horse-cart with a rope around his neck, to be 
drummed out of the army, and rendered forever incapable of 
military service. 

Fisher, Rev. Nathaniel. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Epis- 
copal minister. He was born at Dedham, Massachusetts, in 
1742, and graduated at Harvard University in 1763. In the 
early part of the Revolution he was imprisoned for his loyalty. 
He was employed by the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts, as a schoolmaster at Granville, 
Nova Scotia, soon after his release ; and in 1778, — having 
been to England for ordination, — he was stationed at Annap- 
olis in that Province, as Assistant Rector. He returned to the 



FISHER 428 

United States late in 1781, and was soon after admitted to 
citizenship in Massachusetts, on taking the oath of allegiance 
to that Commonwealth. In February, 1782, he entered upon 
hia duties as Rector of St. Peter's Church, Salem. After a 
ministry of more than thirty years, he died in that city in 
December, 1812, on Sunday, a few minutes after returning 
to his house from performing divine service, at the age of 
seventy. His wife was Silence Baker, of Dedham, by whom 
be was the father of two sons and a daughter. ^^ Two of his 
children were cut off in the bloom of youth and beauty," 
towards the close of his life, and ^^ for a moment he seemed 
desolate and dismayed." It is written, that,^^ as a iatlier and 
husband, he was affectionate and kind ; as a friend, faithful 
and sincere ; • . • and as a Christian, firm in his belief, and 
benevolent in his life." In person, he was strongly built, and 
of a large frame. One of his sisters was the mother of the 
statesman and orator, Fisher Ames. 

Fisher, Miers. Of Philadelphia. Said John Adams, in 
1774 : " Dined with Mr. Miers Fisher, a young Quaker, and 
a lawyer. We saw his library, which is clever. But this 
plain Friend and his plain though pretty wife, with her Theei 
and Thou%^ had' provided us the most costly entertainment: 
ducks, ham, chickens, pig, tarts, creams, custards, jellies, fools, 
trifles, floating islands, beer, porter, punch, wine, and a long 
&c. We had a large collection of lawyers at table," &c. In 
the rapidity of events, Mr. Fisher was left behind ; and in 
1777 he was apprehended and confined at Philadelphia ; and 
finally ordered, with other Loyalists of that city, to Virginia. 
He was distinguished in his profession, an eloquent advocate, 
and a lover of science. He died at Philadelphia in 1819, 
aged seventy-one. 

Fisher, Samuel R. Of Philadelphia. Brother of Miers 
Fisher. In 1779, a letter, addressed by him to his brother, 
Jabez M., was intercepted, and submitted by the Council to 
the Chief Justice, with the remark that it contained infor- 
mation which appeared to call for legal reprehension and pun* 
ishment. He was accordingly committed, and ordered to 



424 FISHER. 

recognijse with a surety in <£500. Hours were spent by the 
Chief Justice himself in the endeavor to prevail upon him to 
execute the required bond, but he absolutely refused. He 
was not, however, deprived of his liberty by the sheriff, until 
the Council issued a positive order to that officer to confine 
him. 

Fisher, Jabez Maud. Of Philadelphia. Brother of Samuel 
R. Fisher. He departed the State. In 1779 he was a mer- 
chant in New York ; went to England, was a Loyal Addresser 
of the King, and died there the same year. In 1782, Messrs. 
Joshua Fisher & Sons, of Philadelphia, petitioned the Coun- 
cil of Pennsylvania to grant Samuel R. Fisher, of that house, 
leave to go to England by way of New York, to assist in ad- 
justing his concerns. The petition was rejected. 

Fisher, Turner. Of Boston. Son of Wilfred Fisher. 
He accompanied the British troops from Boston to Halifax, 
and, entering the Royal Navy, became a sailing-master. After 
the Revolution, he married Esther, the daughter of Ezekiel 
Foster, of Machias, Maine, and settled in New Brunswick. 
He was in Boston about the time of the war of 1812, but his 
subsequent fate is unknown to his family. His son, Wilfred 
Fisher, Esq., is a merchant and magistrate of the island of 
Grand Menan, New Brunswick. His wife died in November, 
1844, at the age of eighty-eight years, at the residence of her 
son. 

Fisher, Wilfred. Of Boston. At the evacuation of 
that town, he accompanied the British troops to Halifiix, 
where he received an appointment which attached him to a 
corps of light-horse. He died at Halifax before the close of 
the war. He was proscribed and banished under the Act of 
1778, and his estate in Boston was confiscated. His son Wil- 
fred was a Whig, and a ship-master. Captured by the Brit- 
ish, he was carried to New York, and died there a prisoner, 
during the Revolution. 

Fisher, John. Naval-officer, at Portsmouth, New Hamp- 
shire. Salary, derivable from fees, £200 per annum. Was 
proscribed by the Act of New Hampshire of 1778. He went 



FITCH. 425 

to England, and was secretary to Lord George Germain. 
His wife, Anna, sister of John Wentworth, the last Royal 
Governor of New Hampshire, died at Bath, England, in 
1811, aged sixty-six. 

Fitch, Thomas. Of Connecticut. He graduated at Yale 
College in 1721, and devoted himself to the profession of the 
law. He held the offices of Councillor, Judge of the Superior 
Court, and Lieutenant-Governor ; and in 1754 was elected 
Gt>vernor. These various stations he filled with unsurpassed 
integrity and wisdom. His legal knowledge is said to have 
equalled, and perhaps exceeded, that of any other lawyer of 
Connecticut during the period of her Colonial history. In 
1765 he took the oath of office prescribed in the Stamp Act, 
and was driven into retirement in consequence the next year ; 
having occupied the Executive Chair for the whole period 
between 1754 and 1766. His successor was the Honorable 
William Pitkin. 

Copy of inscription on the monument' of Governor Fitch, 
at Norwalk, Connecticut : " The Hon'ble Thomas Fitch, 
Elsq., Gov. of the Colony of Connecticut. Eminent and dis- 
tinguished among mortals for great abilities, large acquire- 
ments, and a virtuous character : a clear, strong, sedate 
mind: an accurate, extensive acquaintance with law, and 
civil government : a happy talent of presiding : close applica- 
tion, and strict fidelity in the discharge of important truths : 
no less than for his employments, by the voice of the people, 
in the chief offices of state, and at the head of the colony. 
Having served his generation, by the will of God, fell asleep, 
July 18, Ann. Domini, 1774, in the 75th year of his age." 

Fitch, Samuel. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutch- 
inson in 1774. In 1776 he went to Halifax with his family 
of six persons. In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. 
He held the office of Solicitor to the Board of Commission- 
en ; and, like most of his official associates, was included in 
the Conspiracy Act of 1779. He went to England, was a 
Loyalist Addresser of the King in 1779, and was abroad in 
1783. 

86* 



426 FITCH. — FITZSIMMONS. 

I conclude that the Samuel Fitch who graduated at Yale 
College in 1742, and died in 1784, was the subject of this 
notice. 

Fitch, Eleazer, Jr. Of Windham, Connecticut. Sheriff 
of Windham County. More than one hundred citizens of 
that county petitioned the House of Assembly, September, 
1776, for his removal from office, on account of many words 
and acts, which they designate, in opposition to the popular 
cause. Among them are the singular surnames of Devotion, 
Doughset, Greenslitt, Bibens. 

Fitch, Benjamin. Of Maine. Went to the Kennebec 
River in 1760, and was employed there by Dr. Sylvester 
Gardiner, as a millwright. Violent in his opposition to the 
Whigs, he was compelled to leave the country. He enlisted, 
" and was killed fighting for the king." His wife was Ann 
McCausland. 

FiTZPATRiCK, James. Of Pennsylvania. A Tory ma- 
rauder, known as " Captain Fitz." At first, a Whig, and in 
the Continental Army. He roamed the county of Chester, 
was a terror to the Whigs, and seemingly delighted in perils 
and escapes. His exploits were the theme of every tongue. 
At last, in 1778, when a reward of one thousand dollars had 
been offered for his apprehension, he entered a house to " levy 
his dues on the cursed Rebels," and was seized and overpow- 
ered by Robert McPher and a girl named Rachel Walker. 
Conveyed to prison in Philadelphia, he broke his handcufis 
twice in one night ; and, sent to another jail, he filed off his 
irons, and got out of his dungeon. He was hanged at last at 
Chester, Pennsylvania. 

Fitz-Randolph, . Of New Jersey. Lieutenant 

in the Loyal Militia. Killed near Elizabethtown, while acting 
with the Queen's Rangers. 

FiTZSiMMONS, Peter. A merchant. At Newtown, New 
York, at some time in the war. In 1782 he opened a tavern 
there, which was much frequented by soldiers and Loyalists. 
He also kept a ferry. At the peace, he went to St. John, 
New Brunswick. 



FLEMING. — FLOYD. 427 

Fleming, John. Printer, of Boston. Was proscribed and 
banished by the Act of 1778. He was copartner with Mien. 
Some of the books which they printed had a false imprint, 
and were palmed off as London editions, because Mien said, 
that books thus published met with a better sale. In 1767 
they commenced the " Boston Chronicle," a paper which, in 
the second year of its publication, espoused the Royal cause, 
and became extremely abusive of numbers of the most re- 
spectable Whigs of Boston. To avoid the eflTects of popular 
resentment. Mien thought fit to leave the country. The 
"Chronicle" was the first paper published twice a week in 
New England ; and was suspended in 1770. Fleming found 
it prudent to retire from Boston in 1773, and embarked for 
England in that year with his family. He came to the United 
States more than once, subsequent to 1790, as the agent of a 
commercial house in Europe. His residence was in France 
for some years, and he died there. 

Fletchall, Thomas. Of South Carolina. He was a 
colonel, and at the head of a considerable force of Loyalists 
in that State, during the difficulties with the Cunninghams 
in 1775 ; and signed the truce or treaty which was agreed 
upon between the Whigs and their opponents. In 1776 he 
was committed to prison in Charleston, by order of the Pro- 
vincial Congress. After the surrender of Charleston, he was 
in commission under the Crown. In 1782 his estate was con- 
fiscated. He appears to have been a person of much consid- 
eration in South Carolina, previous to the Revolution ; and 
to have been regarded as of rather doubtful, or undecided pol- 
itics, though the Whigs made him a member of an important 
standing committee, raised with the design of carrying out 
the views of the Continental Congress. 

Flewellino, Abel, and Morris. Of New York. Settled 
in New Brunswick at the peace, and were grantees of lands 
in St. John. Abel became a magistrate, and died at Mauger- 
ville in 1814, aged sixty-eight. 

Floyd, Richard. Of New York. He was the eldest son 
of Hon. Richard Floyd, a colonel of New York militia, a 



428 FLOYD. — FLUCKER. 

Judge of the Common Pleas, and a gentleman of wealth and 
reputation. His wife was Arrabella, a daughter of Judge 
David Jones, of Queen's County, New York. His cliildren 
were Elizabeth, who married John Peter Do Lancey, and was 
the mother of the wife of Cooper, the great American novel- 
ist ; Anne, a younger daughter ; and one son, David Richard. 
Tlie latter, in pursuance of the will of Judge Jones, and by 
legal authority, adopted the name of Jones ; he died in 1826, 
leaving two sons, to wit : Brigadier-General Thomas Floyd 
Jones, and Major-General Henry Floyd Jones. Mr. Floyd's 
estate was confiscated ; and abandoning the country, he died 
at St. John, New Brunswick. His family was one of the 
most ancient in New York, and is distinguished in its annals. 
Descended from the same ancestor was the Whig General 
William Floyd, who signed the Declaration of Independence. 
The Floyds were of Welsh origin, and the iirst of the name 
emigrated in 1654, and settled at Brookhaven, Long Island, 
where many of his descendants continued until the Revolu- 
tion. 

Floyd, Benjamin. Of Brookhaven, Suffolk County, New 

York. In 1775 he circulated a paper for signatures, to sup- 
port the Royal authority, in opposition to the proceedings of 
the Whigs, and obtained the names of about one hundred 
pei-sons. A party of " Rebels," in 1778, entered his house 
at night, compelled a servant to show them in which room he 
was in bed, seized him, and carried him to Norwalk, Connec- 
ticut. The next year, another party of about twenty, in 
whale-boats, robbed his dwelling of £600, and the most val- 
uable part of his household goods. He was a major in the 
New York Militia. 

Flucker, Thomas. Last Secretary of the Province of 
Massachusetts Bay. In 1765 he was member of a committee 
of the Council to consider and report what could be done to 
prevent difficulties in the proceedings of the courts of justice ; 
and, three years later, his name occurs in the State Pa{)ers, 
as appointed by the same body to assist in drafting an Address 
to the King. March 2d, 1774, when Lieutenant-Governor 



PLUCKER. — FOLLIOT. 429 

Oliver was senseless and dying, John Adams records: 
"Flucker has laid in to be Lieutenant-Governor, and has 
persuaded Hutchinson to write in his favor. This will malce 
a difficulty." Though unsuccessful, he was appointed a Man- 
damus Councillor. Whig mechanics of Boston met at the 
Green Dragon tavern, and were so careful of their secrets 
that Colonel Paul Revere (who was one of them) says they 
swore on the Bible, every time they met, to discover nothing 
except to Hancock, Samuel Adams, Warren, and Church. 
The latter proved a traitor, and Secretary Flucker was the 
first to acquaint a person of Loyalist connections, who (a 
Whig at heart) told Revere, that all their transactions were 
communicated to General Gage. In 1776 Flucker was in 
London, and a member of the " Brompton Row Tory Club," 
or Association of Loyalists, who met weekly for conversation 
and a dinner. He died in England suddenly, in 1783. He 
married Hannah, daughter of General Waldo, proprietor of 
the Waldo Patent, Maine, to whose heirs the domain de- 
scended. The parts which belonged to Mrs. Flucker and her 
two brothers, were confiscated. Henry Knox, Chief of Ar- 
tillery in the Revolution and Secretary of War in Washing- 
ton's administration, who married Flucker's daughter, acquired 
a very large share of it on easy terms, settled at Thomaston 
and built an elegant mansion, in which he himself died in 
1806, and his wife in 1824. Mrs. Flucker remained in Eng- 
land, but survived her husband only three years. 

Flucker, Thomas, Jr. Of Massachusetts. Son of 
Thomas Flucker. He graduated at Harvard University in 
1778, and in the Revolution was an officer in the British ser- 
vice. By the University Catalogue, it appears that he and 
his father died the same year, 1783. 

FoLLiOT, George. Of New York. He was elected a 
member of the Provincial Congress for the city and county 
of New York, in 1775, but declined serving, and the vacancy 
was filled in June of that year. In 1776 he was an Addres- 
ser of Lord and Sir William Howe. He was also appointed 
a member of the Committee of One Hundred, but refused to 



430 FORBES. - FORD. 

act. His estate of twenty-one acres was sold by the Com- 
missioners of Confiscation, in 1784. 

Forbes, Rev. Eli. Of Massachusetts. Congregational 
minister. He graduated at Harvard University in 1751, and 
was ordained at Brookfield the next year. He was dismissed 
in 1776, " on suspicion of entertaining Tory principles ; " and 
was soon after installed over the First Parish in Gloucester. 
He died in 1804, aged seventy-seven. His first wife was a 
daughter of the Rev. Ebenezer Parkman of Westborough, 
by whom he was the father of two children, Eli and Polly. 
His second wife, who died in 1780, was Lucy, daughter <rf 
the Rev. Thomas Smith, of Falmouth, (now Portland,) 
Maine, and widow of Thomas Sanders, of Gloucester. 

Forbes, Gilbert. Gunsmith, of Broadway, New York. 
In 1776 he was arrested and put in irons, on the charge of 
being concerned in the plot of certain adherents of the Crown 
to murder a number of Whig ofBoers, to blow up the maga- 
zine, &c. When told that he had but a short time to live, he 
asked to be carried before Congress, and said he would con- 
fess all he knew. He is described as ^^ a short, thick man, 
with a white coat." 

Ford, William. Captain of Loyalist refugees. In 1781, 
with thirty-eight men, ** when the good people of Middle- 
sex were assembled, and devoutly praying for their great 
and good ally," he surrounded their church, and took from 
thence " fifty notorious Rebels, their Reverend teacher, and 
their horses, forty in number." Though harrassed in return- 
ing to his boats, he carried off '* every Rebel and every 
horse." Three of his men were slightly wounded. This 
exploit was thought extremely meritorious in Loyalists cir- 
cles ; and Ford's *' bravery, coolness and alertness," were 
duly praised in an official report. 

Ford, Elisha. Of Marshfield, Massachusetts. He was 
seized, carted to tlie liberty-pole in Duxbury, and compelled 
to sign a Recantation. He was afterwards in jail at Ply- 
mouth, Massachusetts, and ordered by Resolve, June, 1776, 
to remain there at his own expense. 



FORD. — FOSTER. 481 

Ford, Samuel. Second Lieutenant of the Effingham gal- 
ley. In 1778 he was tried for desertion to the Royal side 
during the siege of Fort Mifflin ; convicted, and sentenced to 
death. 

FosD, John. Of New Jersey. Compelled to leave his 
residence to avoid the Whigs who molested him, he fled to the 
Royal forces on Staten Island, where he remained some years. 
In 1783 Sir Guy Carleton commissioned him to take charge 
of a company of Loyalists, who were emigrating from New 
York to Nova Scotia. He settled at St. John, New Bruns- 
wick, and received the grant of a city lot ; but removed to 
Hampton, and became one of the best farmers in that Colony. 
He died at Hampton in 1823, aged seventy-seven. 

FoKREST, James. Merchant, of Boston. An Addresser of 
Hutchinson in 1774. In 1775 he commanded, in Boston, the 
Loyal Irish Volunteers, a company raised to mount guard 
every evening, armed, and distinguished by a white cockade. 
Went to Halifax in 1776, with his family of six persons. 
Served as a volunteer in the battle of Germantown, 1777, and 
was wounded. Proscribed and banished, 1778. 

Forrester, George Peabody. Died at Hampton, King's 
Ck>unty, New Brunswick, in 1840, aged eighty-three years. 

Forrester, Joseph. At the peace, was one of tlie grantees 
of St. John, New Brunswick. In 1795 he was a member of 
the Loyal Artillery of that city. He died wliile at Boston in 
1804, aged forty-six. 

FoRSTER, MosES. In September, 1779, he was at Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, a stranger and in distress. As a Loyalist, he 
had been imprisoned on shore a year ; harrassed by a Whig 
committee ; driven from his family ; taken out of bed and 
conveyed one hundred and twenty miles to a guardship, and 
then transported. He had a wife and eight children ; and, 
at the above date, was about embarking for New York. 
• Foster, Thomas. Of Plymouth, Massachusetts. -He 
r^resented that town in the General Court several years ; 
and in 1765 instructions were furnished him to govern his 
course on the exciting questions of the time. He accom- 



482 FOSTER. — FOWLE. 

panied the British Army to Halifax in 1776. Aside from his 
political preferences, he was esteemed by his townsmen for his 
attention and fidelity to the municipal and civil concerns in- 
trusted to his care. His father, Deacon John Foster, was also 
a representative from Plymouth, and pursued an independent 
line of conduct in that relation, never accepting of Executive 
favors. His son Thomas was a graduate of Harvard Univer- 
sity, and instructed a school at Plymouth. His grandson 
Thomas was an officer of a bank at Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, and died there in 1808, aged fifty-eight. Branches of 
this family settled in Middleborough and Kingston, Massa- 
chusetts, and in Norfolk, Virginia. 

Foster, Edward. Of Boston. Addresser of Hutchinson, 
1774 ; went to Halifax, 1776 ; was proscribed and banished 
in 1778. He settled at Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, and man- 
aged large iron-works there. He died in 1786, leaving 
thirteen children. 

Foster, Edward, Jr. Of Boston. Son of Ekiward. 
Went to Halifax in 1776 ; was proscribed and banished in 
1778. About the year 1814 he settled in Union, Maine, 
and died there in 1822, aged seventy-two. 

FowLE, Robert. Served an apprenticeship with his uncle, 
Daniel Fowle, of Portsmouth, and became his partner in the 
publication of the " New Hampshire Gazette," the only news- 
paper in New Hampshire at the beginning of the Revolu- 
tion. As the nephew was a Loyalist, and the uncle a Whig, 
their connection terminated in 1774 ; when Robei*t established 
himself as a printer at Exeter. The new paper currency, 
which he printed, having been counterfeited soon after, sus- 
picion rested on him as a participant in the crime ; and his 
flight to the British lines in New York, and thence abroad, 
served to confirm the impression. Some years after the peace 
he returned to the United States, married the widow of his 
younger brother, and lived in New Hampshire until his 
decease. His father was John Fowle, first a silent partner of 
Rogers & Fowle, of Boston, and subsequently an Episcopal 
clergyman at Norwalk, Connecticut. The firm of Rogers 



I 



FOWLER. 433 

& Fowle printed the first edition of tlie New Testament in 
the English language which was published in this country. 
Robert, the subject of this notice, received a pension from the 
British Government. 

FowLEE, Jonathan. Of West Chester County, New 
York. Judge of the Superior Court. He was seized by a 
party of Whigs, who carried him to New Haven, where he 
signed an apology for protesting against Congress. At the 
peace, he went to Digby, Nova Scotia, and was a merchant 
and ship-owner. He soon died, and his family retui*ncd to 
the United States. 

Fowler, Caleb. Of New York. In 1782 he was an en- 
sign in the Loyal American Regiment. He settled in New 
Brunswick; received half-pay, and died on the river St. 
John. 

Fowler, Caleb. Of West Chester County, New York. 
He was one of the Loyalist Protesters at White Plains, April, 
1776,. who denounced Whig Congresses and Committees, and 
who pledged themselves ^*at the hazard of their lives and 
properties, to support the King and Constitution." He en- 
tered the Royal service, and was a captain in the Loyal 
American Regiment. At the peace he retired to New Bruns- 
wick on half-pay. He died near Fredericton. 

Fowler. Of New York. Samuel was permitted to re- 
turn to the State in 1784, on petition of Whigs. — Of Massa- 
chusetts! John, who, accompanied by his wife and two chil- 
dren, arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, in the ship Unioniy 
in the spring of 1783. Of those whose places of residence are 
unknown, were William, who was a captain, and Gilbert, who 
was an ensign in the Loyal American Regiment ; Gabriel, who 
settled in New Brunswick in 1783, and died in that Colony in 
1£[32, at the age of seventy-five ; Daniel, who boasted of being 
a firm Loyalist, who settled in the same, and died in King's 
County in 1813, aged sixty-five ; Henry, who died in the same 
county in 1843, at the age of eighty-seven ; and another, who, 
a captain in De Lancey's Brigade, was killed on an incursion 

to Horseneck in 1780. Still again, Amos, Aaron, Andrew, 
'vol. I. 87 



i 



j-^iiiutcu iipvfii ma uuLiCd ill J. i i u ; weill lO 

Fountain, Stephen. Of Stamford, 
wrote a letter, addressed to " Darias Oln 
This with care," September, 1776 ; but th( 
his mother, brothers, and sister. He had 
love to her. He was an ignorant man ; 
of errors and exaggerations. Convicted 
three Whig committees, of taking up arm 
with the British ships, and seducing many t 
side, he was made prisoner, carried to Congi 
He arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, wi 
in the ship Unicm. 

Fountain, John. Went to Shelbum 
1788, where he had a fine vegetable and fl 
story is that he used to l^t the boys eat c 
each. He removed to Deer Island, New £ 
there in 1829, aged eighty-five. 

FoxcROFT, John. One of the two Posi 
the Crown in the thirteen Colonies. He c 
rider between New York and Boston, Api 
formed the Whig Committee of the forme 
mails had been stopped, the bags broken op< 
letters taken out and publicly read. ^* A ( 
office rose on the ruins of the Parliamenta 
the same year. " The post, from New Yor 
sets out about nine o'clock on Monday, alx 
day, and returns on Wednesdays and Sati 



FOXCROFT. — FRANCIS. 486 

exchange, if to be had, and remit it to Mr. Beman Fearon^ 
Merchant, in Latidan^ advising me of it by the firat opportu- 
nity. I must not omit mentioning to you, that the first bill 
was remitted to Mr. Harry lAoyd^ who never acknowledged 
the receipt of it ; and therefore it probably miscarried. Your 
negotiating this matter will lay me under a great obligation ; 
but in return, you know, if I can render you any service this 
Vftyf you have only to command me. I have not had one 
line from you since the affair at Lexington ; nor firom Svkey 
since she left us. Mrs. Foxcroft and my little girls are well. 
She joins me in sincere regards to you and femily. 

" I am yours, as ever, 

** John Foxcrofi'.'* 

Next, in March, when the Provincial Congress allowed him 
to go on board the ships in New York harbor, to sort and count, 
for delivery, letter from abroad. Last, in November, when 
he was a prisoner in Philadelphia. In 1789 he was at liberty 
on parole, and in New York. After the war he was agent for 
the British packets in the last-named city, and died there in 
1790. 

FoxcEOFT, Thomas. Joint Postmaster-General with John. 
Went to England, and died there suddenly in 1785. Eliza- 
beth, their sister, and wife of Benson Fearon, died in Eng- 
land, 1801. 

FoY, Edward. Of Virginia. He entered the British 
Army in 1757, and was a captain in 1764. He accompanied 
Lord Dunmore to New York, as his private secretary, in 
1770; and served in the same capacity when his Lordship 
was transferred to the government of Virginia. He returned 
to England in 1775 ; but probably came back to America a 
year or two afterward. 

Francis, Thomas. A negro slave, purchased by Philip 
Lott of Elihu Spencer, of New Jersey. He ran away to 
New York on 2d November, 1782, and was enlisted by Cap- 
tain Thelwal into the Jamaica Rangers. He was reclaimed 
by the American Commissioners, in June, 1783 ; but Sir 
Guy Carleton reftised to give him up, since he had joined 
him under the sanction of the Negro Proclamation. 



J 



436 FRANKLAND. 

Frankland, Lady Agnes. Of Massachusetts. Wife of Sir 
Charles Henry Frankland, Baronet. According to " Burke's 
Peerage," her maiden name was Agnes Brown ; others call her 
Agnes Surrage. The story told of her is romantic enough. 
Sir Charles, who was a grandson of Frances, daughter of 
Oliver Cromwell, was appointed Collector of the Customs for 
the port of Boston, in 1741 ; and first saw Agnes at Marble- 
head, when she was about sixteen years of age, and a servant- 
girl at a tavern. She was of '* matchless beauty," and, the 
Baronet becoming enamored with her, obtained the consent 
of her parents to take her to Boston, where he placed her at 
school, " clothed her in the best, and in every way sought to 
develop her body and mind." The end was, that he won her 
affections, and, as her humble rank presented obstacles to 
marriage, she consented to live with him as his mistress. 
This arrangement caused great commotion ; and Sir Charles 
bought an estate in Hopkinton, built a house upon it, and 
removed thither, with " his Agnes and some of his boon com- 
panions." Some years afterwards he was appointed Consul- 
General to Portugal, and took Agnes with him. At the mo- 
ment of the great earthquake at Lisbon, 1755, he was riding 
out ; " his horses were swallowed in the opening earth, and 
his carriage w^as covered with the ruins of falling buildings ; " 
and he himself expected to be crushed to death. While he 
lay buried, " the evils of his past career came forcibly to 
mind ; and, if saved, he resolved to live a better life." Mean- 
time his mistress was in search of him, found the spot, heard 
his voice, and ofiered a large reward for his rescue. The day 
after this fearful event, he led Agnes to the altar ; and the 
marriage ceremony was repeated in the Episcopal form, after 
his return to England. He came again to Boston, and pur- 
chased an estate in Garden Court, North Square, near or 
adjoining the house of Governor Hutchinson, where he is said 
to have lived in much style. While Collector, he was often 
absent ; and, finally, in 1759, was suspended for inattention to 
duty ; and William Sheafie, who had often had charge of the 
business of the office, ^'as appointed in his stead. The Bar- 



FBANKLAND. 437 

onet's mansion at Hopkinton (biirnCd in 1858) attracted 
many visitors ; on going over it myself, I coidd hardly imag- 
ine — altered as it was — that while he occupied it, he " main- 
tained the splendor of an English nobleman ; " and the terms 
"elegant, very large and fine," often applied to it, seemed 
quite extravagant. He died at Bath, England, in 1765, and 
was succeeded by his brother Thomas, who, an Admiral of 
the White, married Susan, granddaughter of Chief Justice 
Rhett, of South Carolina. 

Lady Frankland, accompanied by her natural son, arrived 
in America from Bristol in 1768 ; and designed, probably, to 
remain. At Hopkinton, May, 1775 ; and, alarmed at the 
movements of the people, her Ladyship asked leave to remove 
to Boston. The Committee of Safety gave her liberty to pass 
to the capital with six trunks, one chest, three beds and bed- 
ding for the same, six sheep, two pigs, one small keg of pickled 
tongues, some hay, three bags of com, and such other goods 
as she should think proper to carry thither ; and gave her a 
written permit accordingly, signed by " Benjamin Church, Jr., 
Chairman." Thus protected, she set out on her journey with 
her attendants ; but was arrested by a party of armed men, 
who detained her person and her effects, until an order for 
the release of both was obtained." To prevent further annoy- 
ance, the Provincial Congress furnished her with an escort ; 
and, by two resolves subsequently, allowed her to take seven 
trunks, all her beds and bedding, all her boxes and crates, a 
basket of chickens, two barrels and a hamper, two horses and 
chaises, one phaeton, some ham and veal, and sundry small 
bundles; and required all persons who had any of her prop- 
erty in possession to place the same, essentially, at her dispo- 
sal. The "arms and ammunition," deposited in a chaise, a 
committee retained. These details are not trivial, because 
they show the spirit of the time. Lady Frankland was in 
Boston on the 17th of June, and gazed from her own house 
upon the conflict on Bunker's Hill. She returned to England. 
In 1782 she married John Drew, a banker of Chichester ; and 
died at that place the year after, at about the age of fifty-five. 

37* 



438 FRANKLIN. 

Franklin, William. Last Royal Governor of New Jer- 
sey. Natural son of Benjamin Franklin. Bom about the 
year 1731. 

His father said of him : " Will, is now nineteen years of age, 
a tall, proper youth, and much of a beau. He acquired a 
habit of idleness, .... but begins of late to apply himself 
to business, and I hope will become an industrious man. He 
imagined his father had got enough for him, but I have as- 
sured him that I intend to spend what little I have myself, if 
it please God that I live long enough ; and, as he by no means 
wants acuteness, he can see by my going on, that I mean to 
be as good as my word." He served as postmaster of Phil- 
adelphia, and as clerk of the House of Assembly of Pennsyl- 
vania. In the French war he was a captain, and gained praise 
for his conduct at Ticonderoga. Before the peace he went to 
England with his father. While there, Mr. Strahan wrote 
Mrs. Franklin : " Your son I really think one of the prettiest 
young gentlemen I ever knew from America. He seems to me 
to have a solidity of judgment, not very often to be met with 
in one of his years." On the other hand, Rev. Jacob Bailey 
records (March 5, 1760) : " This morning waited upon the 
famous Mr. Benjamin Franklin, and received an invitation to 

dine His son dined with us, a barrister-at-law. He 

is a gentleman of good education, but has passed away the 
flower of his youth in too many extravagancies." 

While abroad, young Franklin visited Scotland, and became 
acquainted with the celebrated Earl of Bute, who recom- 
mended him to Lord Fairfax, who secured for him, as is said, 
the appointment of Governor of New Jersey, in 1763, without 
the solicitation of himself or his father. Whatever the truth, 
John Penn, who was in England, said in a letter to Lord 
Stirling, that the business was managed so privately that 
" there was no opportunity of counteracting, or, indeed, do- 
ing one single thing that might put a stop to this shameful 
affair. I make no doubt but the people of New Jersey will 
make some remonstrance upon this indignity put upon them. 
. . . . What a dishonor and disgrace it must be to a country 



FRANKLIN. 439 

to have such a man at the head of it, and to sit down con- 
tented ! .... If any gentleman had been appointed, it would 
have been a different case," &c. 

The biographer of his Lordship remarks that the disgust at 
Franklin's appointmeht, "arose in part, probably, from the 
illegitimacy of his birth," but principally from his " time- 
serving conduct and courtier-like propensities ; " and he adds 
tliat the Governor " was originally a Whig, but became, ex 
virtute officii^ a Tory." 

Governor Franklin's first serious dispute with the Assembly 
appears to have been caused by his course in relation to the 
removal of the Treasurer of the Colony, who was a defaulter. 
On the 11th of June, 1774, the Whigs of Essex County met 
in Convention, and adopted various resolutions expressive of 
their sentiments on the alarming state of affairs, which gave 
Governor Franklin much uneasiness. In January, 1776, he 
met the Assembly. A considerable part of his speech is de- 
voted to the controversy between the Colonies and the mother 
country, and to warnings to the members against imitating the 
example of those whose course of conduct was likely to involve 
the country in afflictive calamities. 

The Governor and the Assembly parted in bad temper. 
An attempt was made to reduce his Excellency's salary from 
£1200 to XIOOO, and in appropriating £60 for the payment 
of the rent of his house, the condition that he should reside 
either at Perth Amboy or Burlington was annexed to the 
grant. His situation was unhappy. All intercourse between 
himself and his father had now been suspended for more than 
a year ; and he was involved in a helpless quarrel with the 
delegates and the people of New Jersey. On the 13th of 
February, 1775, he prorogued the Assembly. In March, a 
letter alleged to have been written by him to Lord Dartmouth, 
was laid before the House of Commons by Lord North, which 
in America caused much excitement ; and when the Assem- 
bly of New Jersey met in the following month of May, a mes- 
sage was sent to the Governor, requesting him to inform that 
body whether it was genuine, or whether it contained the 



uncompromising througliout. " It has be 
almost every session during the existence of 
bly/' — is the opening remark, — '' that a n 
bers of the House have suffered themselves 
seize on every opportunity of arraigning my 
ing some dispute, let the occasion be ever s 
be ever so careful to avoid giving any jus 
This, too, has been done with such an eag 
moters of it, as can only be accounted fo 
that they are either actuated by unmanly ] 
or by a conviction that their whole politici 
pends upon a contention with their Grovem< 
this ill-natured document with saying, tha 
him best would do him the justice *^ to al 
of honor in the power of the Crown to best 
fluence him to forget or neglect the duty he 
nor the most furious rage of the most inte 
duce him to swerve from the duty he 01 
The Assembly was prorogued on the 20th 
the day of transmitting this answer), to me 
June following; but affairs had now rea< 
Governor Franklin never communicated wit 
Three days after the prorogation, the first P 
of New Jersey commenced their session at 

RoVal GovemmPnt. af\nn ntiaorkA ♦^ 1 — 



FRANKLIN. 441 

to Governor Trumbull. The officer in charge halted at Hack- 
ensack, and was rebuked by Washington for his delay. The 
Commander-in-Chief was of the opinion, from circumstances 
communicated to him, that the fallen Governor designed to 
eiTect his escape ; that his refusal to sign the parole proposed 
by the Whig Convention of New Jersey, and a letter to Mrs. 
Franklin which had been intercepted, afforded sufficient rea- 
sons for the exercise of great watchfulness and care. It ap- 
peal's that he was indulged in selecting the place of his con- 
finement, and that he made choice of Connecticut. He was 
conveyed to East Windsor, and quartered in the house of Cap- 
tain Ebenezer Grant.^ In 1777 he requested liberty to visit 
his wife, who was a few miles distant and sick. In reply, he 
received the following letter : — 

" Head. Quarters, July 26th, 1777. 

" Sir, — I have this moment received yours of the 22d inst. 
by express. I heartily sympathize with you in your distress- 
ing situation ; but, however strong my inclination to comply 
with your request, it is by no means in my power to supersede 
a positive Resolution of Congress, under which your present 
confinement took place. I have enclosed your letter to them ; 
and shall be happy, if it. may be found consistent with pro- 
priety, to concur with your wishes in a matter of so delicate 
and interesting a nature. I sincerely hope a speedy restora- 
tion of Mrs. Franklin's health may relieve you from the anx- 
iety her present declining condition must naturally give you. 
" I am, with due respect, 

" Sir, your most obedient servant, 

"G. Washington." 

Congress declined to allow the Govenior to visit his wife, 
and he continued at East Windsor. This lady was born in 
the West Indies ; it is said that slie was much affected by the 
severity of Doctor Franklin to her husband while he was a 
prisoner. She died in 1778, in her forty-ninth year, and it is 

1 This building is still (1844) standing ; it is near the Theological Semi- 
nary. 



442 FRANKLIN. 

inscribed on the monumental tablet erected to her memory in 
St. Paul's Church, New York, that, " Compelled to part from 
the liusband she loved, and at length despairing of the sooth- 
ing hope of his speedy return, she sunk under accumulated 
distresses," &c. 

In 1778, after the arrival in America of Sir Henry Clinton, 
an exchange was effected, and Governor Franklin was re- 
leased. Little seems to be known of his proceeding during 
the remainder of the war. He served for a short period as 
President of the Board of Loyalists which was organized in 
New York ; but soon went to England. The adherents of 
the Crown were greatly alarmed at the distinction made be- 
tween themselves and other subjects, in the articles of capitu- 
lation of Cornwallis at Yorktown, and Franklin wrote to Lord 
George Germain, who was then Secretary for the American 
Department, on the subject. His Lordship, in answer, stated 
that ^' the alarm taken by the Loyal Refugees is not to be 
wondered at," and that, by command of his Majesty, he had 
directed Sir Henry Clinton to make the strongest assurances 
for their " welfare and safety." 

In West's picture of the " Reception of the American Loy- 
alists by Great Britain, in the year 1783," Governor Frank- 
lin and Sir William Pepperell are the prominent personages 
represented, and are placed at the head of the group of figures; 
the first (in the words of the description or explanation) is a 
" son of Doctor Benjamin Franklin, who having his Majesty's 
commission of Governor of New Jersey, preserved his fidelity 
and loyalty to his Sovereign from the commencement to the 
conclusion of the contest, notwithstanding powerfiil incite- 
ments to the contmry." ^ 

In 1784, the fatlier and son, after an estrangement of ten 
years, became reconciled to one another. The son appears to 
have made the first overture. Doctor Franklin, in acknowl- 
edging the receipt of his letter, says in reply, on the 16th of 
August of that year : " I am glad to find that you desire to 

i For the remainder of the description of ibis picture, see notice of Sir 
William Pepperell. 



FRANKLIN. 448 

revive the affectionate intercourse that formerly existed be- 
tween us. It will be very agreeable to me ; indeed nothing 
has ever hurt me so much, and affected me with such keen 
sensations, as to find myself deserted in my old age by my 
only son ; and not only deserted, but to find him taking up 
arms against me in a cause wherein my good fame, fortune, 
and life, were all at stake. You conceived, you say, that 
your duty to your king and regard for your country required 
this. ^ I ought not to blame you for differing in sentiment 
with me in public affairs. We are all men, subject to errors. 
Our opinions are not in our power ; they are formed and gov- 
erned much by circumstances, that are oflen as inexplicable as 
they are irresistible. Your situation was such, that few would 
have censured your remaining neuter, though there are nat- 
ural duties which precede political ones, and cannot be extin- 
guished by them. This is a disagreeable subject ; I drop it. 
And we will endeavor, as you propose, mutually to forget 
what has happened relating to it, as well as we can." 

The Doctor, I conclude, was never able to forget, entirely, 
the alienation which had happened between them. In a let- 
ter to the Rev. Dr. Byles (1788), he said : " I, too, have 
a daughter, who lives with me, and is the comfort of my de- 
clining years, while my son is estranged from me by the part 
he took in the late war, and keeps aloof, residing in England, 
whose cause he espatised ; whereby the old proverb is exem- 
plified : — 

" My M>n is my son till he gets him a wife ; 
But my daughter's my daughter all the days of her life." 

In his will, dated June 23, 1789, a few months before his 
own decease, he thus remembers his son William, late Gov- 
ernor of the Jerseys : — 

** I give and devise all tlie lands I hold or have a right to 
in the Province of Nova Scotia, to liold to him, his heirs and 
assigns forever. I also give to him all my books and papers 
which he has in his possession, and all debts standing against 
him on my account-books, willing that no payment for, nor 
restitution of, the same be required of him by my executoi's. 



444 FRANKS. 

The part he acted against me in the late war, which is of 
public notoriety, will account for my leaving him no more of 
an estate he endeavored to deprive me of." 

Though the part he acted against his father was of public 
notoriety, inimors reached the ears of the Commissioners of 
Loyalist Claims, that the disagreement between the Doctor 
and his son had been collusive, and was more politic than sin- 
cere ; and the Governor was accordingly required to exhibit 
proofs of his loyalty and unifonn attachment to the Royal 
cause. The commissioners themselves, probably, entei*tained 
no doubts on the subject, but examined the charge to satisfy 
the public, and to relieve the accused from what they believed 
to be an unfounded imputation. Among the witnesses who 
testified in his favor was Sir Henry Clinton. He made a 
schedule of his losses, wliich were by no means considerable. 
Indeed, Governor Franklin must have been poor. His per^ 
sonal estate was valued at only j£1800, which sum the com- 
missioners allowed him. He had several shares in back lands 
and grants, but as he was indebted to his father, and had con- 
veyed to him all his real property in New York and New 
Jersey, the loss of his office and its emoluments, and the 
£1800 above mentioned, comprised the principal items in his 
account, and for which he claimed com])ensation. Governor 
Franklin continued in England during the remainder of his 
life. He enjoyed a pension, it is believed, of the amount 
of £800 per annum. He died in November, 1813, at the 
age of about eighty-two. Some years 'after the death of his 
first wife, he married a lady who was born in Ireland. His 
son, William Temple Franklin, who edited the works of 
Doctor Franklin, died at Paris, in May, 1823. 

Franks, David. Of Pennsylvania. Commissary of Brit- 
ish prisoners. In 1778, detected in endeavoring to transmit 
within the enemy's lines a letter which was deemed to con- 
tain sentiments inimical to the Whig cause, Greneral Arnold, 
who was then in command at Philadelphia, was directed by 
Congress to cause his immediate arrest and confinement in 
jail. It was resolved, also, that he should no longer perform 



FRAZER. 445 

the duties of Commissary ; and that Wasliington give infor- 
mation of these proceedings to Sir Henry Clinton, with a 
view to the appointment of a successor. In January, 1779, he 
applied for leave to send his clerk, Patrick Rice, to New York, 
to settle his public accounts, which was granted. In 1780 he 
was ordered to depart the State ; but, as he delayed, on the 
18th of November a pass for himself and daughter to New 
York was sent from the Council, with the suggestion that 
compulsory measures" would be adopted, on further disobe- 
dience to the mandate of banishment. He replied on the 
2l8t, giving his reasons for remaining in Philadelphia so long ; 
and asked that his pass might be amended to include a ser- 
vant-woman and his necessary baggage. He wrote again on 
the 22d, stating an excuse ; and on the 23d President Reed 
informed him that he was expected to set out on his journey 
the next day ; that his excuse, in the opinion of the Council, 
was a very frivolous one ; and that no further indulgence 
would be allowed him by that body. 

Frazeb, Charles. Of South Carolina. After the fall 
of Charleston, in 1780, he was " town-major." Upon the 
application of an individual for rations, he issued an order, 
from which I extract sufficient to show its nature. Thus: 
'* All difficulties with- regard to provisions ouglit to have been 
considered before ]>eople entered into rebellion, or, in the 
course of these twelve months, while they have been allowed 
to walk about on parole. All militia prisoners and others on 
parole, are to keep their paroles and to remain in their houses. 
. • . . It is ordered that no person, now a prisoner on parole, 
in Charleston, shall have the liberty of exercising any pro- 
fession, trade, mechanic art, business, or occupation ; and his 
his Majesty's subjects are hereby strictly enjoined and required 
not to employ such person or j)ersons on any pretence." In 
1781 (July 26) he addressed the following note to the ill- 
fated Colonel Isaac Hayne : '* Sir, I am charged by the 
commandant to inform vou, that a council of (];encral officers 
will assemble to-morrow, at ten o'clock, in the hall of the 
Province, to try you." He wrote the next day to announce, 
VOL. I. 38 



446 FRAZER. 

that, instead of '^ a council," his case would be submitted to 
" a court of inquiry, composed of four general officers and 
five captains " ; and that he would be allowed materials for 
writing, and to select counsel. On the 29th of July, he ad- 
dressed a third note, in which he said : " The Adjutant of 
the town will be so good as to go to Colonel Hayne, in the 
Provost's prison, and inform him, that . . . Lord Rawdon 
and Lieutenant-Colonel Nesbit Balfour have resolved upon his 
execution, on Tuesday, the 81st instant, at six o'clock," in 
consequence of the decision of the court of inquiry, " for 
having been found under arms, and employed in raising a 
regiment to oppose the British Goveniment, though he had 
become a subject, and had accepted the protection of that 
government after the reduction of Charleston," 

Frazer, James. Of South Carolina. Physician. In 
1781 he was Acting Barrack-master of Charleston, and in 
July of that year promulgated an order forbidding persons 
*' living under the Rebel Government" to let or lease any 
house without special license ; as it was intended to take all 
dwellings as might be wanted for the public service, " paying 
to the owners of those secured by the capitulation, a reason- 
able rent for the same " ; by which course the Loyalists 
would be ^^ in possession of their own houses within a short 
space of time." He was also a British Deputy Commissary 
of Prisoners. It is stated on the best authority, that, having 
harangued the unfortunate Whigs under his cai-e, to induce 
them to enlist in the Royal service, without the anticipated 
success, he pronounced this terrible sentence : " You shall be 
put on board of the prison-ships, where you cannot expect 
anything more but to perish miserably ; the rations hitherto 
allowed for the support of your wives and children, from this 
day, shall be withheld ; the consequence of which will be, 
they must starve in the streets." He lost his estate under the 
Confiscation Act of 1782. A Doctor James Frazer died at 
Charleston in 1803, — possibly the same. 

Frazer, John. Of New York. Was born in Scotland, 
emigrated to New York some years prior to the Revolution, 



FRAZER. - FRENCH. 447 

went to Nova Scotia at the peace, and died at Shelburne in 
1840, aged eighty-eight. 

Fbazer, Lewis. Settled in New Brunswick in 1783, and 
died in King's County in 1835, aged seventy-two ; Mary 
Hai^ley Frazer, his widow, who was bom in Charleston, 
South Carolina, died at St. John, New Brunswick, 1836, at 
the age of seventy-three. 

French, Thomas. Of New York, and probably of Long 
Island. Captain in De Lancey's First Battalion. 

The following marvellous incident seems to rest on good 
authority: — In 1779, when Colonel Cruger was ordered to 
evacuate Sunbury, French was directed to convey the inva- 
lids to Savannah by inland navigation, in small vessels. On 
the passage, circumstances compelled him to land, and to 
fbrtiiy his camp, in front of which he placed four vessels, 
manned by forty seamen. His soldiers were one hundred 
and eleven in number ; and he had one hundred and thirty 
stand of arms. Colonel White, of Georgia, determined to 
capture him by stratagem ; and, to effect his purpose, kindled 
fires on shore in the manner of a camp, rode about giving 
orders in a tone of voicd to be heard by French, and then 
went to him with a flag, and demanded him to surrender. 
White's party consisted of six persons ; but French, believing 
that he led a large force, submitted himself prisoner of war, 
with his whole detachment, one hundred and thirty stand of 
arms, the vessels, and their crews. Four of the vessels were 
armed, and the largest mounted fourteen guns. After the ar- 
ticles of capitulation were signed, White pretended that it was 
di£Bcult to restrain his men ; and, to continue the deception, 
ordered his captives to go on shore unarmed, and to follow the 
guides, whom he would send to them, and by whom they would 
be conducted to Lincoln's army ; while he, with his troops, 
would follow in their rear. Most of French's men were 
Loyalists, and, dreading to fall into the hands of the Whig 
militia, this plan was gladly adopted. The prisoners ar- 
rived safely in camp. 

French, Joseph. Of Jamaica, New York. He was 



448 FRENCH. — FREY. 

elected to the Provincial Congress in 1775, but declined to 
take his seat on the ground that the majority of the free- 
holders of that town were opposed to being represented in 
that body. In February, 1776, he was a close prisoner ; and 
in a communication to the Provincial Congress, stating his 
case and praying to be released, he remarked that he had 
been in confinement thirty-four days, — three days in his own 
house, with twelve men and an officer to guard him when 
sick in bed. In 1777 Jamaica contributed £219 to a corps of 
Loyalists raised in New York at the instance of Governor 
Tryon, which sum passed through the hands of Mr. French. 
In 1780 he was an Addresser of Governor Robertson. 

French, James. Of New York. He accepted a com- 
mission in De Lancey^s First Battalion, and in 1782 was a 
captain. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783, 
was the grantee of a city lot, and received half-pay. He 
settled in the county of York, and was a magistrate for several 
yeai's. He died in that county hi 1820, aged seventy-five. 

French, . A Loyalist in arms, and of some note. 

He was killed in the battle of Bennington. 

Frey, Hendrick. Of New York. He served the Crown 
during the war, and was a major. After tlie peace he re- 
turned to his native State. In 1797 he and Brant met at 
Canajoharie, where, at a tavern, " they had a merry time of 
it during the livelong night. Many of their adventures 
were recounted, among which was a duel that had been 
fought by Frey, to whom Brant acted as second." The 
meeting of the Chief and the Major is described as " like 
that of two brothers." 

Frey, Philip R. Of Tryon (now Montgomery) County, 
New York. He entered the military service of the King, and 
was an ensign in the Eighth Regiment. He was engaged 
in the battle of Wyoming. He died at Palestine, Mont- 
gomery (formerly Tryon) County, in 1823. His son, Samuel 
C. Frey, settled in Upper Canada, and communicated partic- 
ulars of the sanguinary scenes at Wyoming, for Colonel 
Stone's use, in writing his " Life of Brant." The testimony 



FRINK. - FRYE. 449 

of the Freys is, that Brant was not present with Butler at 
Wyoming, and this, according to the son, the father steadily 
maintained through life. 

Frink, Nathan. He was born at Pomfret, Connecticut. 
He entered the British military service, and was a captain of 
cavalry in the American Legion, and aide-de-c*amp to Arnold 
after his treason, and was engaged in the burning of New 
London. At the peace he went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
where he remained several years, but removed to St. Andrew, 
and finally to St. Stephen in the same Colony. He died at 
the latter place, December 4, 1817, aged sixty years. His 
wife, Hester, died at St. Stephen, February 22, 1824, at the 
age of sixty-five. His sister Alida married Schuyler, the 
oldest son of General Israel Putnam. Seven children sur- 
vived him. His son James was a magistrate and ship-owner 
of St. Stephen, and married Martha G. Prescott, a niece of 
Roger Sherman. Captain Frink was educated for the bar. 
In New Brunswick he was a merchant and ship-owner ; and 
a magbtrate of Charlotte County for about thirty years. He 
received half-pay as an officer. His family connections in 
the United States are higlily respectable. It is believed that 
his political sympathies were originally adverse to the Royal 
cause, and that less intolerance, on the part of his Whig 
neighbors and friends, would have produced a different line 
of conduct on his part. 

Frye, Peter. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Graduated at 
Harvard University in 1744. He was representative to the 
Greneral Court, and being a member in 1768, was a Re- 
scinder. He was also a Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, Register of Probate, and Colonel of Militia in the 
County of Essex. His name appears among the Salem Ad- 
dressers of Gage, June, 1774. He died in England, Feb- 
ruary, 1820, aged ninety-seven years. The first husband of 
his daughter Love was Doctor Peter Oliver, a Massachusetts 
Loyalist; and her second was Admiral Sir Jolm Knight of 
the British Navy. Lady Knight died at her seat near London, 
in 1839. 

88* 



460 FRYE. - GAGE. 

Frye, Peter Pickman. A soldier in the Continental 
Army. In May, 1777, he was sentenced to be shot at New 
York, for desertion, with the design of joining the Royal 
Army. 

Fulton, James. Of New Hampshire. In 1778 he was 
proscribed and banished. In 1782 he was a captain in the 
King's American Dragoons. James Fulton, Esq., a magis- 
trate in the county of Halifax, died in Nova Scotia in 1826. 

FusTNER, Andrew George. In November, 1788, Wash- 
ington wrote the President of the Council of Pennsylvania, 
that Fustner was a brother-in-law of Rankin of York 
County ; that he went out of New York frequently as a spy, 
by way of Stark River, through New Jersey, and thence to 
Lancaster; from which facts, means might be devised, per- 
haps, to apprehend him. 

Gabel, John. Was one of the first of the Loyalists who 
settled in New Brunswick, and died at St John in 1816, aged 
eiglity-four. 

Gage, Thomas. The first military and the last Royal 
Governor of Massachusetts. His father was the first Viscount 
Gage. He came to America with Braddock, in command of 
the 44th Regiment, and was wounded in the fatal engagement 
of the 9th of July. It is said that his indecision was the 
cause of the defeat. He was with Amherst in the expedition 
against Ticonderoga, and with Wolfe at Quebec. In 1761 
he was promoted to the rank of Major-General, and, two 
years later, was made Commander-in-Chief of the British 
forces in North America. In 1770 he was a Lieutenant-Gen- 
eral. His home was in New York, and he lived in a large 
double house, surrounded with elegant gardens, on the site 
now occupied by the stores 67 and 69 Broad Street. In 1774 
he removed to Boston, and assumed the administration of civil 
and military affairs in Massachusetts. Sir William Howe 
was his successor in command of the army. His wife was 
Margaret, daughter of Peter Kemble, President of the Coun- 
cil of New Jersey. He died in England, in 1787 ; his widow 
survived until 1824, and at her decease was ninety years of 
age. His son was the third Viscount Gage. 



GAINE. 451 

In 1848, General William H. Sumner, who died at Jamaica 
Plain, Massachusetts, October, 1861, married Mary Dickin- 
son Kemble, of New York, daughter of Peter Kemble, grand- 
daughter of General Cadwallader, and niece of the subject of 
this notice. This lady survives, but has no child. A Resolve 
of the Legislature of Massachusetts in 1862, requested the 
Governor to receive the portrait of Governor Gage, bequeathed 
by General Sumner, and cause the same to be placed in the 
State Librarv. 

Gaine, Hugh. Printer and bookseller, of New York ; 
and publisher of the " New York Mercury." Died April 25, 
1807, aged eighty-one years. His political creed seems to 
have consisted of but one article, and that — to keep with the 
strongest party. At first he was a Whig, and when, in 1776, 
the British troops were about to take possession of New York, 
he retreated with his press to Newark ; but, in the belief that 
the Whigs would be subdued and the Revolution suppressed, 
he soon after privately withdrew from Newark, and returned 
to New York, where he printed under the protection of the 
King^s Army, and devoted the " Mercury " to the support 
of the Royal cause. At the conclusion of the war, he peti- 
tioned the Legislature of the State for liberty to remain in the 
city, which was granted ; but he discontinued the pubh'cation 
of his paper, and turned his attention to the printing and sell- 
ing of books. He occupied a stand in Hanover Square more 
than forty years, and by close application to business, regu- 
larity and punctuality, he acquired a handsome estate. As a 
citizen, he was moral and highly respectable. As a politician, 
his unstable course excited several poetical essays from a wit 
of the time ; among them is a versification of his petition to 
the new Government, already alluded to, of some three hun- 
dred and fifty lines. The writer's manner may be judged of 
by the following extract. After relating the evils of his so- 
joarn at Newark, Gaine is made to speak thus of his return to 
New York, and taking part with the Loyalists: — 

*"*• As matters have gone, it was plainly a blunder^ 
But then I expected the Whigs must knock under, 



462 GALE. 

And I always adhere to the sword that is 1on;;cst, 

And stick to the party that's like to be strongest; 

That you have succeeded is merely a chance ; 

I never once dreamt of the conduct of France ! — 

If alliance with her you were promised — at least 

You ought to have showed me your star in the East, 

Not let me go off* uninformed as a beast. 

AVhen your army I saw without stockings or shoes, 

Or victuals or money — to pay them their dues, 

Excepting your wretched Congressional paper, 

That stunk in my nose like the snufi* of a taper," &c. 

Gale, Samuel. Of Cumberland County, New Hamp- 
shire Grants. He was bom in England, in 1747, and was 
well educated. He came to America about the year 1770, 
as a paymaster in the British Army ; but, quitting the service, 
settled in the county above mentioned. In 1774 the in&mous 
Crean Brush resigned as clerk of the Court, and he was ap- 
pointed to the place. During the difficulties between the 
Whigs and Loyalists of Cumberland in 1775, — as partic- 
ularly related in the notice of W. Patterson, — he does not 
appear to have conducted with wisdom or decorum. Accord- 
ing to the account of the affair drawn up by the Whig Com- 
mittee, he drew a pistol upon the multitude, who asked for a 

parley, and exclaimed, " d — n the parley with such d d 

rascals as you are ; " and holding up his weapon, added, " I 

will hold no parley with such d d rascals, but this.*' 

Collision soon followed, and human life was taken. An in- 
vestigation followed. He was imprisoned first in his own 
town, and next in Northampton, Massachusetts. Released at 
last, ho repaired to New York, where he was joined by his 
family. In 1776 he was again seized and sent to jail in Fair- 
field, Connecticut, and while there wrote a long letter to John 
McKisson, in which he complains of the manner of his ar- 
rest and of his subsequent treatment. I extract a single pas- 
sage. " In this intolerable place," he said, " the wind, when 
cold, fairly chills every' vein in my body. The smoke, when 
there is a fire, not only blinds, but nearly suffocates me ; and 
the continued smell of the room has, I fear, tended to rot my 



GALLOWAY. 453 

very vitals. In the morning I liave perpetually a sickness at 
the stomach ; about noon comes on a fever, which, in about 
three hours, is succeeded by an ague." Again, he said he 
wished for liberty on parole, that " I may finish my intended 
publication on Surveying, which, you will know, is allowed 
by all parties to be a matter of great actual service to Amer- 
ica." He went to Canada before the peace, and became Pro- 
vincial Secretary. He accompanied Governor Prescott to 
England, to assist in adjusting some difficulties that had oc- 
curred during his administration ; and while abroad, he wrote 
and published an " Essay on Public Credit," which Mr. Pitt 
18 said to have approved. Mr. Gale returned to Canada after 
several years' absence ; lived in retirement, and died in Farn- 
ham, in 1826. His wife was Rebecca, daughter of Colonel 
Samuel Wells, of Brattleborough. 

Galloway, Joseph. He was a son of Peter Galloway, 
and was born in Maryland about the year 1730. His family 
was respectable, and of good estate, and his education was 
probably the best that could be obtained in the Middle Col- 
onies. He went early in life to Philadelphia, commenced the 
practice of the law, became eminent in his profession, and 
held many important trusts. He mamcd the daughter of the 
Hon. Lawrence Growdon, who was for a long period Speaker 
of the Assembly of Pennsylvania, by which connection he 
enjoyed a considerable fortune. In 1764 Mr. Galloway was 
a member of the Assembly, and on the question of a change 
of the government from the Proprietary to the Royal form, 
as in some other Colonies, made an able speech in answer to 
the celebrated Dickinson, who opposed the petition. Both 
speeches were published. Galloway continued in the Assem- 
bly for some years, and attained the Speaker's chair of that 
bodv. In 1774 he was elected a member of the Whig Con- 
gress of the Continent, and took his seat, and was an active 
participant in its leading recommendations and measures. On 
the 20th of October, Congress adopted -the celebrated measure 
of " Non-Importation, Non-Consumption, and Non-Exporta- 
tion," and ordered that the several members subscribe their 




GALLOWAY. 

s to it. Tilt! signature of Mr. Galloway is amO«g" 
and Ilia itanie is to bo found, also, to the " Address to tlie In- 
habitants of the Province of Quebec." Near the close of the 
session he was appointed, with Mr. Adams and others, to 
revise the minutes of Congress, 

No man in Pennsylvania, at this time, was more in fiivor 
with the popniar party. In the attack upon the proprietary 
rights, he had been regarded the leader ; and with Franklin,' 
he was on ti'rms of intimacy and confidence. His disafTeclion 
or disinclinatinn to continue in the public councils soon be- 
came manifest. By the pi-ocecdings of the House of Assembly 
of Pennsylvania, on the 12th of May, 1775, it appears, that 
" Joseph Galloway, Esq., having repeatedly moved in Assem- 
bly to be excused from serving as a Deputy in the Continen- 
tal Congress, the House this day took his motion in considera- 
tion, and do hereby agree to excuse bim from that service." 
In 1776 he ahandonorl the Whigs, and became one of the 
most virulent .ind proscriptive Loyalists of the time. His 
former friends often felt the force of Ins powers, and the evil 
effects of his influence with the agents of the Crown, both in 
America and England. Ho joined the Royal Army iii New 
York soon after his defection, and continued there until .Tune 
of 1778. As he prepared to embark for England, wiih his 
only daughter, he wrote his "ever dear and only sister," a 
parting letter, which is very affectionate in its tone, and in 
which he said ; " I call this country ungrateful, because I 
have attemjited to save it from the distress it at present feels, 
and because it has not only rejectoti my endeavors, but re- 
turned mo evil for good. I feel for its misery ; but I feel it 
is not finished — its cup is not yet full — still deeper distress 
will attend it." 

He w;is examined before Parliament, in 1779, on the in- 
quiry into the conduct of Sir William Howe and General 
Burgoyne, and giive some very singular opinions. Thus, he 
said thiit four fifllis of the whole American people, at the be- 

1 A will, L.sci'ulud by Kriinklin, soinu jears prior lo 1781, was left in 



GALLOWAY. 455 

ginning of hostilities, were loyal or well affected to the Crown ; 
that if proper use had been made of men and means, the re- 
bellion might have been speedily and happily terminated ; that 
in a military sense, America was not particularly strong ; that 
the British troops were superior to their opponents, not in the 
open field, but in bush fighting ; and that such was the nature 
of the country, soldiers could carry provisions for nineteen 
days, on their backs. To all this, it was well replied, that 
though bred a lawyer, and used to business, he could be hard- 
ly made to recollect anything which related to himself when 
a Whig and a member of the Continental Congress ; yet, that 
merely with the British Army for protection, and utterly ig- 
norant of the profession of arms, he presumed to possess an 
accurate knowledge of the complicated business of the camp ; 
and to decide, in a manner which old and experienced com- 
manders hesitated to do, upon all the great operations of war. 
Between this time and the peace, his pen was almost constant- 
ly employed on subjects connected with the war, and its man- 
agement on the part of officers of the Crown. In addition to 
an extensive correspondence with Loyalists who continued in 
America, he published " Observations on the Conduct of Sir 
William Howe " ; a " Letter to Howe on his Naval Con- 
duct " ; " Letters to a Nobleman on the Conduct of the War 
in the Middle Colonies " ; " Reply to the Observations of Gen- 
eral Howe " ; " Cool Thoughts on the Consequences of Amer- 
ican Independence " ; ^^ Candid Examination of the Claims of 
Great Britain and her Colonies " ; and ^^ Reflections on the 
American Rebellion.'' 

His estate, which he valued at £40,000, was confiscated by 
Pennsylvania, in pursuance of his proscription and attainder. 
A large part of his property was derived from his wife, and a 
considerable proportion of it was restored finally to his daugh- 
ten When the agency for prosecuting the claims of the 
Loyalists to compensation was formed, Mr. Galloway was ap- 
pointed a member of the Board for Pennsylvania and Dela- 
ware. But his own pretensions to consideration were disputed. 
The circumstance, that he had been a Whig and a member of 



456 GALLOWAY. 

the first Continental Congress, occasioned a jealousy among 
the adherents of tlie Crown, who had never changed sides, 
and the Commissioners made a minute investigation into his 
conduct. They examined numerous witnesses, among whom 
were General Gage, Lord Cornwallis, and Sir William Howe ; 
and they found and reported him to be " an active though not 
an early Loyalist," and of course entitled to compensation. 
A tract attributed to him, on the subject of " The Loyalist 
Claims for Losses," was published in 1788 ; from which, as the 
reader will remember, some extracts appear in the preliminary 
remarks of this volume. He died in England, September, 
1803, at the age of seventy-three years. 

His path was filled with vexations and troubles. He was a 
politician by nature ; and he had many qualities indispensable 
to success in political life. For some years prior to the Revo- 
lution, he was the secret or open mover of many of the public 
issues that arose. In the alienation of friends he was unfor- 
tunate. In 1766 he connected himself with Goddard and 
Wharton, in publishing a newspaper called the " Pennsyl- 
vania Chronicle." By the terms of the arrangement, he and 
Wharton were to furnish a share of the necessary capital, 
and Goddard was to print and manage the concern. And it 
is a singular fact connected with this matter, that the articles 
of copartnership provided for the admission of Franklin as a 
partner, should he choose to join them on his coming home 
from England, where he was then absent. But the philoso- 
pher never availed himself of the opportunity ; the three part- 
ners quarrelled, separated on the worst possible tenns, and 
Goddard and Galloway filled the public prints with the vilest 
mutual abuse. The difficulty reached the ears of Franklin, 
and he thus wrote to his son William from London : " I cast 
my eye over Goddard's piece against our friend, Mr. Gallo- 
way, and then lit my fire with it. I think such feeble, mali- 
cious attacks cannot hurt him." The events of a few years 
produced strange changes in the relations of the several par- 
ties here spoken of, and show the effects of civil war in a most 
striking manner. Galloway, as has been said, turned Loyal- 



GALLOWAY. 457 

ist, and Franklin renounced him ; while Goddard, who made 
the " feeble and malicious attacks," was appointed to the sec- 
ond office in the Continental Post-office Department, when 
Franklin was placed at its head. While, again, Goddard, 
soured and disaffected, on the retirement of Franklin from 
that service, because he was not named to succeed him, in- 
curred the displeasure of the Whigs, and was the object of 
hate, and the victim of mobs. And yet again ; Franklin's 
only son, the Royal Governor of New Jersey, also became a 
Loyalist; which entirely alienated his father, so that there 
was no intercourse between them for ten years. 

Galloway, after deserting the Whigs, was the mark at which 
many writers levelled their wit and their anger. Trumbull 
says of him, that " he began by being a flaming patriot, but 
being disgusted at his own want of influence and the greater 
popularity of others, he turned Tory, wrote against the meas- 
ures of Congress, and absconded ; " and, that "just before his 
escape, a trunk was put on board a vessel in the Delaware, to 
be delivered to " him, which, on opening, " he found contained 
only, as Shakspeare says, 

* A halter gratis, and leave to hang himself.' ** 

Trumbull, in his " McFingal," still further discoui'ses thus : 

** Did you not, in as vile and shallow way, 
Fright our poor Philadelphian, Galloway, 
Your Congress when the loyal ribald 
Belied, berated, and bescribbled ? 
What ropes and halters did you send. 
Terrific emblems of his end, 
Till, lest he 'd hang in more than effigy. 
Fled in a fog the trembling refugee V " 

The unhappy Loyalist deserved all that was said of him ; 
since it seems improbable that he changed sides from convic- 
tion and from justifiable motives. A man of so great aptitude 
for the administration of aftairs, of so mature judgment, of so 
much political experience, of so penetrating sagacity, of powers 
of mind that led his fellows in masses, can hardly stand excused, 
upon the most charitable view of his conduct that is possible. 

VOL. I. S9 



458 GALLOWAY. - GARDEN. 

Galloway, . Serjeant in the Queen's Rangers. 

Unhorsed and wounded in battle. He lamented the loss of 
the heel of his boot, which was shot away, says his com- 
mander, more than his wound. 

Gallopp, William. He settled in Charlotte County, New 
Brunswick, and was a magistrate. He died in that county 
about the year 1806. 

Gamble, James. Of North Carolina. Estate confiscated. 
Residence unknown. 

Gamble, David. Belonged to the Eighth Pennsylvania 
Regiment, but deserted. In 1778 he was tried for this of- 
fence, and for having in his possession counterfeit Continental 
money ; and was sentenced to suffer death. 

Ganey, Micajah. Of South Carolina. He lived on the 
Little Pedee; and at the head of some Loyalists of that 
region, sallied out of swamps to distress the Whigs. Marion 
had required that he should obey his orders as brigadier of 
the district, but he refused. Yet, in 1781, when the Royal 
Army met with reverses, Ganey entered into a treaty of 
neutrality, which was renewed the year following. By the 
terms of the last arrangement, the Toiy band were forgiven 
treason, secured in tlie possession of their property, and 
placed under the protection of the laws, on the condition of 
delivering up their plunder, and demeaning themselves as 
peaceable citizens of South Carolina ; while those who pre- 
ferred to leave the country, were permitted to go within the 
British lines, and to carry off or sell their effects. He was 
considered an excellent partisan officer, and, in the judgment 
of some, able to cope with Marion himself. 

Garden, Alexander. Of South Carolina. A Congrat- 
ulator of Comwallis on his success at Camden in 1780. In 
1782 his estate was confiscated, and he was banished. Doctor 
Garden fitted himself for professional pursuits at EJdinburgh. 
He acquired a fortune. He was much devoted to the study 
of natural history, and was a valuable writer in that branch 
of science, especially in botany. He went to England in 
1783, and died in London in 1791, at the age of sixty-three 



GARDEN. — GARDINER. 459 

years. He was doctor of medicine and of divinity, and a 
Fellow of the Royal Society. 

Garden, William. He received employment under the 
Crown, after the Revolution ; and at the time of his decease 
was Assistant Deputy Commissary-General of the garrison at 
Fredericton, New Brunswick. He sank under the pressure 
of sickness and trouble ; and closed his life in the county of 
York, New Brunswick, in 1812, aged sixty-three. His 
daughter Jane, wife of William Thompson, of Toronto, 
Upper Canada, died at Woodstock, New Brunswick, in 1848, 
in her sixty-second year. 

Gardiner, Sylvester. Of Boston. Physician. De- 
scended from the first emigrant of the name to the Narra- 
gansett country ; and born at South Kingston, Rhode Island, 
in 1707. He fitted himself for the practice of medicine in 
England and France ; entered upon and pursued a successfiil 
professional career in Boston. He acquired great wealth, and 
became proprietor of one twelfth part of the " Plymouth 
Purchase," so called, on the Kennebec River, Maine. His 
efibrts to settle this large domain were unceasing from the 
year 1753 to the Revolution. He was made perpetual mod- 
erator of the proprietors at all their meetings ; he executed 
their plans ; built mills, houses, stores, and wharves ; cleared 
lands ; made generous offers to emigrants ; established an 
Episcopal mission ; and furnished the people of that region 
with their first religious instruction. And most of all this 
was accomplished with his own money. The evidence uni- 
formly is, that he was a man of broad and liberal views, of 
great zeal, energy, and public spirit. In Boston he was held 
in much respect by all classes. Of the " Government Party," 
he entertained as guests. Sir William Pepperell, Governor 
Hutchinson, Earl Percy, Admiral Graves, Major Pitcairn, 
General Gage, Major Small, and others. An Addresser of 
the Royal Governoi's in 1774 and the year following, he 
became identified with the Royal cause. But, hard upon 
threescore and ten, he did not mean to quit his native 
country. He yielded to the counsels, to the " impetuosity " 



460 GARDINER. 

of a young wife, and was mined. In 1776, at the evacua- 
tion, he abandoned all, and found temporary shelter at Hali- 
fax. The vessel in which he embarked was destitute of com- 
mon comforts, poorly supplied with provisions, and the cabin, 
which he and several members of his family occupied, was 
small and crowded with passengers. In 1778 his name ap- 
peared in the Proscription and Banishment Act. He settled 
at Poole, England. 

In addition to his lands in Maine, he had a large property 
in Boston, both real and personal, most of which was con- 
fiscated. 

In 1785 he returned to the United States. For a part of 
his losses, he petitioned Massachusetts for compensation. He 
had never borne arms, he said, nor entered into any associa- 
tion, combination, or subscription, against the Whigs. When 
he quitted Boston, he stated, too, that he had in possession a 
valuable stock of drugs, medicines, paints, groceries, and dye 
stuffs, which, having a vessel fully equipped and entirely 
under his control, he could easily have carried off, but which 
he left, of choice, for the benefit of the country, which he 
knew was in need. The claim was acknowledged to the 
extent of giving his heirs tickets in the State Land Lottery, 
by which they obtained nearly six thousand acres in the 
county of Washington, Maine. 

From the confiscation, Massachusetts derived, indeed, but 
little benefit. As relates to the property just mentioned, 
Washington, on taking possession of Boston, ordered the 
medicines, &c., in Doctor Gardiner's store to be transferred 
to the hospital department for the use of the Continental 
Army ; but the State authorities interfered, and required 
delivery to the Sheriff of Suffolk County. The result, how- 
ever, was a vote of the Council complying with the requisition 
of the Commander-in-Chief. The Commonwealth received 
nothing from the lands on the Kennebec, because the Attor- 
ney-General found his suit illegally prosecuted, and because 
peace was concluded while his second action was pending. 
As concerns the remaining part of Dr. Grardin6r's estate. 



GARDINER 461 

there is a strange story, namely : that it was nearly all 
absorbed in the payment of fictitious claims against him, 
which there was no one here to dispute. A gentleman of 
the highest respectability informs me that he was once walk- 
ing with the Doctor's executor, when they were met by a 
man who had been allowed payment of an unjust demand, 
and who was asked by the executor, " How could you 
bring such a charge ? " " La, Mr. Hallowell," was the reply, 
" I would not injure you for the world. The account was 
correct : I only omitted to say it wa^ paid; it was doing yoti no 
harm; everybody was doing the same; and I was in want of 
the money.^^ The subject of this notice died at Newport, 
Rhode Island, suddenly, August 8, 1786, in his eightieth 
year, and his remains were interred under Trinity Church. 
In the Episcopal Church, Gardiner, Maine, there is a marble 
cenotaph to his memory. His first wife was Anne, daughter 
of Doctor John Gibbons of Boston ; his second, Abigail 
Eppes of Virginia ; his third, Catharine Goldthwaite. His 
children were six. First, John, born in Boston in 1731 ; 
bred to the law in f^ngland ; practised in the Courts of West- 
minster Hall ; Attorney-General of St. Christopher's ; denied 
promotion by the British Government, because of his sym- 
pathy for the Whigs ; returned to Massachusetts at the peace ; 
one of the leaders in the movement which transferred King's 
Chapel to the Unitarians ; settled in Pownal borough, Maine, 
and was member of the General Court ; embarked at home 
for Boston, in 1793 ; wrecked on the passage and perished. 
Second, William, of whom presently. Third, Anne, who 
married the second son of the Earl of Altamont. Next, 
Hannah, the wife of Robert Hallowell. Fifth, Rebecca, wife 
of Philip Dumarisque. Last, Abigail, who married Oliver 
Whipple, counsellor-at-law, Cumberland, Rhode Island, 
and subsequently of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The 
husbands of Hannah and Rebecca are mentioned in these 
volumes. 

Under the provisions of Doctor Gardiner's will, nearly 

the whole of his estate in Maine passed to Hannah's only 

89* 



462 GARDINER. 

son, Robert Ilallowell, who, as one of the conditions of that 
instrument, added the name of Gardiner. Jo]ni, as is stated, 
failed to become the principal heir, in consequence of his 
poHtical and religious opinions ; and William " was not an 
efficient man." [See Itohert Hallowelh'] 

Gardiner, William. Of Maine. Son of Doctor Syl- 
vester Gardiner. Settled on his father's lands on the Ken- 
nebec, prior to the Revolution. He gave offence to the 
Whigs because he " would di'ink tea " ; because he refused 
to swear allegiance to their cause ; and because he called them 
" Rebels." Arrangements were made to take him from his 
bed at night, and tar and feather him ; but a Whig, friendly 
to him, carried him to a place of safety. He was, however, 
made prisoner, tried, and sent to jail in Boston. In March, 
1778, he petitioned for release, and was soon after allowed 
to return home, where " he was regarded as a harmless man, 
and was suffered for the most part to remain unmolested, 
except by petty annoyances." He died unmarried at Gar- 
diner, and his remains were interred " beneath the Episcopal 
vestry." 

Gardiner, Nathaniel. Of Pownalborough, Maine. 
Kinsman of Doctor Sylvester Gardiner. A steady Loyalist, 
and distinguished for the use of both influence and fortune in 
behalf of distressed adherents to the Crown. For a year or 
two, the account of him is contradictory. By one of his 
own letters it appears that, in 1780, he was in command of 
an armed schooner called the Golden Pippin ; was captured 
by " a detachment of General Wadsworth's Rebels," near the 
Penobscot; and conveyed to jail in Falmouth (now Port- 
land). On the way, " he was taken to a gallows, and told that 
that was his place." He says he was allowed neither bed nor 
blanket; that he laid down on a plank floor full of spike- 
heads an inch high ; that neither food nor drink was ordered 
for him ; that had not his son brought him some money, he 
should have died of cruel treatment. Kept in prison four 
months, and robbed, he relates, of his clothes and poc^ket- 
book, he escaped, and went to New York. At -the peace 



GARDINER. — GARRETTSON. 463 

he removed to Shclburne, Nova Scotia. Before living in 
Maine, he was a magistrate in Kliode Island. 

Gardiner, Abram. Of Long Island, New York. Colonel 
in the militia. In 177G he tendered the oath of allegiance 
to the inhabitants of South and Easthampton. The same 
year he was taken prisoner by Colonel Livingston, and his 
case reported to Governor Trumbull of Connecticut. 

Gardner, Henry. Of Salem, Massachusetts. An Ad- 
dresser of Gage on his arrival in 1774. He died at Maiden 
in 1817, aged seventy-one. 

Garnett, Samuel. Of Massachusetts. Was in London in 
1779, and addressed the King. Of the Massachusetts family, 
I conclude, were Patrick, wlio was an ensign in the Prince of 
Wales American Volunteers ; and Joseph, who settled in 
New Brunswick, was Master in Chancery, and Deputy Sur- 
rogate, and died in St. Andrew in 1801. 

Garrettson, Rev. Freeborn. Minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. He was born in Maryland in 1752, and 
was admitted to the ministry, " on trial," in 1776. The next 
year, while stationed in Virginia, he refused to take the oath 
of fidelity to the WIn'gs, and was told that he must leave the 
Stiite or go to jail. But he was not then molested. In 1778, 
however, when preaching in Maryland, he was met by a man 
who seized his horse's bridle, and who beat him over the head 
and shoulders with a large stick. In the afFrav, Mr. Garrett- 
son's horse started off at full speed, but his assailant, who was 
also mounted, pursued, and, in passing him, struck a blow 
which, with the injury in falling to the ground, rendered him 
senseless. Again, in 1778, an officer w^aited upon him with a 
process, and threatened to confine him in prison. A year 
later, he was stationed in Delaware, " where he found him- 
self an object of suspicion and molestation " ; and at Salis- 
bury "he was infonned that a mob had already collected, 
consisting of some of the first people in the county, with a 
determination to effect his imprisonment." He escaped a 
second time ; but in Maryland, in 1780, while engaged in a 
religious service, he was seized by a party of about twenty 



464 GARRISON. 

persons, and hurried off to jail, " where he liad a dirty floor 
for a bed, and his saddle-bags for a pillow." His friends soon 
interposed, and the Governor released him. 

In 1785 he went to Nova Scotia as a missionary ; and 
while there, founded a Methodist society at Halifax. He re- 
turned in 1787, preached several times in private houses in 
Boston, and then visited Rhode Island. From this period 
until 1817, he was actively employed in various parts of New 
England and the Middle States, and became distinguished. 
For the ten years preceding his decease, he was on the list of 
" supernumaries," but yet he continued his labors as " a min- 
ister at large." He died at New York in 1827, aged seventy- 
five. His widow, Catharine, daughter of Chancellor Robert 
R. Livingston, died in 1849, in her ninety-seventh year. He 
left one child, a daughter. 

Garrison, Joseph. Of Massachusetts. He was born in 
1734. Notes from the family record, furnished me by two of 
his grandsons, show that he was in Nova Scotia as early, cer- 
tainlv, as 1773. Of his course during the Revolution little is 
known. Descendants admit his loyalty. He was in New 
Brunswick, probably, before the peace; and is still remem- 
bered in tliat Province as st skilful miner, and as the discov- 
erer of the " Grand Lake Coal Mines," which of late years 
have been extensively worked. He died on the river St. 
John. Mary Palmer, who was born in Byfield, Massachu- 
setts, in 1741, and to whom he was married in 17G4, bore 
him five children previous to the war, and four between 1776 
and 1783, as follows : " Hannah (the eldest), who married 
John Lunt, lived at Eastport, Maine, some years, removed to 
the Penobscot, and died there about the year 1843 ; Eliza- 
beth, or Betsey, who married William Simpson, and died at 
Kingston, New Brunswick, in 1845 ; Joseph, who died on 
Deer Island, New Brunswick, in 1819, aged fifty-two ; Dan- 
iel, who was drowned in the river St. John, about the year 
1798 ; Abijah, of whom presently ; Sarah,^ who married 
Joseph Clark ; Nathaniel, who died at the city of St. John 

1 Lived on the river St John in 1848. 



GARRISON. — GAY. 465 

in 1817; Silas;* and William, who died on the river St. 
John in 1843. 

Abijah, the third son, was bom in Nova Scotia, within the 
limits of the present Province of New Brunswick, in 1773. 
He lived awhile at St. John, but removed to Newburyport, 
Massachusetts, where he resided some years. He returned to 
his native Province, finally, and probably died there ; of his 
fete, however, persons of his lineage know nothing. Fanny 
Lloyd, his wife, was bom on Deer Island, Passamaquoddy 
Bay, New Brunswick, in 1776, and had issue — Mary Ann, 
Caroline, James Hotley, William Lloyd, and Elizabeth. The 
youngest son, William Lloyd Garrison, of Boston, who was 
bom at Newburyport, December 10, 1805, and who, — uni- 
versally known for his labors to abolish slavery, — is the sole 
survivor. 

Garrison, John. He became an inhabitant of New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and was a member of the House of 
Assembly for several years. His end was sad. He died on 
the river St. John in 1810. 

Gatcheus, Jacob. Of Philadelphia. Joined the British 
in that city, and went with the Royal Army to New York, 
in 1778. The next year he was captain of the privateer Im- 
pertinent^ was captured, and committed to prison. 

Gatchell, Dennis. Of Maine. Whig at first, committee 
man, and captain in the militia. Repented, in 1779, of hav- 
ing been " a furious and revengeful Rebel," and acknowledged 
that he deserved no mercy from a sovereign he had so greatly 
abused, but still flattered himself with hopes of forgiveness. 
Possibly the Gatchells of the island of Grand Menan, Bay of 
Fundy, are of his lineiige. His home, I conjecture, was near 
the mouth of the Kennebec. 

Gay, Rev. Ebenezer, D. D. Minister, of Hingham, Mas- 
sachusetts. In doubt as to his course in the Revolution, his 
name was omitted in the first edition of this work. He was 
born in 1696, graduated at Harvard University in 1714, and 
was ordained in 1718. He died in 1787, at the age of 

1 Lived on the river St. John in 1848. 



466 GAY. — GE AKE. 

ninety, and in the sixty-ninth year of his ministry. The 
Rev. Doctor Chauncey " pronounces him to have been one 
of the greatest and most valuable men in the country." 

Gay, Martin. Founder, of Boston. Son of the preced- 
ing. An Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 
1775 ; was proscribed and banished in 1778. He went to 
Halifax in 1776, with his family. I suppose he returned; a 
gentleman of this name died at Boston in 1809, aged eighty- 
two. 

Gay, Samuel. Of Massachusetts. Son of Martin Gay. 
He was bom in Boston, and graduated at Harvard University 
in 1775. Soon after the beginning of the Revolution, he 
abandoned his native country. He settled in New Brunswick, 
and was a member of the first House of Assembly organized 
in the Colony, and represented the county of Westmoreland 
several years. He was also a magistrate of that county, and 
Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas. He died at 
Fort Cumberland, New Brunswick, (where his father had a 
grant of land from the Crown,) January 21, 1847, in the 
ninety-third year of his age. The late Hon. Ebenezer Gay, 
of Hingham, Massachusetts, was his brother. 

Gaynor, James, and Peter. Were grantees of St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1783. James was a member of the 
Loyal Artillery in 1795, and died at St. John in 1823, at the 
age of seventy-two. 

Geake, Samuel. A Whig, who was taken prisoner by the 
British, corrupted, and induced to act as a spy. After enter- 
ing tlie service of the enemy, he enlisted among his former 
friends, the better to accomplish his purpose of betraying 
them. His designs were ascertained, and he was arrested 
in 1778, tried, and condemned to die. He confessed his crime, 
but Washington spared his life, because the court-martial that 
tried him was irregularly constituted, and because his testi- 
mony was deemed important against Hammell, formerly 
brigade-major to General James Clinton, who had also en- 
tered into treasonable designs with the British. Geake, 
according to his confession, was to I'eceive a commission of 



GEDDES. - GERRISH. 467 

lieutenant in a corps that Hammell was to command, as soon 
as it could be raised from deserters from the American Aimy. 

Geddes, Charles. Died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1807, 
aged fifty-six. 

Gelston, Samuel. Of Massachusetts. Physician. In 
January, 1776, he was held to answer before a joint committee 
of the Council and House. During the proceedings against 
him, it appears that he escaped from the custody of the mes- 
senger, fled to Rhode Island, where he was apprehended and 
brought back. Early in February, the committee reported, 
that, by his own confession, he had contravened the Resolves 
of Congress, had supplied the enemy with various articles of 
provision ; and that, " by other evidence, it appeared he was 
unfriendly to the rights and liberties of the country." There- 
upon ordered, that "the said Samuel Gelston be forthwith 
confined in some jail in this Colony," &c. In July of the same 
year he was at the Elizabeth Islands, in the custody of Bera- 
chiah Basset, who was directed, by a Resolve of the Legisla- 
ture, to send him under a proper guard to the five justices in 
the county of Suffolk, appointed specially to inquire into the 
conduct of persons accused of enmity to the Whigs. 

Gerrish, Moses. Of Massachusetts. He graduated at 
Harvard University in 1762. In the Revolution, he was at- 
tached to the commissary department of the Royal Army. 
After the peace, he, Thomas Ross, and one Jones, obtained 
license of occupation oS the island of Grand Menan, New 
Brunswick, and its dependencies, and on condition of procur- 
ing forty settlers, a schoolmaster, and a minister, within seven 
years fi-om the date of the license, were to receive a grant of 
the whole firom the British Crown. They commenced the set- 
tlement of the island, and sold several lots in anticipation of 
their own title, but failed to fulfil the conditions, and did not 
obtain the expected grant. Jones returned to the United 
States, but Gerrish and Ross continued at Grand Menan. 
Gerrish was an able man. A gentleman who knew him long 
and intimately, remarks, that " he would spread more good 
sense on a sheet of paper than any person of my acquaint- 



468 GEYER. — GILBERT. 

ance." His powers were not, however, devoted to any regu- 
lar pursuit. He never acquired any considerable property, 
" yet always seemed to have enough." He " did nothing, 
yet was always about something." He was a magistrate at 
Grand Menan for many years, and until his decease, in 1830, 
at the age of eighty years. 

Geyer, Frederick William. Merchant. Of Boston. 
Proscribed and banished in 1778 ; citizenship restored in 1789, 
by Act of the Legislature. In business with his son. No. 13 
Union Street, Boston, in 1794. Died at Walpole, New Hamp- 
shire, in 1-803. A daughter, who died near London in 1854» 
at the age of about eighty-eight, married Mr. Marryatt, and 
was the mother of the late Captain Marryatt of the British 
Navy, and author of numerous popular works of fiction. 

GiDNEY, Joshua. Of a place near Poughkeepsie, New 
York. He was imprisoned for his agency in spiking cannon 
in the vicinity of King's Bridge, but was released finally, and 
allowed to retuni to his family. Subsequently, he raised and 
commanded a company of Loyalists. At the peace, accom- 
panied by his family of six persons, he went from New York 
to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted him one 
town lot. His losses in consequence of his loyalty were esti- 
mated at £670. He soon abandoned Shelburne and settled 
in New Brunswick, where he was a Judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas. He died about the year 1830, aged eighty- 
eight. 

GiDNEY, Joseph. Of White Plains, New York. He was 
the owner of the land on which the battle of White Plains was 
fought, and conducted the British Army thither. At the 
peace, accompanied by his family, he went from New York 
to Shelbunie, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted him one 
water lot. His losses in consequences of his loyalty were esti- 
mated at £1800. He removed to Digby Neck in the same 
Province, and died at Bridgetown in 1811, aged seventy-three- 
Joshua was a half-brother. 

Gilbert, Thomas. Of Freetown, Massachusetts. His an- 
cestor, John Gilbert, as is supposed, came from Devonshire, 



GILBERT. 469 

England, at an age somewhat advanced, and lived first, with 
his family, at Dorchester. He died previous to 1G54, but 
Winnifred, his widow, was then living. He, with Henry 
Andrews, were the two first representatives from Taunton to 
the General Court at Plymouth, in 1639. His sons, Thomas 
and John, removed with him to Taunton, and were among the 
first proprietors of that town. Of Thomas, Governor Win- 
throp gravely records, that, — 

*' 8th mo. August 18, 1636 : Thomas Gilbert brought be- 
fore us ; he was drunk at Serjeant Baulson's, and the con- 
stable being sent for he struck him. He was kept in prison 
all night, and the next day his father, John Gilbert, and his 
brother, John Gilbert of Dorchester, undertook in £40 that 
John Gilbert the younger would appear at Court to answer 
for him, and perform the order of the Court, &c. The reason 
was, that he was to go to England presently, and not known 
to have been in any way disordered, and was his father's 
oldest son, who was a grave, honest gentleman, &c. They 
did undertake, also, that he should acknowledge his fault 
openly to the constable," &c. 

Thomas went, to England, as he intended, and never re- 
turned, but died there in 1676. His wife, Jane, who was a 
daughter of Hugh Rossiter, and his children, remained at 
Taunton. His marriage is supposed to have *becn the first 
that occurred in that town. Tlie name of his oldest son was 
Thomas, who was the immediate ancestor of Thomas Gilbert, 
the Loyalist, who is tlie subject of this notice, and who, on 
his mother's side, was descended from Governor William Brad- 
ford, the second chief magistrate of Plymouth Colony. In 
1745, the Thomas, of whom we are now to speak, was a 
captain at the memorable siege and reduction of Louisburg, 
under Sir William Pepperell. In the French war of 1755, he 
was a lieutenant-colonel in the Massachusetts forces under 
Brigadier-General Ruggles. He was engaged in the attempt 
against Crown Point ; and after the fall of Colonel Ephraim 
Williams, in the battle with the French, under Baron Dieskau, 
at Lake George, he succeeded to the command of the regiment. 

VOL. I. 40 



470 GILBERT. 

In the Revolutionary controversy he took an early and 
decided stand in behalf of the Crown. At this time he was 
a member of the House of Representatives, a justice of the 
quorum, and a colonel in the militia. In 1774 ^ large body 
of the people proceeded to Freetown, to desire him not to 
accept of the office of sheriff under the new laws, and to in- 
form him that if he acted under the commission which it 
was reported he had received, he "must abide by the con- 
sequences." Soon after he was at Dartmouth ; and a party 
of about a hundred assaulted the house in which he was a 
lodger ; but with the help of the family he prevented their 
entrance. In the autumn of 1774 the commotions in Bristol 
County had become so great tliat an armed force was deemed 
requisite, by General Gage, to keep the people in subjection 
to the king's authority ; and, at his request. Colonel Gilbert 
raised and commanded a body of three hundred Loyalists. 
In March, 1775, he wrote the following letter to the Hon. 
James Wallace, Esquire, commander of his Majesty's ship 
Rose^ Newport, which was intercepted, and which appears 
to have been the second addressed by him to that officer. 

" Honorable Sir: — Since writing the lines on the 21st by 
Mr. Phillips, many insults and threats are, and have been 
made against those soldiers which have taken our arms and 
train, and exercise in the King's name ; and on Monday next 
the Captains muster at the south part of the town, when we 
have great reason to fear thousands of the Rebels will attack 
them, and take our lives, or the King's arms, or perhaps both. 
I, Sir, ask the favor of one of His Majesty's Tenders, or some 
other vessel of force, might be at or near Bowel's', in order, if 
any of our people should be obliged to retreat, they may be 
taken on board. Nothing but the last extremity will oblige 
them to quit the ground." 

These proceedings attracted immediate attention, and pro- 
duced great indignation. In April, 1776, the Congress of 
Massachusetts unanimously declared that " Colonel Thomas 
Gilbert is an inveterate enemy to his country, to reason, to 
justice, and the common rights of mankind ; " and, that " who- 



GILBERT. 471 

ever had knowingly espoused his cause, or taken up arms for 
its support, does, in common with himself, deserve to be in- 
stantly cut off from the benefit of commerce with, or counte- 
nance of, any friend of virtue, America, or the human race." 
These words are explicit enough ; and contain as full and as 
comprehensive denunciation as can be found in the records 
of any deliberative body during the controversy. And Con- 
gress, in further speaking of him, use the term, — "Gilbert 
and his banditti." 

A few days after the passage of these resolutions of bitter 
censure, Colonel Gilbert fled to the Rose^ which vessel was 
still at Newport, Rhode Island, and thence to Boston. On 
the 4th of May, 1775, he wrote to his sons, from Boston, 
thus : — 

** On the 27th of April, I left the ship, took passage on 
board a packet sloop on the first instant, in health arrived 
here, where I expect to stay till the Rebels are subdued, which 
I believe will not be long first, as the ships and troops are 
daily expected. My gi'eatest fears are, you will be seduced 
or compelled to take arms with the deluded people. Dear 
sons, if these wicked sinners, the Rebels, entice yoif, believe 
them not, but die by the sword rather than be hanged as 
Rebels, which will certainly be your fate sooner or later if you 
join them, or be killed in battle, and will be no more than you 
deserve. I wish you in Boston, and all the friends to govern- 
ment. The Rebels have proclaimed that those friends may 
have liberty, and come in ; but as all their declarations have 
hitherto proved, I fear, false, this may be so. Let Ruggles 
know his father wants him here. You may come by water 
from Newport. If here, the King w^ill give you provisions 
and pay you wages ; but by experience you know neither 
your persons nor estates are safe in the country, for as soon as 
you have raised anything, they [tlie Rebels] will rob you of it, 
as they are more savage and cruel than heathens, or any other 
creatures, and, it is generally thought, than devils. You will 
put yourselves out of tlieir power as soon as possible. This is 
from your affectionate father." 



472 GILBERT. 

« 

In 1776 Colonel Gilbert accompanied the Royal Army to 
Halifax ; and in 1778 he was proscribed and banished. He 
continued with the King's troops during the war, " often em- 
ployed, and constantly rendering every service in his power, 
for the suppression of the Rebellion." In 1783 he went to 
Nova Scotia, and on the 16th of November of that year he 
was at Conway, in the county of Annapolis, and a petitioner 
to Governor Parr for a grant of lands. At a subsequent pe- 
riod, he settled in New Brunswick, and died on the river St. 
John, near the year 1796, aged about eighty-two. On retir- 
ing from service, at the close of the French war. Colonel Gil- 
bert declined to receive half-pay. He held no commission in 
the Revolution, and was consequently entitled to no allow- 
ance as a disbanded officer ; but he received compensation as 
a Loyalist for his losses. 

Gilbert, Thomas, Jr. Of Berkley, Massachusetts. Son 
of Francis. He fled to Boston in 1775, and joined his father ; 
but it is believed did not accompany him to Halifax. In 1778 
he was proscribed and banished. During the war he continued 
with the Royal troops, and was active in his endeavors to sup- 
press the popular movement. He settled in New Brunswick 
after the war, and died on the river St. John. 

Gilbert, Bradford. Of Freetown, Massachusetts. 
Brother of Thomas, Jr. In 1778 he was proscribed and 
banished. He settled in New Brunswick in 1783, and re- 
ceived the grant of a lot in the city of St. John. In 1795 
he was a member of the St. John Loyal Artillery, and in 
1803 an alderman of the city. He died at St. Jolm in 1814, 
aged sixty-eight. Ann, his widow, died in 1853, in her nine- 
tieth year. 

Gilbert, Perez. Of Freetown, Massachusetts. Brother 
of Bradford. He was proscribed and banished. He settled 
in New Brunswick with his father and brothers, and died in 
that Colony. 

Gilbert, Francis. He was Naval Officer of New Bruns- 
wick, and died at St. John in 1821, aged eighty-two. 

Gilbert, Samuel. Of Berkley, Massachusetts. He was 



GILFROY. — GILPIN. 473 

a brother of Colonel Thomas, and went witJi him to Halifax 
in 1776. In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. He lived 
in New Brunswick for a thne after the Revolution, but finally 
returned to the United States. 

GiLFROY, John. Boatswain of the Mmiti^mnery^ armed 
ship of the State of Pennsylvania. Tried for mutiny, (in 
1778,) and for joining the side of the Crown, in Philadelphia ; 
found guilty, and sentenced to death. 

GiUAN, William. Of Monmouth County, New Jei*sey. 
A Tory marauder. When about to stab an aged Whig of 
the name of Russell, into whose house he had broken, he was 
shot by Russell's son, who lay wounded on the floor. 

Gill, Thomas. Of Delaware. Died in York County, 
New Brunswick, in 1888, aged seventy-seven. Mary, his 
widow, a native of Newport, Rhode Island, died in the same 
county, 1837, at the age of eighty-one. 

Gillies, Archibald. Died at Carleton, New Brunswick, 
in 1821, aged sixty-six. 

Gilman, Peter. Of Gilmanton, New Hampshire. He 
was son of Major John Gilman, and was born in 1704. He 
commanded a regiment in the French war ; was Speaker of 
the Assembly ; and member of the Council of New Hamp- 
shire. Ordered, November, 1775, by the Provincial Congress, 
that he confine himself to the town of Exeter, and not depart 
thence without leave of that body or the Committee of Safety. 
He died in 1788, aged eighty-four. 

GiLMOUR, Robert. He was banished and attainted, and 
his estate was confiscated. In 1794 he represented to the 
British Government, that, at the time of his banishment, debts 
were due to him in America, which ho had been unable to 
recover. I suppose this person to have belonged to New 
Hampshire, and the same who was proscribed by Act of that 
State in 1778. 

Gilpin, Thomas. Of Philadelphia. In 1777 he was con- 
fined in that city for being inimical to the Whig cause, and 
ordered to Virginia a prisoner. He died in exile at Winches- 
ter, March, 1778. 

40* 




474 



GIRTY. 



rintTY, Simon. Of Pennsylvania. Iixlian Interpivt^r, 
Wii- born out uf wijiilock. His fattier was a sot ; hU mother 
a l^iiwd. He figures in thu difficulties of Doctor Conollj and 
lii< party, witli tho aultiorilics of PeniiKylvania, in 1774. 
(iirty'3 career was enlir^-lj- Infiimous. He was an early pria- 
iimr of the Wfiiga at Pittsburg, but escaiwd. In 177K he 
went through the Indian country to Detroit, witli Mc-Kee 
iim! Elliot, proclaiming to the sava^s that tho Rebels were 
dL'iurmined to destroy them, and that "their only chance of 
safLty was to espouse the cause of the Crown and fight." In 
1T>>- Colonel Crawford was captured by the Indians and per- 
islii'd at the stake, after suffering tho most horrible and ex- 
ciiR'iating tortures, which Gij-ty saw with much satisfaction. 
Tins ia the statement of his enemies ; and it is but fair to say 
\\civ that he denied tlia cliarge and averred that he exerted 
himself to save the Colonel tmtil his own life was in peril. 
The same year his instigations caused the removal of the Mo- 
ravian missionaries, who were qnietly and usofnlly laboring 
aniiiiig the Wviindots. lie ]ii'rsniially eii,i:agod in driving 
awav these sell-ilfiiviii;; ministers, troiited tlieni with great 
h.iisliDcss on tlie iii'ireli. and sul.suqiieiitly procured their ar- 
rest. At tlie defeat of St. Clair, in I'l't, Cirty was pi-esent 
on the Briti-h side ; .-iiid saw and knew General Butler, who 
lay upon the field wrilhinj; from the :ikoiiv of his wounds. 
Tlie triiiior told a saviige warrior that tlie wounded man w;is 
a lii<;li ofJieer ; whereupon the Indian hui-ied his tomahawk 
ill Bailer's liead, whose sealp was iitmiediately torn ofT'. and 
wh<)>e heart was taken out and divided into as niauv pieces 
as tliere were trihes enjiaged in the battle. 



Ill ITLi^J Commissioners o 


n the ]iart of the United Stale; 


attempted to negotiate with 


the Cotdeik-rated Nations for an 


adiustiueut of our difHcuIlie 


s with the Indiaus, when Cirtv 


aeled as interpreter. His e, 


)nduet was exceedingly insolent"; 


and it is related that he was 


nol only fid>e in iiis <luty as an 


i liter] ireter, hut that he run 


a (juill or long feather through 


the eartik-e of liis no..- cro. 


■;s-wisf, U> show his conteiupt for 


the Amerieaii geulleuieii pri 


■sent. The tiiilure of tlie nego- 



GLEN. — GODDARD. 475 

tiation, it is supposed, was in a good measure owing to the 
evil influence of Girty and otlier Loyalists. He adhered to 
the British to the last, and was killed under Proctor in 1813, 
in tlie battle of the Thames. 

GxEN, William. Of South Carolina. An Addresser of 
Sir Henry Clinton in 1780, and also a Petitioner to be armed 
on the side of the Crown. He was banished, and in 1782 
his property was confiscated. He went to England. 

Glover, Samuel. Ensign in De Lancey's Brigade. In 
1776 he was captured on Long Island, and committed to 
jail in New London. He is called " a notorious offender." 
Among the papers found upon his person, was one from the 
captain of his company authorizing him to enlist men " for 
the defence of the liberty of America." Thus did Loyalists 
sometimes use the words of the Whigs. 

Glover, . Of Newtown, Connecticut. In 1779, 

under the direction of Sir Henry Clinton, he and eight other 
Loyalists crossed Long Island Sound in a boat, for the pur- 
pose of capturing Major-General Silliman, who had been ap- 
pointed to command on the opposite shore of Connecticut. 
Glover had been employed by the General, and was familiar 
with his house. The party approached his dwelling at night, 
and awoke himself and family by a violent assault upon the 
door. Silliman attempted to fire, but his musket only flashed ; 
when the assailants broke through a window and seized him, 
and bore him off. On approaching the Long Island shore. 
Colonel Simcoe, of the Loyalist corj)s of Queen's Rangers, 
was in waiting, and exclaimed, " Have you got him ? " He 
was answered, " Yes." " Have you lost any men ? " " No." 
" That is well," said Simcoe ; " your Silliraans are not worth 
a man, nor your Washingtons." 

GoDDARD, William. Son of Giles Goddard, Postmaster 
of New London, Connecticut, had a checkered career. He 
was bred a printer, and established the first printing-press at 
Providence, Rhode Island, in 17G2; and soon after began 
the publication of a newspaper. Not meeting with sufficient 
encouragement, he went to New York, and connected himself 



■iTt; 



GODDARD,. 



with .liilin Holt in publishing the "New York Gazette and 
rost-Uoy." After the rei«iil of th<? Stamp Act, In 1766. he 
ivMinvud to Philadelphia, and became the partner of Galloway 
ami Wharton, in a paper called the " Pennsylvania Chron- 
iiL-." These gentlemen were, in tho end, both Loyalists. 
It would seem that the firm expected that Franklin, who was 
tiien in England, would take an interest in the cuncem ; and 
jirovision waa matle in tho artacies of copartnersliip accord- 
iiii^ly. The " Chronicle " was ably conducted. Gallowav 
Mils an eminent lawyer, a writer of great vigor, and, as was 
sii]pp<ised, a fiiend of the popular cause. In 1770, afler 
m;iny disputes, the partners — who, in the meantime, had 
ailmiitod Benjamin Tonne as a member of their establish- 
ment — came to an open rupture; and, having dissolved their 
foniioi-tion, filled the public prints, handbills, and pamphlets, 
with the ebullitions of their animosity. Unable to meet the 
dt-nianda against the firm, Goddard, in great embarrassment, 
left Philadelphiii, in 1773, and went to Baltimore, in (|uest of 
more lucrative !>u~iiiess and jireatur tianqnillily "f life, llci-c 
he started anottn-r iie«s]ia|ier ; but the plan of setting u|. a 



of po.t-r 



i fVii 



11 ai 



Mni 



to (k 



posilioii to the I'ost-omee estabiishinei 


lit of the Crown, soon 


euj:af,'ed the attention of h'iidinf; iiiitu 


ds; ami Goddard, in- 


trusting hi-i priiitin,2 aftairs to tlu- earo ■ 


of hiH sister, journeyed 


throughout the t'olnniw, to promoti- 


the ado|)tiou of tho 


measure. He was eminently sueeessliil 


,as the Wiiiiis entered 


into the scheme with great readiness 


.. and elieerfully sub- 


scribed the neoe^sirv fiu.ds. Goddar 


d was apix.iuled Sur- 


veyor of the Hoads and Comptroller . 


c.f tho Offices, on the 



organization of the Departnieiit ; and on the retirement of 
Franklin, who was placed at its head, expected to succeed 
him as Postmaster-fieneral. To his great disaiipointnient, 
Bache, son-in-law to Franklin, received" the place ; and God- 
dard resigned his situation in disgust. It was supposed that 
now lie not only sufti.'rod his ardor in the AVIiig cause to 
abate, but that he actually abandoiied his political princi[>ies. 
He resumed his resid,..nco in Ualtimote, where his paper, the 



GODDARD. 477 

'* Maryland Journal," liad been and was still continued by 
and in the name of his sister ; but in which it was known 
that he had an interest, and over which, it was believed, that 
he maintained the entire control. Early in 1777, two articles, 
one of which was signed '' Tom Tell Truth," and the other, 
" Caveto," appeared in the " Journal," and excited the in- 
dignation of the Baltimore Whig Club, who, on the 4th of 
March, resolved, — 

" That William Goddard do leave this town by twelve 
o'clock to-morrow morning, and the County in three days," 
&c. He immediately claimed the protection of the Assembly, 
then in session at Annapolis ; and though that body formally 
and severely rebuked the Club, there was no resisting the 
popular impulse against him, and before the quarrel was 
ended, he was mobbed on several occasions, and otherwise 
insulted and ill-treated. This was especially the case in 1779, 
when the publication in the " Journal " of certain Queries, 
excited the ire of the Whig Club anew, and caused a great 
ferment. He was variously employed until 1784, when he 
appeared as the proper proprietor of the "Journal." In 1787 
he became involved in a bitter controversy with the publisher 
of a rival print, in which he displayed eminent ability. In 
1792 he sold his press, and bidding adieu to the cares and tur- 
moils of party and political strifes, retired to a farm in John- 
ston, Rhode Island. He subsequently changed his abode to 
Providence, where he continued to reside until his decease in 
1817, aged seventy-seven years. 

Goddard was a man of fine talents, and, as the manager of 
a press, had, it is said, few or no superiors. General Charles 
Lee continued his friend, and bequeathed him a portion of his 
extensive landed estate in Virginia. Lee, it will be remem- 
bered, failed in the execution of his orders at the battle of 
Monmouth, was disgraced, and spent the remainder of his 
days in retirement. He was the writer of the Queries which 
caused Goddard's trouble with the Whig Club in 1779. 

William Goddard, late Professor in Brown University, a 
gentleman of rare literary attainments, and of great social 
and moral worth, was son of the subject of this notice. 



478 GODDEN. — GOLDTHWAITE. 

GoDDKN, . Of North Carolina. Colonel of a 

Loyalist corps. Killed at Elizabeth town, North Carolina, in 
1781, in the attack of the Whigs under Colonel Brown. 
[See Slingsly.'] 

GoLDiNG, Stephen. Residence unknown. Settled in 
New Brunswick in 1783 ; and died at Long Island, in that 
Province, in June, 1845, at the age of eighty-three yeare. 
For the thirty years previous to his decease, he held a com- 
mission of the peace for Queen's County. For fifty-five 
years he was an officer in the Provincial Militia, and retired 
with the rank of major. He was a consistent member of 
the Church of England. His descendants are numerous, — 
namely, eleven children, seventy-one gi'andchildren, and 
seventy-four great-grandchildren. 

GoLDiNG, Palmer. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. A 
true friend to Government, and a captain in the militia. 
Early in 1775, he was returning from a visit to a friend, who 
was suspected of desertion from the Whigs, and of being a 
Tory, and whose political course he was supposed to influ- 
ence, when he was knocked down, and much bruised and 
wounded. 

GoLDiNG, Zenus. Died at French Village, New Bi-uns- 
wick, in 1814, aged fifty-six. 

Goldsmith, Henry. He settled in New Brunswick, and 
was Collector of the Customs for the port of St. Andrew. 

GoLDTiiWAiTE, Thomas. Of Maine. Born in Chelsea, 
Massachusetts. Grantee, with Francis Bernard, son of the 
Governor, of a large tract of land in Prospect, on the Pe- 
nobscot, on condition of settling thereon thirty families, of 
building an Episcopal church, and employing a minister. 
The enterprise was interrupted by the Revolution. Both 
adhered to the Crown, and forfeited their property. In 17G3 
he was appointed to the command of Fort Pownall; was 
superseded in 1770 ; but restored by Governor Hutchinson. 
In 1775 he allowed Mowat, who burned Falmouth (now 
Portland), to carry oft* the cannon ; and the same year his 
petition to tlie General Court to be paid for his services while 



GOLDTHWAITE. 479 

in garrison, was read, referred, but final action deferred. 
The Provincial Congress, in an Address to the Indians of 
Maine, remarked : " Captain Goldthwaite has given up Fort 
Pownal into the hands of our enemies ; we are angry at it, 
and we hear you are angry with him, and we do not wonder 
at it." He solemnized the first marriage on the Penobscot ; 
was a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, and a colonel 
in the militia. The account of him is, that he was an extor- 
tioner, arbitrary and cruel. Early in tlie war lie embarked for 
Nova Scotia, was shipwrecked on the passage, and perished. 

Goldthwaite, Philip. Of Maine. He was one of the 
two persons of Saco and Biddeford, Maine, who was dealt 
with by the Whigs of that section for their loyal principles. 
He was an oflicer of the Customs, and lived at Winter 
Harbor. As soon as the war commenced, he placed himself 
under British protection at Boston. 

Goldthwaite, Joseph. Of Massachusetts. Major, and 
Barrack-master of the King's troops in Boston. Brother of 
Philip. An Addresser of Hutchinson. In August, 1775, 
Hannah, his wife, crossed Winnisimmet Ferry, was arrested, 
and taken under guard to the General Court at Watertown. 
It appeared on her examination that her health was impaired, 
and an order was passed to allow her to visit Stafford for the 
benefit of the waters there, but to be under the care of the 
Selectmen ; and afterwards to retire to the house of her 
brother, Joseph Brigham, at Rehoboth, and to be under the 
supervision of the Committee of Correspondence. In 1778, 
Mr. Goldthwaite was proscribed and banished. Administra- 
tion on the estate of Joseph Goldthwaite, of Weston, was 
advertised by Joseph Gower, of Boston, August 23, 1782. 

Goldthwaite, Ezekiel. Of Boston. Was an Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs 
the same year. He was Register of Deeds for the county of 
SuflFolk. The Rev. John Bacon, who was minister of the Old 
South, and whose son, Ezekiel, was a member of Congress 
before the war of 1812, married his daughter. Though Mr. 
Goldthwaite became an Addresser, he was one of the fifty- 



480 GOOD. — GOODRICH. 

eight Boston memorialists, who, in 1760, arrayed themselves 
against the Crown officers, and set the ball of the Revolution 
in motion. Elizabeth, his widow, died at Boston, in 1794, 
aged eighty. 

Good, David. Went to New Brunswick in 1783, and 
died at King's-clear, county of York, 1842, aged ninety-five. 
His widow, with whom he lived sixty years, survives (1845), 
as do one hundred and eleven descendants. 

GooDAi^, Nathan. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Gradu- 
ated at Harvard University in 1759. An Addresser of 
Hutchinson in 1774, but signed a recantation. The same 
year, however, he was an Addresser of Gage. Early in 1775 
he secured a retreat at Nantucket. After the orc^anization of 
the Federal Government, he was Clerk of the United States 
Courts in Massachusetts. In 1794, the title of a book was 
entered in his office, to secure copyright, in the following 
words: " These are the Predictions of John Nobles^ Astrologer 
and Doctor,''^ He died at Newton in 1806, aged sixty-five. 
Mary, his wife, died in Boston, in 1794, aged fifty-seven. 

GooDRicir, John. Of Virginia. He seems to have en- 
joyed the confidence of the Whigs in 1775, since it appears 
that he was employed to import gunpowder, to the value of 
<£5000, and was entiiisted with that sum in advance ; since, 
too, he incurred the displeasure of Lord Dunmore, who caused 
him to be seized and confined. In January, 1776, he peti- 
tioned the Virginia Convention for an adjustment of his ac- 
counts, which caused much debate in that body, and led to 
developments presently to be related in the notices of his 
sons. In March, 1776, the father and five sons had aban- 
doned their houses, plantations, negroes, and stock, and were 
serving the Crown under Lord Dunmore. At the same time, 
his Lordship had five of their vessels in his fleet, under orders 
to constantly run up the rivers of^Virginia, and seize, burn, or 
destroy, everything that was water-borne.^ In a despatch to 
the Secretary of State, his Lordship remarks that the mem- 
bers of this family were natives of the Colony ; that they were 
spirited, active, and industrious ; and that it had cost him much 



GOODRICH. 481 

pains and trouble to secure them to the Royal cause. Har- 
assed by both parties, Mr. Goodrich declared at last that 
"he did not value life." In June, 1776, he was in prison, 
in chains, and sick. His wife petitioned in his behalf; and, 
after inquiry into his condition, he was relieved of his fetters, 
and taken under guard to a place suitable for the recovery of 
health. In prison a second time, the Convention of Virginia 
ordered provision out of his estate for the support of his wife 
and young children. He was released finally, and went to 
England. He returned, and was engaged in fitting out pri- 
vateers. In 1785, he was at Newport, Rhode Island, and 
asked leave to settle there with his family, offering, if permis- 
Mon was given, to bring twenty sail of vessels, and to establish 
himself in mercantile business ; but he had taken so active a 
part in the war, that, upon a vote of the town, his request was 
refused by a large majority. I lose sight of him here. Mar- 
garet, his widow, died at Grove House, Topsham, England, 
in 1810, aged eighty. His daughter, Agatha Wells, married 
Robert Shedden, a Loyalist who is noticed in these pages, 
and whose descendants in England are persons of considera- 
tion. 

Goodrich, John, Jr. Of Virginia. Son of John. He 
was implicated with his brother Bartlett in the case of the 
British goods, inasmuch as he received tliem, and offered them 
for sale. It appears, too, in the notice of William, that, as re- 
lates to a quantity of powder purchased for the Colony under 
the arrangement with his father, he was a party to the fraud 
of charging much more than the cost. The result was that 
the Convention held him up to public odium, by publishing a 
full account of his conduct. 

Goodrich, William. Of Virginia. Son of John. In 
the matter of the gunpowder his conduct was inexcusable. 
He was implicated in two purchases of that article. First, 
he was sent to the West Indies by his father, in 1775, where 
he procured about four thousand pounds, which arrived safely 
in North Carolina. The importation was however discovered 
by Lord Dunmore, who seized and detained him until intimi- 

VOL. I. 41 



482 GOODRICH— ({ORnON. 

dated ; when be diBclused tlie wliolu uflnir, and went 
aiinid vessel, d«si>aU'lied by his l^ctrdahip, Ui demand llic value, 
ami tlie mon<;y remaining in Iho agent'a )inud«. Tliis done, bfl 
was discharged; but when tlic Royal Governor wss advised 
tliat he intL-udcd to bu ]m--iient ut Williamsbui^, he van again 
miuli! prisoner, and kept from making any explanations during 
tlif investigation nientioiii-d in tlic notices of his &ther and 
bniihers. The second case was far worse: He rendered his 
act'Dunt at the Treasury Office, and made oath that the coat 
wu» four shilling and sixpence tho ponnd ; whereas the evie 
denie was tliat a part was bought at three shillings, and I 
remainder at two shillings and ninejwncc. In the (lilemm 
hL!< brother John stated that Bartlctt made the purchase f 
bis own benefit, and afterward sold to William at the j 
William charged the Colony. At a later time, he fled froti 
liume, and commanded a King's tender in the waters of I 
Cbusapeake. In 1770 he was a prisoner in Philmlcl]ihia jaU, 
and was transferred thence to jirison in liallimore. 

Go(iii)(l<'i[, l!.\icri.i-rr. Of Virginia. Sim of John. Dur- 
ing the inve>ligation referred to in the notice of iiis father, 
there was evidence that when at Antigua, October, 1775, he 



pui 



lods of Itritisb maiiulju 



])aeked in nun punclieuns, where tiny «ere exposed 
for sale. The transaction was in violation of the Continenlal 
Association ; anil the Conventii.n voted to expose it in tlie 
"Virginia Gazette,"' in order to warn all pei-soiis to forbear 
further ilealiugs with him. He went to En;;land. 

GooDiiicii, liiiinoKR or nitincKN. Of Virginia. Son of 
John, Connnandcd an armed vessel nniler Lord Dnnmore. 
In 17711, in prison at I'bilaclelpbia, with bis brotlier William, 
and transferred to lialtimore. In 177« be was at Bermuda, 
in command of a ship of twenty guns: and was still there in 
the Naval service, two years later. 

Goiinox, Thomas Knox. Of South ('arolina. Born in 
1728, and appointed Ciiief Justice of the Province in 1771. 
He went to Engian.l, and died there in 17!)f). His son 
John was lieutentunt-colonel of the oOth Regiment, in the 



GORDON. ^ GORE. 488 

British Army. The family seat is in the County of Down, 
Ireland. 

GoBDQN, Harry. Of Pennsylvania. Was summoned 
by proclamation to appear before November 1, 1781, else 
he would be attainted ; and failing to do so, his estate was 
seized by the commissioners of forfeitures, and most of it sold. 
These proceedings were against Henry Gordon ; and, by an 
Act of January, 1783, the misnomer was corrected, and the 
Executive Council of that State, under that law, sold the 
remainder of his estate in 1790. In the Revolution he held 
a military commission under the Crown. 

Gordon, Charles. Attomey-at-law, of Cecil County, 
Maryland. In 1775, the Whig Committee of that county, 
at a meeting at Elk Ferry, " Resolved, That he lies under 
the imputation of being an enemy to this country, and as such 
we will have no dealings or communication with him, nor 
permit him to transact any business with us, or for us, either 
in a public or private capacity, which shall be commenced 
after the date hereof," &c. Mr. Gordon " had treated with 
great disrespect, and maliciously aspersed the Continental 
Congress, the Provincial Congress, and the Committee of this 
County; and had, at various times, and by sundry ways, 
vilified their proceedings." A newspaper controvery ensued, 
in which tlie deUnquent admitted that his politics were not 
quite agreeable to his accusers, &c. 

Gordon, Alexander. A physician, of Norfolk, Virginia. 
In February, 1775, the Whig Committee of Observation 
held him up for public censure, for the importation of medi- 
cines, contrary to the Continental Association. This Com- 
mittee was composed of thirteen persons, and they were 
unanimous in their opinion of the Doctor's delinquency. He 
went to England, and was a Loyalist Addresser of the King, 
July, 1779. 

Gore, John. Of Boston. An Addresser of Gage. At 
the evacuation in 1776, w^cnt to Halifax with the Royal 
Army, and thence to England. Proscribed and banished in 
1778 ; citizenship restored by Act of the Legislature in 1787. 



484 GORHAM.— GOSS. 

He died in Boston, in 1796, aged seventy-seven. His son, 
Hon. Christopher Gore, was long one of the most conspic- 
uous public characters of Massachusetts, and a gentleman 
of eminent worth and talents. 

GoRnAM, David. Of Massacliusetts. Graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1733. In 1774 he was one of the bar- 
risters and attorneys of Massachusetts who addressed Hutch- 
inson. He died in 1786. 

GoRNELL, . Sergeant in the Whig Army. Under 

Greene, in South Carolina, he plotted to betray that officer 
to the British, with his entire force. When his plans were 
nearly matured he was arrested, and, upon sentence of a 
court-martial, executed. 

GoRT, William. Of New York. In 1780 he and James 
Plateau, another Loyalist, hired the house of Garret Put- 
nam, a Whig, who, receiving orders to repair to Fort Hunter, 
took his family with him. Two days after Putnam's de- 
parture, a party of Sir John Johnson's Royal Greens came to 
the settlement (now embraced in the town of Mohawk), and, 
supposing the house was still occupied by Whigs, entered it 
at night, and murdered and scalped two men. In the morn- 
ing, the dead bodies of Gort and Plateau revealed to them 
that they had murdered two friends. 

GoRUM, Nathaniel. Went to New Brunswick in 1783. 
He died at Kingston, in that Province, February 9, 1846, 
aged ninety-four years. Numerous offspring of children, 
grandchildren, and great-grandchildren, survive. 

Goss, Rev. Thomas. Of Bolton, Massachusetts. Con- 
. gregational minister. Graduated at Harvard University in 
1737, and was settled about the year 1741. During the 
Revolutionary controversy he became much involved with his 
people ; but it was finally agreed that he should read a dec- 
laration from his pulpit, and send a copy to the eldest deacon. 
This he did, but his enemies said that, instead of reading the 
paper distinctly, as was expected, '* he intermixed it with his 
sermon, so that many of the congregation did not understand 
that he had read it at all; and inquired why he had not 



GOUCHER. — GRAHAM. 485 

done as he promised." To this Mr. Goss replied, that, 
" According to the best of his remembrance, the said decla- 
ration was distinctly read before the text itself; but most 
certmnly before the sermon, and not intermixed with it ; and 
it was done with this design, that tlie sermon might be at« 
tended to without prejudice." The quarrel was renewed. 
At last, it was proposed tliat if he would take a dismission, the 
question of salary, under the contract of settlement, should 
be referred to the " general session of the peace." No ar- 
rangement was made, however ; and the disaffected party, 
without applying to him to call a meeting of the church, got 
together and voted to dismiss him " as pastor, teacher, and 
brother." The town in pubHc meeting concurred, and " on 
the succeeding Lord's day, by violence did prevent him from 
entering the desk." The next movement was the denial of 
further support, and the hiring of another preacher. He 
died in 1780, aged sixty-three. His friends erected a monu- 
ment to his memorv. 

GouciiER, Joseph^ Went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 

Gould, John. Of Massachusetts. Went to England, 
and was a Loyalist Addresser of the King in 1779. 

Graham, John. Of Ulster County, New York. In 1775 
a number of his Majesty's loyal subjects met at his house and 
erected a Royal Standard, on a mast seventy-five feet high, 
with the following inscription : — 

" In testimony of our unshaken loyalty and incorruptible 
fidelity to the best of Kings ; of our inviolable affection and 
attachment to our parent State and the British Constitution ; 
of our abhorrence of and aversion to a Rt'publican Govern- 
ment ; of our detestation of all treasonable associations, un- 
lawful combinations, seditious meetings, tumultuous assem- 
blies, and execrable mobs ; and of all measures that have a 
tendency to alienate the affections of the people from their 
rightful Sovereign, or lessen their regard for our most excel- 
lent Constitution ; and to make known to all men that we 
are ready, when properly called upon, at the hazard of our 

41* 



486 GRAHAM. — GRANT. 

lives and of everything dear to us, to defend the King, sup- 
port the magistrates in the execution of the laws, and main- 
tain the just rights and constitutional liberties of free-born 
Englishmen, this Standard, by the name of the King's Stand- 
ard, was erected, by a number of his Majesty's loyal and 
faithful subjects in Ulster County, on the 10th day of Feb- 
ruary, in the loth year of the reign of our most excellent 
sovereign, George the Third, whom God long preserve." 

Graham, John. Of Georgia. Lieutenant-Governor of 
that Colony. He went to England. After the death of Sir 
James Wright, he and William Knox were appointed joint 
agents of the Georgia Loyalists for prosecuting their claims 
for losses. Attainted and estate confiscated. He was in Lon- 
don in 1788. 

Grant, James. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Was an Ad- 
dresser of Gage in 1774. Went to Halifax, but returned, 
and was at Boston in January, 1776 ; at which time he had 
been promised a commission in the Royal Army. Mary, his 
widow, died at Salem, in 1792, aged fifty-nine. 

Grant, Alexander. Major in the New York Volunteers. 
Killed, 1777, in the storming of Forts Montgomery and Clin- 
ton. His widow perished in 1787, of cold and exposure when 
wrecked near St. John, New Brunswick, in crossing the Bay 
of Fundy. 

Grant, Daniel. Was a native of Gillespie, Sutherland, 
Scotland, and emigrated to the United States. At the peace 
he removed with other Loyalists to St. Andrew, New Bruns- 
wick, where he continued to reside, and where he reared a 
numerous family. He died January, 1834, aged eighty-two 
years. 

Grant, Wu^liam. Of Virginia. In 1776 he taught a 
school, and was " zealous for Government." A Whig force 
was raised to repel the Cherokees, and " to screen himself from 
being deemed a Tory," he joined a company of riflemen to be 
stationed at the mouth of one of the tributaries of the Ohio. 
He wrote a " Narrative," dated November 24, 1777, on board 
the ^^ Queen Indiaman' at Gravesend," £ngland, and styles 
himself, ^^ late a Sergeant in the Rebel Army." 



GRAVES. 487 

Graves, John. Of Providence, Rhode Island. He was 
the vicar of Clapham, Yorkshire, England, and in 1754 came 
to Providence, to succeed the Rev. John Checkley, an Epis- 
copal clergyman, who died the previous year, and as the 
Missionary of the Society for tlie Propagation of the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts. In 1770 Mr. Graves wrote to the Society, 
that '* the face of public affairs here is melancholy. Altar 
against altar in the Church, and such open, bold attacks upon 
the State, as, I believe, the English annals do not furnish us 
with the like since the reign of King Charles I." These 
were signs of the coming stonn. In September, 1776, he 
wrote : " Since independency has been proclaimed here, my 
two churches have been shut up ; still I go on to baptize their 
children, visit their sick, bury their dead, and frequent their 
respective houses with the same freedom as usual ; " and adds, 
witli gratitude, that " their benefactions to me since the above 
period have been great, and far beyond what I have ever 
experienced from them before ; founded upon tlieir commiser- 
ating sense that the necessary means of supporting my large 
family — a wife and seven children — were now entirely cut 
off^." In 1782 Mr. Graves was expelled from the parsonage 
and glebe, because he refused to open his church in conformity 
with the principles of independency. He soon after resigned 
his ministry, after a labor of twenty-six years. He died at 
Providence, in 1785. 

Graves, John. Of Pittsfield, Massachusetts. In 1775 
he was sent to the jail at Northampton, on the charge of hold- 
ing improper intercourse with General Gage at Boston. Ac- 
cused, May, 1776, of assisting Captain McKay, a prisoner, to 
escape, in direct violation of his parole, he was sent to Hart- 
ford jail, and put in close confinement. In a letter to James 
Warren, it is said that Graves appeared to be " a low-spirited, 
insidious fellow.'' In 1778 proscribed and banished. 

Graves, Rev. Matthew. An Episcopal minister at New 
London, Connecticut. He was sent there by the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel, in 1745, and continued his 
labors for the period of thirty-three years. Refusing, in 1778, 



488 GRAY. 

to omit tlie usaal prayer for tlie King, he was Jnvcn n 
cluiicli, on Suntiav, before he had lime to divest himself a 
liis ■'iirplice. He fled to the house of a Whig, who, o 
hi* Hiick, protected him. But though displaced, he reinainet 
in Niiw London for some time ; and was t-ompelled " 
uljtiiist all his property* and to take up money on very disad-^ 
vaiiliigeous terms," in order to support himself. Finally, ha 
went to New York, and died there, in 1780, unmarried. " In 
person he was ungainly ; of low stature, rather corpulent, 
wilii jiarticularly short legs." A maiden sister who lived J 
will), and who accompanied him in his exile, returned t* New 
London, lonely and disconsolate, and was allowed to occti[q 
two rooms in the parsonage ; she subseqnently removed to9 
Providence. 

(iuAT, Harrison. Receiver-Oeneral of Massacbuaetta. Hijl 
was nil Addresser of Hutchinson, was a Mandamus Council^ ^ 
lor, was proscribed and banished, and was among iho? 
esliik's were coiiHscated by statute. In the House of Repre- 
sentatives, August H, 177;"., " Onlered, tluit Mr. Hopkins be 
directed to iuipiire how the Committee of Supplies h.tve dis- 
posed of the horse and ehaiso formerly Harrison (Jray's, which 
was used by the late Dr. Wnnvn, and came to the hands of 
the said Counnittee after Dr. W.irren's death." The next 
day, '* Ordered, that Dr. William Eustis be, and hei'eby is 
directed, imiuediatelv to deliver to the Committee of Supplies 
the horse and chaise which were in the possession of the late 
Doctor Warren, and which formerly belonged to Harrison 
Gr.ay, of Boston." In 177*3, at the evacuation, he went to 
Halifax with his family of four persons. He was passenger 
in one of the six vessels that arrived at London from Halifax, 
prior to June 10, 177(i, laden with Loyalists and their families. 

At Iiis house in I^ondon, in 178',', or the year after, Arthur 
Savage gave the Rev. Mr. Montague a. bullet taken from the 
body of Genera! Warren the day after his death. [See Ar- 
thur Siiniiji:'^ Mr. (ir.iy was a tiinid man ; and was accused 
of Iwiiig on both sides in politics, according as he met Whig 
or Tory. In private life lie was remarkably exemplary. 



GRAY. 489 

In " McFingal " it is said, — 

** What Puritan could ever pray 
In godlier tones than Treasurer Gray ; 
Or at town-meetings speechifying, 
Could utter more melodious whine, 
And shut his eyes, and vent his moan, 
Like owl afflicted in the sun ? " 

Mr. Gray died in England. His only daughter, Elizabeth, 
was the first wife of Samuel Allyne Otis, and mother of Har- 
rison Gray Otis, who, a distinguished statesman while the 
Federalists were in the ascendency, died at Boston, in 18481, ^ 
aged eighty-four. 

Gray, John. Of Boston. Son of Harrison Gray. He 
went to Ireland soon after the battle of Lexington. Hearing 
that the difficulties would probably be adjusted, he embarked 
for Massachusetts, and was made prisoner oif Newburyport. 
He was in Newbury jail, February, 1776, when, at the solici- 
tation of his sister, the wife of Samuel Allyne Otis, as com- 
municated to the Council by James Otis, an order was passed 
to allow his removal to Barnstable, on condition of giving 
bond with security in £1000, not to pass without the limits of 
that town, or deal or correspond with the enemy. Mr. Gray 
was in London, January, 1781. Possibly, the John Gray 
who died at Boston in 1805, aged sixty-five, was the same. 

Gray, Joseph. Of Boston. A native of Massachusetts, 
and bom in 1729. The Christian name of his father does 
not appear, but his mother was Rebecca, daughter of John 
West, a rich farmer of Bradford, or Haverhill, Massachusetts. 
The " old people " were displeased with the match, and cut 
off Rebecca with one pine-tree, or a piece of silver valued at 
one shilling." The family papers show that the grand-uncle 
of the subject of this notice (Benjamin Gray, of Boston, who 
died in 1741, or the year following) received a letter from an 
uncle in England, informing him that he was '* next heir to a 
title and an estate" there; and that, being of the religious 
sect called " New Lights," he replied he would not abandon 
his faith "to be made King of England." 



490 GRAY. 

Of Mr. Gray's course in the Revolution, I find nothing. 
He settled at Halifax, Nova Scotia, and was a member of the 
firm of Proctor & Gray, merchants. He died in 1803, at 
that city, or at Windsor, at the age of seventy-four. His wife 
was Mary, daughter of the Hon. Joseph Gerrish. His third 
son, the Rev. Benjamin Gerrish Gray, D. D., who was bom 
in 1768, married Mary, daughter of Nathaniel Ray Thomas, 
a Loyalist, [see notice,] and was many years Rector of 
St. George's Parish, Halifax, and afterwards of an Episco- 
pal Church in St. John, New Brunswick, died at the latter 
city in 1854. His fourth son, William, was born in 1777 ; 
was British Consul for Virginia for a long time, and died in 
England, in 1845, or a year later. His other children were 
Mary, Rebecca, Elizabeth Breynton, Joseph Gerrish, Mary 
Gerrish, Amelia Ann, William Spry, Lydia Hancock, Ann 
Susanna, Susanna, Sarah, and Alexander. A grandson (son 
of Benjamin Gerrish), the Rev. John William Deming Gray, 
D. D., has been Rector of Trinity Church, St. John, New 
Brunswick, now (1861) quite twenty years. In December, 
1857, he preached a sermon "designed to recommend the 
principles of the Loyalists of 1783," which was published. 
The main points of this discourse are : — First, the Loyalists 
" believed in the Bible as a Revelation from God ; " second, 
they entertained " a respect for the ordinances of religion ; " 
third, " tliey were just in their dealings with their fellow- 
men ; " and fourth, " they were loyal to their earthly sov- 
ereign." His son, Benjamin Gerrish Gray, (the third of this 
name,) is a counsellor-at-law, in Boston. 

Gray, John. Of Boston. Brother of Joseph Gray. He 
was bred to business in that town by Caleb Blanchard. About 
the year 1768 he went to England, but returned previous to 
hostilities, and was appointed Deputy-Collector of the Cus- 
toms, in which office he was popular. In 1776 he embarked 
for Halifax with the Royal Army, and before the close of that 
year was at Charleston, South CaroHna, and in prison. He 
was still in that citv as late as 1780, when he was an Ad- 
dresser of Sir Henry Clinton. Before the last mentioned date, 



GKAY. 491 

however, he had engaged in business as a commission mer- 
chant, and had purchased a plantation on account of himself 
and of John Simpson, a fellow Loyalist, of Boston. But, in- 
volved, politically, beyond the hope of extrication, he sold 
his interest in the plantation, and invested the proceeds in 
indigo and in a ship, with the intention of sailing for London. 
The Whig authorities not only defeated this plan, but seized 
his vessel and her cargo ; and the result was, that of both 
he saved barely one hundred guineas. With this sum, he fled 
to his brother Joseph at Halifax, who procured for him a pas- 
sage to England in a ship-of-war. Without any accession to 
his fortune, yet, with letters to the agents of the East India 
Company, he soon embarked for India, and, on his arrival 
there, was well received. The family account is, that he 
wrote a treatise on the Cultivation of Indigo, which the Gov- 
ernor and Council considered so valuable as to grant him 
£4000 sterling, and, jointly with a Mr. Powell, an extensive 
tract of land. The two grantees, assisted by the Company, 
established a factory, and began the culture of indigo, which 
— as is stated in the papers before me — was the first attempt 
to cultivate this beautiful dye in India. 

Both died suddenly, in 1782, on the same day. Gray was 
at the plantation, and Powell was two hundred miles distant, 
at the factory ; and the supposition was that they had in- 
curred the jealousy of the natives, who caused their death by 
poison. Powell's brother told Joseph Gray, prior to 1799, 
that the estate of our Loyalist and his associate had become 
" the greatest indigo plantation in the known world." 

Gray, Samuel. Of Boston. Brother of Joseph Gray. 
He died in that town about the year 1776, leaving issue, male 
and female. His wife was a daughter of Captain Henry At- 
kins, of Boston. 

Gray, Thomas. Of Boston. Merchant. A Protester 
against the Whigs, and one of the Addressers of Hutchinson. 
He died at Boston in 1783. 

Gray, Jesse. " Of a Southern State." Went to Shel- 
burne, Nova Scotia, at the peace. Removed to an island 



492 GRAY. — GREEN. 

near Yarmouth, in the same Province, where he had a large 
grant of land for his military services. Died about the year 
1840. 

Gray, Benjamin Dingley. Of Virginia. Was one of 
the Non-Associators, or a person who refused to join the Con- 
tinental Association, and was posted by the Whig Committee 
in March, 1775, accordingly. On seeing his name in the 
list, he said ^^ that he looked upon this Committee as a pack 
of damned rascals, for advertising him as they had done," &c. 
Subsequently, the Committee denounced his conduct by a 
resolution, in' which they declare that he should " be looked 
upon as inimical to the liberties of America," and that " no 
person ought to have commercial intercourse with him." 

Gray, William. Of Westchester County, New York. 
Was a Protester in 1775 ; settled in New Brunswick at the 
peace ; was a magistrate of King's County ; and died in 1824, 
aged ninety-six. A Loyalist of this name was a captain in 
the New York Volunteers. 

Gray, Justus. Settled in New Brunswick at the peace, 
and died in that Province in 1843. 

Green, Francis. Of Boston. Merchant. Second son 
of Hon. Benjamin Green, President of the Council and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of Nova Scotia, whose ancestor was John 
Green, who settled in Cambridge, Massachusetts, about the 
year 1639. Born in Boston in 1742, and graduated at Har- 
vard University in 1760. While yet a student, his father ac- 
cepted for him an ensign's commission in the 40th Regiment, 
under a promise of leave of absence until he should have 
completed his studies. But the war with France interrupted 
this arrangement ; and, in 1757, he joined his corj)s at Hali- 
fax. He was present at the siege of Louisburg in 1758, and 
remained in the garrison there until June, 1760, when he 
accompanied his regiment to Quebec. He relates that, while 
at the capitol of Cape Breton, the tedium of military life in 
that lone, desolate region, was relieved by shooting, hunting, 
fishing, assemblies, and plays ; that the officers fitted up quite 
a pretty theatre, in which they were the actors ; that he " was 



GREEN. 498 

urged to take an active part, and performed several characters 
in tragedy and comedy, not without commendation." In 
June, 1761, the 40th crossed the St. Lawrence ; and by 
marches, and in batteaux, passed through the wilderness to 
Crown Point; thence proceeded by the usual route of the 
time, to New York, and embarked for the West Indies. He 
records, that he assisted in the siege of Martinique ; that he 
went to Antigua and St. Christophers with his Lieutenant- 
Colonel, where, in six days, they purchased and hired four 
hundred negroes, and joined the fleet in time to participate 
in the reduction of Havana. At the peace, having served 
four campaigns, *' with credit, but very little promotion," he 
determined to quit the army. In 1765, he went to England, 
and, the year after, sold his commission of lieutenant, re- 
turned to Boston, and settled in mercantile business. 

At the beginning of the Revolutionary controversy, he 
" adhered to the old Constitution," he relates, though always 
a firm friend to civil liberty, " and an avowed enemy to the 
pretended unlimited power of Parliamentary taxation, in the 
hope of an honorable compromise, without recourse to arms." 
In 1774 he went to Connecticut on business, and stopped at 
Windham. The *' Sons of Liberty " assumed that his de- 
signs were political, and surrounding the tavern, uttered in- 
sulting shouts and words, and threatened him with a ride 
on *^ the Tory cart," unless he instantly departed. He jour- 
neyed to Norwich, where he was greeted with the ringing of 
the bell, and other manifestations of the popular excitement ; 
and "the cart," or departure within fifteen minutes, were 
the terms offered. He attempted to address the throng, but 
was seized by a very stout man, who called him " a rascal." 
The fearful " cart," with a high scaffolding for a seat, was 
driven up, and preparations were made to compel him to 
mount it, when he entered his own carriage, and, mid scoflb 
and hissings, the beating of drums, and blowing of horns, 
drove away. On his return to Boston, he offered a reward 
for the apprehension of " the ruffians " ; but they were merry 
over his advertisement, and, reprinting it in handbills, circu- 

VOL. I. 42 



494 GREEN. 

lated it, with their comments. An Addresser of Hutchinson 
and of Gage, he embarked with the British at the evacuation 
of Boston, in 1776, (accompanied by his three young chil- 
dren,) and went to Halifax, where he was appointed a magis- 
trate. In 1777 he repaired to New York. In 1778 he was 
proscribed and banished. In 1780 he arrived in England. 
In June, 1784, he returned to Nova Scotia ; and while in 
that Colony, was elected Sherift* of the county of Halifax for 
three successive years, and appointed Senior Judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas. 

In 1796, six hundred Maroons were transferred from 
Jamaica, by order of the Government, and the Commis- 
sioners for their settlement purchased his lands and buildings 
at Preston, Cole Harbor, and Dartmouth. This sale, the 
inadequacy of his official income, his " predilection for